Abstract

The local structure around Er3+ in Er-doped optical fiber (EDFs) was explored by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements. Using several new approaches such as a novel sample preparation, we successfully measured the XAFS. The intensities near the 8.36 keV peaks were observed for the first time using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis. The intensities increased in the order of Er, Er2O3, and EDF samples, indicating that Er3+ in the EDFs existed as an oxide state. Extend X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) analysis also showed that the oxygen coordination number of Er3+ increased as the Al concentration increased and that the Er-O distances of EDF with Al codoping is longer than that of EDF without Al co-doping.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, and K. Suzuki, “Efficient Er3+-doped optical amplifier pumped by a 1.48µm InGaAsP laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295, (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Kashiwada, K. Nakazato, M. Ohnishi, H. Kanamori, and M. Nishimura, “Spectral gain behavior of Er-doped fiber with extremely high aluminum concentration,” OAA’93, paper MA6, 104, (1993).
  3. S. Yoshida, S. Kuwano, and K. Iwashita, “Gain-flattened EDFA with high Al concentration for multistage repeated WDM transmission systems,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1765, (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M.A. Marcus and A. Polman, “Local structure around Er in silica and sodium silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 136, 260, (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Murata, Y. Moriyama, and K. Morinaga, “Relationship between Local Structure and Spontaneous Emission Probability of Er3+ in Silicate, Borate, and Phosphate Glasses,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 1, 139, (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P.M. Peters and S.N. Houde-Walter, “Local structure of Er3+ in multicomponent glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 162, (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D.T. Bowron, G.A. Saunders, R.J. Newsport, B.D. Rainford, and H.B. Senin, “EXAFS studies of rare-earth metaphosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 5268, (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Shimizugawa, N. Sawaguchi, K. Kawamura, and K. Hirao, “X-ray absorption fine structure of samarium-doped borate glasses,” J-Appl. Phys. 81, 6657, (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W.-C. Wang, Y. Chen, and T.-D. Hu, “Near-neighbor structure of rare-earth elements in fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3477, (1996).
  10. P. Santa-Cruz, D. Morin, J. Dexpert-Ghys, A. Sadoc, F. Glas, and F. Auzel, “New lanthanide-doped fluoride-based vitreous materials for laser applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 190, 238, (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Mark R. Antonio, L. Soderholm, and A.J.G. Ellison, “Local environments of erbium and lutetium in sodium silicate glasses,” J. Alloys and Compounds. 250, 536, (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. The third-generation synchrotron radiation facility: http://www.spring8.or.jp/top.htmlhttp://sunbeam.spring8.or.jp/ (Only in Japanese).
  13. T. Ressler and J. Synch. Rad., “WinXAS: A XAS Data Analysis Program under MS Windows,” 5, 118 (1998).
  14. FEFF8 A.L. Ankudinov, C. Bouldin, J.J. Rehr, J. Sims, and H. Hung, “Parallel calculation of electron multiple scattering using Lanczos algorithms,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 104107 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

Ankudinov, A.L.

FEFF8 A.L. Ankudinov, C. Bouldin, J.J. Rehr, J. Sims, and H. Hung, “Parallel calculation of electron multiple scattering using Lanczos algorithms,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 104107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Antonio, Mark R.

Mark R. Antonio, L. Soderholm, and A.J.G. Ellison, “Local environments of erbium and lutetium in sodium silicate glasses,” J. Alloys and Compounds. 250, 536, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

P. Santa-Cruz, D. Morin, J. Dexpert-Ghys, A. Sadoc, F. Glas, and F. Auzel, “New lanthanide-doped fluoride-based vitreous materials for laser applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 190, 238, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bouldin, C.

FEFF8 A.L. Ankudinov, C. Bouldin, J.J. Rehr, J. Sims, and H. Hung, “Parallel calculation of electron multiple scattering using Lanczos algorithms,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 104107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bowron, D.T.

D.T. Bowron, G.A. Saunders, R.J. Newsport, B.D. Rainford, and H.B. Senin, “EXAFS studies of rare-earth metaphosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 5268, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

W.-C. Wang, Y. Chen, and T.-D. Hu, “Near-neighbor structure of rare-earth elements in fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3477, (1996).

Dexpert-Ghys, J.

P. Santa-Cruz, D. Morin, J. Dexpert-Ghys, A. Sadoc, F. Glas, and F. Auzel, “New lanthanide-doped fluoride-based vitreous materials for laser applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 190, 238, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ellison, A.J.G.

Mark R. Antonio, L. Soderholm, and A.J.G. Ellison, “Local environments of erbium and lutetium in sodium silicate glasses,” J. Alloys and Compounds. 250, 536, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glas, F.

P. Santa-Cruz, D. Morin, J. Dexpert-Ghys, A. Sadoc, F. Glas, and F. Auzel, “New lanthanide-doped fluoride-based vitreous materials for laser applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 190, 238, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimizugawa, N. Sawaguchi, K. Kawamura, and K. Hirao, “X-ray absorption fine structure of samarium-doped borate glasses,” J-Appl. Phys. 81, 6657, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Houde-Walter, S.N.

P.M. Peters and S.N. Houde-Walter, “Local structure of Er3+ in multicomponent glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 162, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hu, T.-D.

W.-C. Wang, Y. Chen, and T.-D. Hu, “Near-neighbor structure of rare-earth elements in fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3477, (1996).

Hung, H.

FEFF8 A.L. Ankudinov, C. Bouldin, J.J. Rehr, J. Sims, and H. Hung, “Parallel calculation of electron multiple scattering using Lanczos algorithms,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 104107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iwashita, K.

S. Yoshida, S. Kuwano, and K. Iwashita, “Gain-flattened EDFA with high Al concentration for multistage repeated WDM transmission systems,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1765, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, H.

T. Kashiwada, K. Nakazato, M. Ohnishi, H. Kanamori, and M. Nishimura, “Spectral gain behavior of Er-doped fiber with extremely high aluminum concentration,” OAA’93, paper MA6, 104, (1993).

Kashiwada, T.

T. Kashiwada, K. Nakazato, M. Ohnishi, H. Kanamori, and M. Nishimura, “Spectral gain behavior of Er-doped fiber with extremely high aluminum concentration,” OAA’93, paper MA6, 104, (1993).

Kawamura, K.

Y. Shimizugawa, N. Sawaguchi, K. Kawamura, and K. Hirao, “X-ray absorption fine structure of samarium-doped borate glasses,” J-Appl. Phys. 81, 6657, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, Y.

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, and K. Suzuki, “Efficient Er3+-doped optical amplifier pumped by a 1.48µm InGaAsP laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295, (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kuwano, S.

S. Yoshida, S. Kuwano, and K. Iwashita, “Gain-flattened EDFA with high Al concentration for multistage repeated WDM transmission systems,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1765, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marcus, M.A.

M.A. Marcus and A. Polman, “Local structure around Er in silica and sodium silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 136, 260, (1991).
[CrossRef]

Morin, D.

P. Santa-Cruz, D. Morin, J. Dexpert-Ghys, A. Sadoc, F. Glas, and F. Auzel, “New lanthanide-doped fluoride-based vitreous materials for laser applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 190, 238, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morinaga, K.

T. Murata, Y. Moriyama, and K. Morinaga, “Relationship between Local Structure and Spontaneous Emission Probability of Er3+ in Silicate, Borate, and Phosphate Glasses,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 1, 139, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moriyama, Y.

T. Murata, Y. Moriyama, and K. Morinaga, “Relationship between Local Structure and Spontaneous Emission Probability of Er3+ in Silicate, Borate, and Phosphate Glasses,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 1, 139, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murata, T.

T. Murata, Y. Moriyama, and K. Morinaga, “Relationship between Local Structure and Spontaneous Emission Probability of Er3+ in Silicate, Borate, and Phosphate Glasses,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 1, 139, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakazato, K.

T. Kashiwada, K. Nakazato, M. Ohnishi, H. Kanamori, and M. Nishimura, “Spectral gain behavior of Er-doped fiber with extremely high aluminum concentration,” OAA’93, paper MA6, 104, (1993).

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, and K. Suzuki, “Efficient Er3+-doped optical amplifier pumped by a 1.48µm InGaAsP laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295, (1989).
[CrossRef]

Newsport, R.J.

D.T. Bowron, G.A. Saunders, R.J. Newsport, B.D. Rainford, and H.B. Senin, “EXAFS studies of rare-earth metaphosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 5268, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, M.

T. Kashiwada, K. Nakazato, M. Ohnishi, H. Kanamori, and M. Nishimura, “Spectral gain behavior of Er-doped fiber with extremely high aluminum concentration,” OAA’93, paper MA6, 104, (1993).

Ohnishi, M.

T. Kashiwada, K. Nakazato, M. Ohnishi, H. Kanamori, and M. Nishimura, “Spectral gain behavior of Er-doped fiber with extremely high aluminum concentration,” OAA’93, paper MA6, 104, (1993).

Peters, P.M.

P.M. Peters and S.N. Houde-Walter, “Local structure of Er3+ in multicomponent glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 162, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

M.A. Marcus and A. Polman, “Local structure around Er in silica and sodium silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 136, 260, (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rad., J. Synch.

T. Ressler and J. Synch. Rad., “WinXAS: A XAS Data Analysis Program under MS Windows,” 5, 118 (1998).

Rainford, B.D.

D.T. Bowron, G.A. Saunders, R.J. Newsport, B.D. Rainford, and H.B. Senin, “EXAFS studies of rare-earth metaphosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 5268, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rehr, J.J.

FEFF8 A.L. Ankudinov, C. Bouldin, J.J. Rehr, J. Sims, and H. Hung, “Parallel calculation of electron multiple scattering using Lanczos algorithms,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 104107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ressler, T.

T. Ressler and J. Synch. Rad., “WinXAS: A XAS Data Analysis Program under MS Windows,” 5, 118 (1998).

Sadoc, A.

P. Santa-Cruz, D. Morin, J. Dexpert-Ghys, A. Sadoc, F. Glas, and F. Auzel, “New lanthanide-doped fluoride-based vitreous materials for laser applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 190, 238, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Santa-Cruz, P.

P. Santa-Cruz, D. Morin, J. Dexpert-Ghys, A. Sadoc, F. Glas, and F. Auzel, “New lanthanide-doped fluoride-based vitreous materials for laser applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 190, 238, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Saunders, G.A.

D.T. Bowron, G.A. Saunders, R.J. Newsport, B.D. Rainford, and H.B. Senin, “EXAFS studies of rare-earth metaphosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 5268, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sawaguchi, N.

Y. Shimizugawa, N. Sawaguchi, K. Kawamura, and K. Hirao, “X-ray absorption fine structure of samarium-doped borate glasses,” J-Appl. Phys. 81, 6657, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Senin, H.B.

D.T. Bowron, G.A. Saunders, R.J. Newsport, B.D. Rainford, and H.B. Senin, “EXAFS studies of rare-earth metaphosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 5268, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shimizugawa, Y.

Y. Shimizugawa, N. Sawaguchi, K. Kawamura, and K. Hirao, “X-ray absorption fine structure of samarium-doped borate glasses,” J-Appl. Phys. 81, 6657, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sims, J.

FEFF8 A.L. Ankudinov, C. Bouldin, J.J. Rehr, J. Sims, and H. Hung, “Parallel calculation of electron multiple scattering using Lanczos algorithms,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 104107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soderholm, L.

Mark R. Antonio, L. Soderholm, and A.J.G. Ellison, “Local environments of erbium and lutetium in sodium silicate glasses,” J. Alloys and Compounds. 250, 536, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, and K. Suzuki, “Efficient Er3+-doped optical amplifier pumped by a 1.48µm InGaAsP laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295, (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.-C.

W.-C. Wang, Y. Chen, and T.-D. Hu, “Near-neighbor structure of rare-earth elements in fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3477, (1996).

Yoshida, S.

S. Yoshida, S. Kuwano, and K. Iwashita, “Gain-flattened EDFA with high Al concentration for multistage repeated WDM transmission systems,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1765, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, and K. Suzuki, “Efficient Er3+-doped optical amplifier pumped by a 1.48µm InGaAsP laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295, (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Kashiwada, K. Nakazato, M. Ohnishi, H. Kanamori, and M. Nishimura, “Spectral gain behavior of Er-doped fiber with extremely high aluminum concentration,” OAA’93, paper MA6, 104, (1993).

S. Yoshida, S. Kuwano, and K. Iwashita, “Gain-flattened EDFA with high Al concentration for multistage repeated WDM transmission systems,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1765, (1995).
[CrossRef]

M.A. Marcus and A. Polman, “Local structure around Er in silica and sodium silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 136, 260, (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Murata, Y. Moriyama, and K. Morinaga, “Relationship between Local Structure and Spontaneous Emission Probability of Er3+ in Silicate, Borate, and Phosphate Glasses,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 1, 139, (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.M. Peters and S.N. Houde-Walter, “Local structure of Er3+ in multicomponent glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 162, (1998).
[CrossRef]

D.T. Bowron, G.A. Saunders, R.J. Newsport, B.D. Rainford, and H.B. Senin, “EXAFS studies of rare-earth metaphosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 5268, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimizugawa, N. Sawaguchi, K. Kawamura, and K. Hirao, “X-ray absorption fine structure of samarium-doped borate glasses,” J-Appl. Phys. 81, 6657, (1997).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Wang, Y. Chen, and T.-D. Hu, “Near-neighbor structure of rare-earth elements in fluorozirconate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3477, (1996).

P. Santa-Cruz, D. Morin, J. Dexpert-Ghys, A. Sadoc, F. Glas, and F. Auzel, “New lanthanide-doped fluoride-based vitreous materials for laser applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 190, 238, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mark R. Antonio, L. Soderholm, and A.J.G. Ellison, “Local environments of erbium and lutetium in sodium silicate glasses,” J. Alloys and Compounds. 250, 536, (1997).
[CrossRef]

The third-generation synchrotron radiation facility: http://www.spring8.or.jp/top.htmlhttp://sunbeam.spring8.or.jp/ (Only in Japanese).

T. Ressler and J. Synch. Rad., “WinXAS: A XAS Data Analysis Program under MS Windows,” 5, 118 (1998).

FEFF8 A.L. Ankudinov, C. Bouldin, J.J. Rehr, J. Sims, and H. Hung, “Parallel calculation of electron multiple scattering using Lanczos algorithms,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 104107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Gain profiles of EDFs with different Al concentrations. The pump power is adjusted so that the gain peak near 1530nm is similar to that at near 1560nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cross-section of the EDF samples.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

XAFS measurement setup.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

XANES spectra of EDFs and Er2O3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

EXAFS oscillation structures of EDFs.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Er-RDF of EDFs and Er2O3.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Relationship between Er-O coordination number and Al concentration.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Relationship between Er-O distance and Al concentration.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Chemical compositions of EDF samples.

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