Abstract

A high-sensitivity method of demodulating wavelength-division-multiplexed optical DPSK channels using a single interferometer is described and demonstrated. We show that this technique can operate within existing standards and achieve near-quantum-limited receiver performance. The resulting hardware simplification has potential to reduce the cost of deploying and scaling future wide-band optical-communication networks employing WDM-DPSK.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. C. Livas, "High sensitivity optically preamplified 10 Gb/s receivers," in OFC, Paper PD4 (1996).
  2. W. A. Atia, and R. S. Bondurant, "Demonstration of return-to-zero signaling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver," in LEOS (1999).
  3. A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, and L. Stulz, "Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 99-101 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, A. H. Gnauck, C. A. Burrus, J. Leuthold, O. Wohlgemuth, and A. Umbach, "A 42.7-Gb/s Integrated Balanced Optical Front End with Record Sensitivity," in OFC (Paper PD39-1, 2003).
  5. D. O. Caplan, J. C. Gottschalk, R. J. Murphy, N. W. Spellmeyer, and M. L. Stevens, "Performance of high-rate high-sensitivity optical communications with forward error correction coding," in CLEO (Paper CPDD9, 2004).
  6. N. W. Spellmeyer, J. C. Gottschalk, D. O. Caplan, and M. L. Stevens, "High-sensitivity 40-Gb/s RZ-DPSK with forward error correction," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1579-1581 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Mizuochi, et. al., "Forward error correction based on block turbo code with 3-bit soft decision for 10-Gb/s optical communication systems," IEEE Sel. Top. in Quantum Electronics 10, 376 - 386 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. H. Gnauck, and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115 - 130 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Yonenaga, and K. Hagimoto, "10-Git/s x four-channel WDM transmission experiment over 2400-km DSF using optical DPSK direct detection scheme," in OFC (1997).
  10. A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, "2.5 Tb/s (64 x 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40 x 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans," in OFC (2002).
  11. J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. Bergano, "A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73 Tb/s over 11,000 km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10 Gb/s," in OFC (Paper PD22-1, 2003).
  12. C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, "DWDM 40G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10 000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100 km Ultrawave fiber spans," in OFC (Paper PD18-1, 2003).
  13. B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. L. Lingle, Jr., Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, and S. Namiki, "6.4 Tbit/s (160×42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32×100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format," in OFC (Paper PD19, 2003).
  14. E. A. Swanson, J. C. Livas, and R. S. Bondurant, "High sensitivity optically preamplified direct detection DPSK receiver with active delay-line stabilization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 263 - 265 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. G. Heflinger, J. S. Bauch, and T. E. Humes, "Apparatus and method for tuning an optical interferometer," in US Pat. 6,396,605 (2002).
  16. F. Séguin, and F. Gonthier, "Tuneable All-Fiber® Delay-Line Interferometer for DPSK Demodulation," in OFC (2005).
  17. J. Hsieh, A. Chiayu, V. Chien, X. Liu, A. Gnauck, and X. Wei, "Athermal Demodulator for 42.7-Gb/s DPSK Signals," in ECOC (2005).
  18. D. O. Caplan, "Reconfigurable Polarization Independent Interferometers and Methods of Stabilization," in US Pat.Appl. 11/318,255 (2005).
  19. Y. Miyamoto, H. Masuda, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, Y. Kisaka, H. Kawakami, M. Tomizawa, Y. Tada, and S. Aozasa, "S-band WDM coherent transmission of 40 x 43-Gbit/s CS-RZ DPSK signals over 400 km DSF using hybrid GS-TDFAs/Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1569-1570 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, M. Tomizawa, and Y. Tada, "Novel modulation and detection for bandwidth-reduced RZ formats using duobinary-mode splitting in wideband PSK/ASK conversion," J. Lightwave Tech. 20, 2067-2078 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Royset, and D. R. Hjelme, "Novel dispersion tolerant optical duobinary transmitter using phase modulator and Bragg grating filter," in ECOC (1998).
  22. D. Penninckx, H. Bissessur, P. Brindel, E. Gohin, and F. Bakhti, "Optical differential phase shift keying (DPSK) direct detection considered as a duobinary signal," in ECOC (2001).
  23. H. Bissessur, G. Charlet, E. Gohin, C. Simonneau, L. Pierre, and W. Idler, "1.6 Tbit/s (40 x 40 Gbit/s) DPSK transmission over 3 x 100 km of TeraLight fibre with direct detection," Electron. Lett. 39, 192-193 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. D’Errico, R. Proietti, N. Calabretta, L. Giorgi, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, "WDM-DPSK Detection by Means of Frequency-Periodic Gaussian Narrow Filtering " in OFC (2006).
  25. D. O. Caplan, "Multi-channel DPSK Receiver," in US Pat.Appl. 11/022,344 (2004).
  26. J. R. Minch, D. J. Townsend, and D. R. Gervais, "Rate Adjustable NRZ-DPSK Modulation Scheme with a Fixed Interferometer," in IEEE LEOS (2005).
  27. H. Kim, and P. J. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems," J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 1887 - 1891 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. R. Chinn, D. M. Boroson, and J. C. Livas, "Sensitivity of optically preamplified DPSK receivers with Fabry-Perot filters," J. Lightwave Tech. 14 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Schwartz, W. R. Bennett, and S. Stein, Communication Systems and Techniques (IEEE Press, New York, 1996).
  30. T. Shinagawa, "Detailed investigation on reliability of wavelength-monitor-integrated fixed and tunable DFB laser diode modules," J. Lightwave Technology 23, 1126-1136 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, J. J. Carney, and R. J. Murphy, "Demonstration of Optical DPSK Communication with 25 Photons/Bit Sensitivity," in CLEO (2006).

2005

D. O. Caplan, "Reconfigurable Polarization Independent Interferometers and Methods of Stabilization," in US Pat.Appl. 11/318,255 (2005).

T. Shinagawa, "Detailed investigation on reliability of wavelength-monitor-integrated fixed and tunable DFB laser diode modules," J. Lightwave Technology 23, 1126-1136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115 - 130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

N. W. Spellmeyer, J. C. Gottschalk, D. O. Caplan, and M. L. Stevens, "High-sensitivity 40-Gb/s RZ-DPSK with forward error correction," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1579-1581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. O. Caplan, "Multi-channel DPSK Receiver," in US Pat.Appl. 11/022,344 (2004).

2003

H. Kim, and P. J. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems," J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 1887 - 1891 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Bissessur, G. Charlet, E. Gohin, C. Simonneau, L. Pierre, and W. Idler, "1.6 Tbit/s (40 x 40 Gbit/s) DPSK transmission over 3 x 100 km of TeraLight fibre with direct detection," Electron. Lett. 39, 192-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Y. Miyamoto, H. Masuda, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, Y. Kisaka, H. Kawakami, M. Tomizawa, Y. Tada, and S. Aozasa, "S-band WDM coherent transmission of 40 x 43-Gbit/s CS-RZ DPSK signals over 400 km DSF using hybrid GS-TDFAs/Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1569-1570 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, M. Tomizawa, and Y. Tada, "Novel modulation and detection for bandwidth-reduced RZ formats using duobinary-mode splitting in wideband PSK/ASK conversion," J. Lightwave Tech. 20, 2067-2078 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1994

E. A. Swanson, J. C. Livas, and R. S. Bondurant, "High sensitivity optically preamplified direct detection DPSK receiver with active delay-line stabilization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 263 - 265 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aozasa, S.

Y. Miyamoto, H. Masuda, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, Y. Kisaka, H. Kawakami, M. Tomizawa, Y. Tada, and S. Aozasa, "S-band WDM coherent transmission of 40 x 43-Gbit/s CS-RZ DPSK signals over 400 km DSF using hybrid GS-TDFAs/Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1569-1570 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bissessur, H.

H. Bissessur, G. Charlet, E. Gohin, C. Simonneau, L. Pierre, and W. Idler, "1.6 Tbit/s (40 x 40 Gbit/s) DPSK transmission over 3 x 100 km of TeraLight fibre with direct detection," Electron. Lett. 39, 192-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bondurant, R. S.

E. A. Swanson, J. C. Livas, and R. S. Bondurant, "High sensitivity optically preamplified direct detection DPSK receiver with active delay-line stabilization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 263 - 265 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Caplan, D. O.

D. O. Caplan, "Reconfigurable Polarization Independent Interferometers and Methods of Stabilization," in US Pat.Appl. 11/318,255 (2005).

D. O. Caplan, "Multi-channel DPSK Receiver," in US Pat.Appl. 11/022,344 (2004).

N. W. Spellmeyer, J. C. Gottschalk, D. O. Caplan, and M. L. Stevens, "High-sensitivity 40-Gb/s RZ-DPSK with forward error correction," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1579-1581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Charlet, G.

H. Bissessur, G. Charlet, E. Gohin, C. Simonneau, L. Pierre, and W. Idler, "1.6 Tbit/s (40 x 40 Gbit/s) DPSK transmission over 3 x 100 km of TeraLight fibre with direct detection," Electron. Lett. 39, 192-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

Gohin, E.

H. Bissessur, G. Charlet, E. Gohin, C. Simonneau, L. Pierre, and W. Idler, "1.6 Tbit/s (40 x 40 Gbit/s) DPSK transmission over 3 x 100 km of TeraLight fibre with direct detection," Electron. Lett. 39, 192-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gottschalk, J. C.

N. W. Spellmeyer, J. C. Gottschalk, D. O. Caplan, and M. L. Stevens, "High-sensitivity 40-Gb/s RZ-DPSK with forward error correction," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1579-1581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, A.

Y. Miyamoto, H. Masuda, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, Y. Kisaka, H. Kawakami, M. Tomizawa, Y. Tada, and S. Aozasa, "S-band WDM coherent transmission of 40 x 43-Gbit/s CS-RZ DPSK signals over 400 km DSF using hybrid GS-TDFAs/Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1569-1570 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, M. Tomizawa, and Y. Tada, "Novel modulation and detection for bandwidth-reduced RZ formats using duobinary-mode splitting in wideband PSK/ASK conversion," J. Lightwave Tech. 20, 2067-2078 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Idler, W.

H. Bissessur, G. Charlet, E. Gohin, C. Simonneau, L. Pierre, and W. Idler, "1.6 Tbit/s (40 x 40 Gbit/s) DPSK transmission over 3 x 100 km of TeraLight fibre with direct detection," Electron. Lett. 39, 192-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, H.

Y. Miyamoto, H. Masuda, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, Y. Kisaka, H. Kawakami, M. Tomizawa, Y. Tada, and S. Aozasa, "S-band WDM coherent transmission of 40 x 43-Gbit/s CS-RZ DPSK signals over 400 km DSF using hybrid GS-TDFAs/Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1569-1570 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, and P. J. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems," J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 1887 - 1891 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kisaka, Y.

Y. Miyamoto, H. Masuda, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, Y. Kisaka, H. Kawakami, M. Tomizawa, Y. Tada, and S. Aozasa, "S-band WDM coherent transmission of 40 x 43-Gbit/s CS-RZ DPSK signals over 400 km DSF using hybrid GS-TDFAs/Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1569-1570 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuwahara, S.

Y. Miyamoto, H. Masuda, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, Y. Kisaka, H. Kawakami, M. Tomizawa, Y. Tada, and S. Aozasa, "S-band WDM coherent transmission of 40 x 43-Gbit/s CS-RZ DPSK signals over 400 km DSF using hybrid GS-TDFAs/Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1569-1570 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, M. Tomizawa, and Y. Tada, "Novel modulation and detection for bandwidth-reduced RZ formats using duobinary-mode splitting in wideband PSK/ASK conversion," J. Lightwave Tech. 20, 2067-2078 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Livas, J. C.

E. A. Swanson, J. C. Livas, and R. S. Bondurant, "High sensitivity optically preamplified direct detection DPSK receiver with active delay-line stabilization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 263 - 265 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, H.

Y. Miyamoto, H. Masuda, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, Y. Kisaka, H. Kawakami, M. Tomizawa, Y. Tada, and S. Aozasa, "S-band WDM coherent transmission of 40 x 43-Gbit/s CS-RZ DPSK signals over 400 km DSF using hybrid GS-TDFAs/Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1569-1570 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, Y.

Y. Miyamoto, H. Masuda, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, Y. Kisaka, H. Kawakami, M. Tomizawa, Y. Tada, and S. Aozasa, "S-band WDM coherent transmission of 40 x 43-Gbit/s CS-RZ DPSK signals over 400 km DSF using hybrid GS-TDFAs/Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1569-1570 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, M. Tomizawa, and Y. Tada, "Novel modulation and detection for bandwidth-reduced RZ formats using duobinary-mode splitting in wideband PSK/ASK conversion," J. Lightwave Tech. 20, 2067-2078 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pierre, L.

H. Bissessur, G. Charlet, E. Gohin, C. Simonneau, L. Pierre, and W. Idler, "1.6 Tbit/s (40 x 40 Gbit/s) DPSK transmission over 3 x 100 km of TeraLight fibre with direct detection," Electron. Lett. 39, 192-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shinagawa, T.

T. Shinagawa, "Detailed investigation on reliability of wavelength-monitor-integrated fixed and tunable DFB laser diode modules," J. Lightwave Technology 23, 1126-1136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Simonneau, C.

H. Bissessur, G. Charlet, E. Gohin, C. Simonneau, L. Pierre, and W. Idler, "1.6 Tbit/s (40 x 40 Gbit/s) DPSK transmission over 3 x 100 km of TeraLight fibre with direct detection," Electron. Lett. 39, 192-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spellmeyer, N. W.

N. W. Spellmeyer, J. C. Gottschalk, D. O. Caplan, and M. L. Stevens, "High-sensitivity 40-Gb/s RZ-DPSK with forward error correction," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1579-1581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, M. L.

N. W. Spellmeyer, J. C. Gottschalk, D. O. Caplan, and M. L. Stevens, "High-sensitivity 40-Gb/s RZ-DPSK with forward error correction," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1579-1581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

E. A. Swanson, J. C. Livas, and R. S. Bondurant, "High sensitivity optically preamplified direct detection DPSK receiver with active delay-line stabilization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 263 - 265 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tada, Y.

Y. Miyamoto, H. Masuda, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, Y. Kisaka, H. Kawakami, M. Tomizawa, Y. Tada, and S. Aozasa, "S-band WDM coherent transmission of 40 x 43-Gbit/s CS-RZ DPSK signals over 400 km DSF using hybrid GS-TDFAs/Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1569-1570 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, M. Tomizawa, and Y. Tada, "Novel modulation and detection for bandwidth-reduced RZ formats using duobinary-mode splitting in wideband PSK/ASK conversion," J. Lightwave Tech. 20, 2067-2078 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tomizawa, M.

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, M. Tomizawa, and Y. Tada, "Novel modulation and detection for bandwidth-reduced RZ formats using duobinary-mode splitting in wideband PSK/ASK conversion," J. Lightwave Tech. 20, 2067-2078 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyamoto, H. Masuda, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, Y. Kisaka, H. Kawakami, M. Tomizawa, Y. Tada, and S. Aozasa, "S-band WDM coherent transmission of 40 x 43-Gbit/s CS-RZ DPSK signals over 400 km DSF using hybrid GS-TDFAs/Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1569-1570 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

A. H. Gnauck, and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115 - 130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, and P. J. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems," J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 1887 - 1891 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl.

D. O. Caplan, "Reconfigurable Polarization Independent Interferometers and Methods of Stabilization," in US Pat.Appl. 11/318,255 (2005).

D. O. Caplan, "Multi-channel DPSK Receiver," in US Pat.Appl. 11/022,344 (2004).

Electron. Lett.

H. Bissessur, G. Charlet, E. Gohin, C. Simonneau, L. Pierre, and W. Idler, "1.6 Tbit/s (40 x 40 Gbit/s) DPSK transmission over 3 x 100 km of TeraLight fibre with direct detection," Electron. Lett. 39, 192-193 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyamoto, H. Masuda, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, Y. Kisaka, H. Kawakami, M. Tomizawa, Y. Tada, and S. Aozasa, "S-band WDM coherent transmission of 40 x 43-Gbit/s CS-RZ DPSK signals over 400 km DSF using hybrid GS-TDFAs/Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1569-1570 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

E. A. Swanson, J. C. Livas, and R. S. Bondurant, "High sensitivity optically preamplified direct detection DPSK receiver with active delay-line stabilization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 263 - 265 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Spellmeyer, J. C. Gottschalk, D. O. Caplan, and M. L. Stevens, "High-sensitivity 40-Gb/s RZ-DPSK with forward error correction," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1579-1581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Tech.

H. Kim, and P. J. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems," J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 1887 - 1891 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, M. Tomizawa, and Y. Tada, "Novel modulation and detection for bandwidth-reduced RZ formats using duobinary-mode splitting in wideband PSK/ASK conversion," J. Lightwave Tech. 20, 2067-2078 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Lightwave Technology

T. Shinagawa, "Detailed investigation on reliability of wavelength-monitor-integrated fixed and tunable DFB laser diode modules," J. Lightwave Technology 23, 1126-1136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, J. J. Carney, and R. J. Murphy, "Demonstration of Optical DPSK Communication with 25 Photons/Bit Sensitivity," in CLEO (2006).

J. C. Livas, "High sensitivity optically preamplified 10 Gb/s receivers," in OFC, Paper PD4 (1996).

W. A. Atia, and R. S. Bondurant, "Demonstration of return-to-zero signaling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver," in LEOS (1999).

A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, and L. Stulz, "Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 99-101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, A. H. Gnauck, C. A. Burrus, J. Leuthold, O. Wohlgemuth, and A. Umbach, "A 42.7-Gb/s Integrated Balanced Optical Front End with Record Sensitivity," in OFC (Paper PD39-1, 2003).

D. O. Caplan, J. C. Gottschalk, R. J. Murphy, N. W. Spellmeyer, and M. L. Stevens, "Performance of high-rate high-sensitivity optical communications with forward error correction coding," in CLEO (Paper CPDD9, 2004).

S. R. Chinn, D. M. Boroson, and J. C. Livas, "Sensitivity of optically preamplified DPSK receivers with Fabry-Perot filters," J. Lightwave Tech. 14 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Schwartz, W. R. Bennett, and S. Stein, Communication Systems and Techniques (IEEE Press, New York, 1996).

T. Mizuochi, et. al., "Forward error correction based on block turbo code with 3-bit soft decision for 10-Gb/s optical communication systems," IEEE Sel. Top. in Quantum Electronics 10, 376 - 386 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Royset, and D. R. Hjelme, "Novel dispersion tolerant optical duobinary transmitter using phase modulator and Bragg grating filter," in ECOC (1998).

D. Penninckx, H. Bissessur, P. Brindel, E. Gohin, and F. Bakhti, "Optical differential phase shift keying (DPSK) direct detection considered as a duobinary signal," in ECOC (2001).

A. D’Errico, R. Proietti, N. Calabretta, L. Giorgi, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, "WDM-DPSK Detection by Means of Frequency-Periodic Gaussian Narrow Filtering " in OFC (2006).

J. R. Minch, D. J. Townsend, and D. R. Gervais, "Rate Adjustable NRZ-DPSK Modulation Scheme with a Fixed Interferometer," in IEEE LEOS (2005).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Commonly used 33%RZ, 50%RZ, and 66%RZ pulse-carving waveforms (left) and the impact of interferometer delay error on DPSK receiver sensitivity for each waveform (right).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A Multi-λ DPSK RX with feedback and feedforward alignment capabilities that can include a pilot tone (λp) or master-channel, wavemeter, channel power and bit-error rate (BER), and interactive communication with the network (NFB) [25].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Periodic transfer function (fringes) of a DI: sin2() and cos2() outputs; and calculated (Δγcalc) and measured (Δγexpt) SNR penalties as a function of carrier frequency offset Δf, normalized by the DI FSR.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The experimental setup consisting of a 2-channel (wavelength) master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) TX that generates 50%-RZ DPSK waveforms, and an opticallypreamplified Multi-Channel DPSK Receiver. A differential delay > the bit period is inserted between the two channels to ensure bit-pattern independence.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

SNR stability of the slave-channel (CH2) with open-loop λ-control.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured BER curves for two 2.5 Gbit/s WDM-DPSK channels demodulated with the same interferometer. The CH1 RX filter is a nearly matched 3.8 GHz Gaussian, yielding performance 1.5 dB from theory. CH2 performance is ~3.3 dB from theory due to a wider 13 GHz Gaussian receiver filter.

Equations (5)

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Δ ν ch = m FSR 2 ± Δ f .
Q m ( a , b ) = b x exp [ 1 2 ( x 2 + a 2 ) ] I o ( a x ) d x ,
BER calc 0.5 [ 1 Q m ( 2 γ th cos ( π Δ f FSR ) , 2 γ th sin ( π Δ f FSR ) ) + Q m ( 2 γ th sin ( π Δ f FSR ) , 2 γ th cos ( π Δ f FSR ) ) ] ,
γ calc ln ( 2 · BER calc ) and Δ γ 10 log 10 ( γ calc γ th ) ,
d λ d T 0.1 nm o C = 12.5 GHz o C and d λ d i 0.004 nm mA = 0.5 GHz mA .

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