Abstract

White organic light-emitting device (WOLED) with Sm:Ag black cathode was first reported. The effect of the black cathode on the performances (such as efficiency, luminance, contrast ratio at different angle and EL spectra, etc) of the WOLEDs was discussed. We found that the efficiency of the WOLED with Sm:Ag was comparable to that of the device with conventional Mg:Ag cathode. For example, the efficiency of the device with Sm:Ag cathode is just 15% lower than that of the device with MgAg cathode. However, the contrast ratio (CR) of the device with black cathode is 105:1 under 140 lx ambient lighting at a high brightness of 1000 cd/m2, which is four times better than that of the device with Mg:Ag cathode. Besides, the CR of the WOLED with Sm:Ag cathode is insensitive to the viewing angle less than 50°.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li and S. Y. Liu, "High-efficiency electrophosphorescent white organic light-emitting devices with a double-doped emissive layer," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20,326-329 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. W. D'Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, "Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple-doped emissive layer," Adv. Mater. 16, 624-628 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. W. D’Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "Controlling exciton diffusion in multilayer white phosphorescent organic light emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 14, 147-151 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. W. D’Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "White light emission using triplet excimers in electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 14, 1032-1036 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (4)

Y. R. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. W. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, Y. H. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, "Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, "Contrast and efficiency enhancement in organic light-emitting devices utilizing high absorption and high charge mobility organic layers," Opt. Express 14,7954-7959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Xie, H. Y. Sun, C. W. Law, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and S. Y. Liu, "High-contrast and high-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. A. 85,95-97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, "High color rendering index non-doped type white organic light-emitting devices with a RGB stacked multilayer structure," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20,L57-L60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. X. Wu, L. D. Wang, and Y. Qiu, "Contrast-enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes," Opt. Express 13, 1406-1411 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li and S. Y. Liu, "High-efficiency electrophosphorescent white organic light-emitting devices with a double-doped emissive layer," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20,326-329 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

B. W. D'Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, "Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple-doped emissive layer," Adv. Mater. 16, 624-628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, "High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1207-1209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

W. F. Xie, Z. J. Wu, S. Y. Liu, and S. T. Lee, "Non-doped-type white organic light-emitting devices based on yellow-emitting ultrathin 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene and blue-emitting 4,4’-bis(2,2’diphenyl vinyl)-1,1’-biphenyl," J. Phy. D: Appl. Phys. 36,2331-2334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Xie, S. Y. Liu, and Y. Zhao, "A nondoped-type small molecule white organic light-emitting device," J. Phy. D: Appl. Phys. 36,1246-1248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

A. N. Krasnov, "High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853-3855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "Controlling exciton diffusion in multilayer white phosphorescent organic light emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 14, 147-151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "White light emission using triplet excimers in electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 14, 1032-1036 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. S. Hung and J. Madathil, "Reduction of ambient light reflection in organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 13, 1787-1790 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, "Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device," Science 267,1332-1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, and R. C. Bajcar, "Optical interference, interference, contrast-enhanced electroluminescent device," Appl. Opt. 31,5988-5996 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. McCamy, "Correlated color temperature as an explicit function of chromaticity coordinates," Color Res. Appl. 17,142-144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Adamovich, V.

B. W. D’Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "White light emission using triplet excimers in electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 14, 1032-1036 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bajcar, R. C.

Brooks, J.

B. W. D’Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "White light emission using triplet excimers in electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 14, 1032-1036 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D’Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D’Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "White light emission using triplet excimers in electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 14, 1032-1036 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "Controlling exciton diffusion in multilayer white phosphorescent organic light emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 14, 147-151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D'Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D'Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, "Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple-doped emissive layer," Adv. Mater. 16, 624-628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Forrest, S. R.

Y. R. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. W. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. D'Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, "Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple-doped emissive layer," Adv. Mater. 16, 624-628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "Controlling exciton diffusion in multilayer white phosphorescent organic light emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 14, 147-151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "White light emission using triplet excimers in electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 14, 1032-1036 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giebink, N. C.

Y. R. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. W. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holmes, R. J.

B. W. D'Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, "Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple-doped emissive layer," Adv. Mater. 16, 624-628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hung, L. S.

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, "High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1207-1209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Hung and J. Madathil, "Reduction of ambient light reflection in organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 13, 1787-1790 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kanno, H.

Y. R. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. W. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kido, J.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, "Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device," Science 267,1332-1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimura, M.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, "Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device," Science 267,1332-1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krasnov, A. N.

A. N. Krasnov, "High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853-3855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. C.

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, Y. H. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, "Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Law, C. W.

W. F. Xie, H. Y. Sun, C. W. Law, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and S. Y. Liu, "High-contrast and high-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. A. 85,95-97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. S.

W. F. Xie, H. Y. Sun, C. W. Law, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and S. Y. Liu, "High-contrast and high-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. A. 85,95-97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, Y. H. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, "Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. T.

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, Y. H. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, "Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Xie, H. Y. Sun, C. W. Law, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and S. Y. Liu, "High-contrast and high-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. A. 85,95-97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Xie, Z. J. Wu, S. Y. Liu, and S. T. Lee, "Non-doped-type white organic light-emitting devices based on yellow-emitting ultrathin 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene and blue-emitting 4,4’-bis(2,2’diphenyl vinyl)-1,1’-biphenyl," J. Phy. D: Appl. Phys. 36,2331-2334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. N.

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, "Contrast and efficiency enhancement in organic light-emitting devices utilizing high absorption and high charge mobility organic layers," Opt. Express 14,7954-7959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li and S. Y. Liu, "High-efficiency electrophosphorescent white organic light-emitting devices with a double-doped emissive layer," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20,326-329 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, "High color rendering index non-doped type white organic light-emitting devices with a RGB stacked multilayer structure," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20,L57-L60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. Y.

W. F. Xie, H. Y. Sun, C. W. Law, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and S. Y. Liu, "High-contrast and high-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. A. 85,95-97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, "Contrast and efficiency enhancement in organic light-emitting devices utilizing high absorption and high charge mobility organic layers," Opt. Express 14,7954-7959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li and S. Y. Liu, "High-efficiency electrophosphorescent white organic light-emitting devices with a double-doped emissive layer," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20,326-329 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, "High color rendering index non-doped type white organic light-emitting devices with a RGB stacked multilayer structure," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20,L57-L60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Xie, S. Y. Liu, and Y. Zhao, "A nondoped-type small molecule white organic light-emitting device," J. Phy. D: Appl. Phys. 36,1246-1248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Xie, Z. J. Wu, S. Y. Liu, and S. T. Lee, "Non-doped-type white organic light-emitting devices based on yellow-emitting ultrathin 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene and blue-emitting 4,4’-bis(2,2’diphenyl vinyl)-1,1’-biphenyl," J. Phy. D: Appl. Phys. 36,2331-2334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ma, B. W.

Y. R. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. W. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madathil, J.

L. S. Hung and J. Madathil, "Reduction of ambient light reflection in organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 13, 1787-1790 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McCamy, C. S.

C. S. McCamy, "Correlated color temperature as an explicit function of chromaticity coordinates," Color Res. Appl. 17,142-144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, K.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, "Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device," Science 267,1332-1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, Y.

Sullivan, B. T.

Sun, H. Y.

W. F. Xie, H. Y. Sun, C. W. Law, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and S. Y. Liu, "High-contrast and high-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. A. 85,95-97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. H.

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, Y. H. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, "Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. R.

Y. R. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. W. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, M. E.

Y. R. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. W. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices," Nature 440, 908-912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. D’Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "Controlling exciton diffusion in multilayer white phosphorescent organic light emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 14, 147-151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "White light emission using triplet excimers in electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 14, 1032-1036 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. D.

Wu, Z. J.

W. F. Xie, Z. J. Wu, S. Y. Liu, and S. T. Lee, "Non-doped-type white organic light-emitting devices based on yellow-emitting ultrathin 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene and blue-emitting 4,4’-bis(2,2’diphenyl vinyl)-1,1’-biphenyl," J. Phy. D: Appl. Phys. 36,2331-2334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z. X.

Xie, W. F.

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, "Contrast and efficiency enhancement in organic light-emitting devices utilizing high absorption and high charge mobility organic layers," Opt. Express 14,7954-7959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, Y. H. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, "Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Xie, H. Y. Sun, C. W. Law, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and S. Y. Liu, "High-contrast and high-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. A. 85,95-97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, "High color rendering index non-doped type white organic light-emitting devices with a RGB stacked multilayer structure," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20,L57-L60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li and S. Y. Liu, "High-efficiency electrophosphorescent white organic light-emitting devices with a double-doped emissive layer," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20,326-329 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Xie, Z. J. Wu, S. Y. Liu, and S. T. Lee, "Non-doped-type white organic light-emitting devices based on yellow-emitting ultrathin 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene and blue-emitting 4,4’-bis(2,2’diphenyl vinyl)-1,1’-biphenyl," J. Phy. D: Appl. Phys. 36,2331-2334 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Xie, S. Y. Liu, and Y. Zhao, "A nondoped-type small molecule white organic light-emitting device," J. Phy. D: Appl. Phys. 36,1246-1248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Xie and L. S. Hung, "High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1207-1209 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, "Contrast and efficiency enhancement in organic light-emitting devices utilizing high absorption and high charge mobility organic layers," Opt. Express 14,7954-7959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li and S. Y. Liu, "High-efficiency electrophosphorescent white organic light-emitting devices with a double-doped emissive layer," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20,326-329 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Xie, Y. Zhao, C. N. Li, and S. Y. Liu, "High color rendering index non-doped type white organic light-emitting devices with a RGB stacked multilayer structure," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20,L57-L60 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Xie, S. Y. Liu, and Y. Zhao, "A nondoped-type small molecule white organic light-emitting device," J. Phy. D: Appl. Phys. 36,1246-1248 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (4)

B. W. D'Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, "Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple-doped emissive layer," Adv. Mater. 16, 624-628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "Controlling exciton diffusion in multilayer white phosphorescent organic light emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 14, 147-151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, "White light emission using triplet excimers in electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices," Adv. Mater. 14, 1032-1036 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Hung and J. Madathil, "Reduction of ambient light reflection in organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 13, 1787-1790 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A. (1)

W. F. Xie, H. Y. Sun, C. W. Law, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and S. Y. Liu, "High-contrast and high-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. A. 85,95-97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. N. Krasnov, "High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3853-3855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Lau, W. F. Xie, Y. H. Sun, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, "Contrast improvement of organic light-emitting devices with Sm:Ag cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Color online) Calculated optical reflection spectra of the device A, B and device with Sm cathode

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Calculated contrast ratios of WOLEDs under different ambient illumination, and (b) calculated contrast ratios of WOLEDs at different viewing angle (inset: the normalized spectrum of the fluorescent lamp)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Characteristics of current density, operating voltage, and brightness (J-V-B) of WOLEDs; and (b) Characteristics of current density and power efficiency of WOLEDs

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(Color online) (a) Normalized EL spectra of the WOLEDs with different cathodes at 20 mA/cm2, (b) CIE coordinates of the WOLEDs at different voltage, (c) Normalized EL intensity of the device A at different voltage, and (d) Normalized EL intensity of the device B at different voltage

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