Abstract

We demonstrate efficient coupling to the optical Whispering- Gallery (WG) modes of a fluidic resonator consisting of a droplet embedded in a liquid medium. Unlike previous experiments the droplet is not levitated in an optical or electrostatic trap and free space coupling is replaced by phase-matched, waveguide coupling using a fiber-taper. We have observed critical coupling to fundamental WG modes of a 600 μm diameter water droplet at 980 nm. The experimental challenges towards making, stabilizing and coupling to the droplet resonators are addressed in this paper.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Campbell, A. Groisman, U. Levy, L. Pang, S. Mookherjea, D. Psaltis, and Y. Fainman, "A microfluidic 2×2 optical switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6119-6121 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chang, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, "A low-threshold high-efficiency microfluidic waveguide laser," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 25, 8952-8953 (2005).
  3. D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, D. B. Wolfe and G. M. Whitesides, " Integrated fluidic lightsource for optofluidic applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Psaltis, SR Quake, CH Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, "Observation of resonances in the radiation pressure on dielectric sphere," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351-1354 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
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  10. H. Azzouz, L. Alkhafadiji, S. Balslev, J. Johansson, N.A. Mortensen, S. Nilsson, A. Kristensen, "Levitated droplet dye laser," Opt. Express 14, pp. 4374-4379 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  11. AA Darhuber, JP Valentino, SM Troian, S. Wagner, "Thermocapillary actuation of droplets on chemically patterned surfaces by programmable microheater arrays" J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 873-879 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  12. JP Valentino, SM Troian, S Wagner, "Microfluidic detection and analysis by integration of thermocapillary actuation with a thin-film optical waveguide" Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. DB Wolfe, DV Vezenov, BT Mayers, GM Whitesides, RS Conroy, MG Prentiss, "Diffusion-controlled optical elements for optofluidics" Appl. Phys Lett. 87, 181105 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. J. Hopkins, L. Mitchem, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, "Control and characterization of a single aerosol droplet in a single-beam gradient-force optical trap," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 4924-4927 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Tona, and M. Kimura, "Parallel-plate ion trap useful for optical studies of microparticles," Rev. of Sci. Instrum. 75, 2276-2279 (2004).
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  17. M. Cai, O. Painter, and KerryJ. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber-taper to silica-microsphere Whispering-Gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Note that the thickness of a liquid-liquid interface is usually characterized by an interfacial 90-10 width (the distance required for the surrounding liquid density to drop from 90% to 10% of its bulk value). Usually 90-10 width for a water-oil liquid is smaller than 1 nm and therefore the surface of a droplet in the cladding medium is extremely smooth. (see D. M. Mitrinovic et al., "X-ray reflectivity study of the water-hexane interface," J. Phys. Chem. B 13, 1779-1782, 1999)
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  20. Cargille Laboratories: Refractive index liquid Series AAA 1.3 (background liquid), and immersion liquid code OHZB n = 1.4 (optical liquid)
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. C. Yamahata, C. Lotto, E. Al-Assaf, M. A. M Gijs, "A PMMA valveless micropump using electromagnetic actuation," Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 1, 197-207 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Schiller, and R. L. Byer, "High-resolution spectroscopy of whispering-gallery modes in large dielectric spheres," Opt. Lett. 16, 1138-1140 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, "Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein absorption," Opt. Lett. 28, 272-274 (2003).
  27. A. M. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, "Heavy water detection using ultra-high-Q microcavities," Opt. Lett. 31, 1896-1898 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, "Electrowetting: From basics to applications," J. Phys.-Cond. Matt. 17, 705-774 (2005)

2006 (3)

2005 (6)

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chang, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, "A low-threshold high-efficiency microfluidic waveguide laser," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 25, 8952-8953 (2005).

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, D. B. Wolfe and G. M. Whitesides, " Integrated fluidic lightsource for optofluidic applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

JP Valentino, SM Troian, S Wagner, "Microfluidic detection and analysis by integration of thermocapillary actuation with a thin-film optical waveguide" Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DB Wolfe, DV Vezenov, BT Mayers, GM Whitesides, RS Conroy, MG Prentiss, "Diffusion-controlled optical elements for optofluidics" Appl. Phys Lett. 87, 181105 (2005)
[CrossRef]

C. Yamahata, C. Lotto, E. Al-Assaf, M. A. M Gijs, "A PMMA valveless micropump using electromagnetic actuation," Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 1, 197-207 (2005)
[CrossRef]

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, "Electrowetting: From basics to applications," J. Phys.-Cond. Matt. 17, 705-774 (2005)

2004 (4)

R. J. Hopkins, L. Mitchem, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, "Control and characterization of a single aerosol droplet in a single-beam gradient-force optical trap," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 4924-4927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Tona, and M. Kimura, "Parallel-plate ion trap useful for optical studies of microparticles," Rev. of Sci. Instrum. 75, 2276-2279 (2004).

R. Symes, R. M. Sayer and J. P. Reid, "Cavity enhanced droplet spectroscopy: principles, perspectives and prospects," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 474-487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Campbell, A. Groisman, U. Levy, L. Pang, S. Mookherjea, D. Psaltis, and Y. Fainman, "A microfluidic 2×2 optical switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6119-6121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

AA Darhuber, JP Valentino, SM Troian, S. Wagner, "Thermocapillary actuation of droplets on chemically patterned surfaces by programmable microheater arrays" J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 873-879 (2003)
[CrossRef]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-929 (2003)
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, "Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein absorption," Opt. Lett. 28, 272-274 (2003).

2000 (1)

M. Cai, O. Painter, and KerryJ. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber-taper to silica-microsphere Whispering-Gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

V. Vassiliev, V. Velichansky, V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, L. Hollberg, A. V. Yarovitsky, "Narrow-line-width diode laser with a high-Q microsphere resonator," Opt. Commun. 158, 305-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

M. D. Barnes, K. C. Ng, W. B. Whitten, and M. Ramsey, "detection of single Rhodamine 6G molecules in levitated microdroplets," Anal. Chem. 65, 2360-2365 (1993).

1991 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

1977 (1)

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, "Observation of resonances in the radiation pressure on dielectric sphere," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351-1354 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Al-Assaf, E.

C. Yamahata, C. Lotto, E. Al-Assaf, M. A. M Gijs, "A PMMA valveless micropump using electromagnetic actuation," Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 1, 197-207 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Alkhafadiji, L.

Armani, A. M.

Armani, D. K.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-929 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, "Observation of resonances in the radiation pressure on dielectric sphere," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351-1354 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Azzouz, H.

Balslev, S.

Baret, J. C.

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, "Electrowetting: From basics to applications," J. Phys.-Cond. Matt. 17, 705-774 (2005)

Barnes, M. D.

M. D. Barnes, K. C. Ng, W. B. Whitten, and M. Ramsey, "detection of single Rhodamine 6G molecules in levitated microdroplets," Anal. Chem. 65, 2360-2365 (1993).

Bawendi, M. G.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chang, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, "A low-threshold high-efficiency microfluidic waveguide laser," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 25, 8952-8953 (2005).

Birks, T.A.

Byer, R. L.

Cai, M.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and KerryJ. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber-taper to silica-microsphere Whispering-Gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, K.

K. Campbell, A. Groisman, U. Levy, L. Pang, S. Mookherjea, D. Psaltis, and Y. Fainman, "A microfluidic 2×2 optical switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6119-6121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

Chang, Y.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chang, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, "A low-threshold high-efficiency microfluidic waveguide laser," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 25, 8952-8953 (2005).

Cheung, G.

Conroy, R. S.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chang, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, "A low-threshold high-efficiency microfluidic waveguide laser," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 25, 8952-8953 (2005).

Conroy, RS

DB Wolfe, DV Vezenov, BT Mayers, GM Whitesides, RS Conroy, MG Prentiss, "Diffusion-controlled optical elements for optofluidics" Appl. Phys Lett. 87, 181105 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Darhuber, AA

AA Darhuber, JP Valentino, SM Troian, S. Wagner, "Thermocapillary actuation of droplets on chemically patterned surfaces by programmable microheater arrays" J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 873-879 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, "Observation of resonances in the radiation pressure on dielectric sphere," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351-1354 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

K. Campbell, A. Groisman, U. Levy, L. Pang, S. Mookherjea, D. Psaltis, and Y. Fainman, "A microfluidic 2×2 optical switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6119-6121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gijs, M. A. M

C. Yamahata, C. Lotto, E. Al-Assaf, M. A. M Gijs, "A PMMA valveless micropump using electromagnetic actuation," Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 1, 197-207 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

V. Vassiliev, V. Velichansky, V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, L. Hollberg, A. V. Yarovitsky, "Narrow-line-width diode laser with a high-Q microsphere resonator," Opt. Commun. 158, 305-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Groisman, A.

K. Campbell, A. Groisman, U. Levy, L. Pang, S. Mookherjea, D. Psaltis, and Y. Fainman, "A microfluidic 2×2 optical switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6119-6121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hale, G. M.

Haus, H. A.

Hollberg, L.

V. Vassiliev, V. Velichansky, V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, L. Hollberg, A. V. Yarovitsky, "Narrow-line-width diode laser with a high-Q microsphere resonator," Opt. Commun. 158, 305-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holler, S.

Hopkins, R. J.

R. J. Hopkins, L. Mitchem, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, "Control and characterization of a single aerosol droplet in a single-beam gradient-force optical trap," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 4924-4927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

V. Vassiliev, V. Velichansky, V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, L. Hollberg, A. V. Yarovitsky, "Narrow-line-width diode laser with a high-Q microsphere resonator," Opt. Commun. 158, 305-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, F.

Johansson, J.

Kerry, O.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and KerryJ. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber-taper to silica-microsphere Whispering-Gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Khoshsima, M.

Kimura, M.

M. Tona, and M. Kimura, "Parallel-plate ion trap useful for optical studies of microparticles," Rev. of Sci. Instrum. 75, 2276-2279 (2004).

Kippenberg, T. J.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-929 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, A.

Laine, J. -P.

Levy, U.

K. Campbell, A. Groisman, U. Levy, L. Pang, S. Mookherjea, D. Psaltis, and Y. Fainman, "A microfluidic 2×2 optical switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6119-6121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

Logng, M. B.

Lotto, C.

C. Yamahata, C. Lotto, E. Al-Assaf, M. A. M Gijs, "A PMMA valveless micropump using electromagnetic actuation," Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 1, 197-207 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Mayers, B. T.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chang, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, "A low-threshold high-efficiency microfluidic waveguide laser," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 25, 8952-8953 (2005).

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, D. B. Wolfe and G. M. Whitesides, " Integrated fluidic lightsource for optofluidic applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mayers, BT

DB Wolfe, DV Vezenov, BT Mayers, GM Whitesides, RS Conroy, MG Prentiss, "Diffusion-controlled optical elements for optofluidics" Appl. Phys Lett. 87, 181105 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Mitchem, L.

R. J. Hopkins, L. Mitchem, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, "Control and characterization of a single aerosol droplet in a single-beam gradient-force optical trap," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 4924-4927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mookherjea, S.

K. Campbell, A. Groisman, U. Levy, L. Pang, S. Mookherjea, D. Psaltis, and Y. Fainman, "A microfluidic 2×2 optical switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6119-6121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, N.A.

Mugele, F.

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, "Electrowetting: From basics to applications," J. Phys.-Cond. Matt. 17, 705-774 (2005)

Ng, K. C.

M. D. Barnes, K. C. Ng, W. B. Whitten, and M. Ramsey, "detection of single Rhodamine 6G molecules in levitated microdroplets," Anal. Chem. 65, 2360-2365 (1993).

Night, J. C.

Nilsson, S.

Nocera, D. G.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chang, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, "A low-threshold high-efficiency microfluidic waveguide laser," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 25, 8952-8953 (2005).

Painter, O.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and KerryJ. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber-taper to silica-microsphere Whispering-Gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pang, L.

K. Campbell, A. Groisman, U. Levy, L. Pang, S. Mookherjea, D. Psaltis, and Y. Fainman, "A microfluidic 2×2 optical switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6119-6121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, MG

DB Wolfe, DV Vezenov, BT Mayers, GM Whitesides, RS Conroy, MG Prentiss, "Diffusion-controlled optical elements for optofluidics" Appl. Phys Lett. 87, 181105 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, SR Quake, CH Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006)
[CrossRef]

K. Campbell, A. Groisman, U. Levy, L. Pang, S. Mookherjea, D. Psaltis, and Y. Fainman, "A microfluidic 2×2 optical switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6119-6121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qian, S. -X

Quake, SR

D. Psaltis, SR Quake, CH Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Ramsey, M.

M. D. Barnes, K. C. Ng, W. B. Whitten, and M. Ramsey, "detection of single Rhodamine 6G molecules in levitated microdroplets," Anal. Chem. 65, 2360-2365 (1993).

Reid, J. P.

R. Symes, R. M. Sayer and J. P. Reid, "Cavity enhanced droplet spectroscopy: principles, perspectives and prospects," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 474-487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hopkins, L. Mitchem, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, "Control and characterization of a single aerosol droplet in a single-beam gradient-force optical trap," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 4924-4927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sayer, R. M.

R. Symes, R. M. Sayer and J. P. Reid, "Cavity enhanced droplet spectroscopy: principles, perspectives and prospects," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 474-487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

Snee, P. T.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chang, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, "A low-threshold high-efficiency microfluidic waveguide laser," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 25, 8952-8953 (2005).

Snow, J. B.

Spillane, S. M.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-929 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Symes, R.

R. Symes, R. M. Sayer and J. P. Reid, "Cavity enhanced droplet spectroscopy: principles, perspectives and prospects," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 474-487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

Tona, M.

M. Tona, and M. Kimura, "Parallel-plate ion trap useful for optical studies of microparticles," Rev. of Sci. Instrum. 75, 2276-2279 (2004).

Troian, SM

JP Valentino, SM Troian, S Wagner, "Microfluidic detection and analysis by integration of thermocapillary actuation with a thin-film optical waveguide" Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

AA Darhuber, JP Valentino, SM Troian, S. Wagner, "Thermocapillary actuation of droplets on chemically patterned surfaces by programmable microheater arrays" J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 873-879 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Tzeng, H. -M.

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, "Heavy water detection using ultra-high-Q microcavities," Opt. Lett. 31, 1896-1898 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-929 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Valentino, JP

JP Valentino, SM Troian, S Wagner, "Microfluidic detection and analysis by integration of thermocapillary actuation with a thin-film optical waveguide" Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

AA Darhuber, JP Valentino, SM Troian, S. Wagner, "Thermocapillary actuation of droplets on chemically patterned surfaces by programmable microheater arrays" J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 873-879 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Vassiliev, V.

V. Vassiliev, V. Velichansky, V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, L. Hollberg, A. V. Yarovitsky, "Narrow-line-width diode laser with a high-Q microsphere resonator," Opt. Commun. 158, 305-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Velichansky, V.

V. Vassiliev, V. Velichansky, V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, L. Hollberg, A. V. Yarovitsky, "Narrow-line-width diode laser with a high-Q microsphere resonator," Opt. Commun. 158, 305-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vezenov, D. V.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, D. B. Wolfe and G. M. Whitesides, " Integrated fluidic lightsource for optofluidic applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chang, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, "A low-threshold high-efficiency microfluidic waveguide laser," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 25, 8952-8953 (2005).

Vezenov, DV

DB Wolfe, DV Vezenov, BT Mayers, GM Whitesides, RS Conroy, MG Prentiss, "Diffusion-controlled optical elements for optofluidics" Appl. Phys Lett. 87, 181105 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

Wagner, S

JP Valentino, SM Troian, S Wagner, "Microfluidic detection and analysis by integration of thermocapillary actuation with a thin-film optical waveguide" Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, S.

AA Darhuber, JP Valentino, SM Troian, S. Wagner, "Thermocapillary actuation of droplets on chemically patterned surfaces by programmable microheater arrays" J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 873-879 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Wall, K. F.

Ward, A. D.

R. J. Hopkins, L. Mitchem, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, "Control and characterization of a single aerosol droplet in a single-beam gradient-force optical trap," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 4924-4927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, D. B. Wolfe and G. M. Whitesides, " Integrated fluidic lightsource for optofluidic applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chang, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, "A low-threshold high-efficiency microfluidic waveguide laser," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 25, 8952-8953 (2005).

Whitesides, GM

DB Wolfe, DV Vezenov, BT Mayers, GM Whitesides, RS Conroy, MG Prentiss, "Diffusion-controlled optical elements for optofluidics" Appl. Phys Lett. 87, 181105 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Whitten, W. B.

M. D. Barnes, K. C. Ng, W. B. Whitten, and M. Ramsey, "detection of single Rhodamine 6G molecules in levitated microdroplets," Anal. Chem. 65, 2360-2365 (1993).

Wolfe, D. B.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, D. B. Wolfe and G. M. Whitesides, " Integrated fluidic lightsource for optofluidic applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, DB

DB Wolfe, DV Vezenov, BT Mayers, GM Whitesides, RS Conroy, MG Prentiss, "Diffusion-controlled optical elements for optofluidics" Appl. Phys Lett. 87, 181105 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Yamahata, C.

C. Yamahata, C. Lotto, E. Al-Assaf, M. A. M Gijs, "A PMMA valveless micropump using electromagnetic actuation," Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 1, 197-207 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Yang, CH

D. Psaltis, SR Quake, CH Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Yarovitsky, A. V.

V. Vassiliev, V. Velichansky, V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, L. Hollberg, A. V. Yarovitsky, "Narrow-line-width diode laser with a high-Q microsphere resonator," Opt. Commun. 158, 305-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

M. D. Barnes, K. C. Ng, W. B. Whitten, and M. Ramsey, "detection of single Rhodamine 6G molecules in levitated microdroplets," Anal. Chem. 65, 2360-2365 (1993).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys Lett. (1)

DB Wolfe, DV Vezenov, BT Mayers, GM Whitesides, RS Conroy, MG Prentiss, "Diffusion-controlled optical elements for optofluidics" Appl. Phys Lett. 87, 181105 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. Campbell, A. Groisman, U. Levy, L. Pang, S. Mookherjea, D. Psaltis, and Y. Fainman, "A microfluidic 2×2 optical switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6119-6121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, D. B. Wolfe and G. M. Whitesides, " Integrated fluidic lightsource for optofluidic applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

JP Valentino, SM Troian, S Wagner, "Microfluidic detection and analysis by integration of thermocapillary actuation with a thin-film optical waveguide" Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cond. Matt. (1)

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, "Electrowetting: From basics to applications," J. Phys.-Cond. Matt. 17, 705-774 (2005)

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chang, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, "A low-threshold high-efficiency microfluidic waveguide laser," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 25, 8952-8953 (2005).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

AA Darhuber, JP Valentino, SM Troian, S. Wagner, "Thermocapillary actuation of droplets on chemically patterned surfaces by programmable microheater arrays" J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 873-879 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Microfluidics and Nanofluidics (1)

C. Yamahata, C. Lotto, E. Al-Assaf, M. A. M Gijs, "A PMMA valveless micropump using electromagnetic actuation," Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 1, 197-207 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-929 (2003)
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis, SR Quake, CH Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. Vassiliev, V. Velichansky, V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, L. Hollberg, A. V. Yarovitsky, "Narrow-line-width diode laser with a high-Q microsphere resonator," Opt. Commun. 158, 305-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (2)

R. J. Hopkins, L. Mitchem, A. D. Ward, and J. P. Reid, "Control and characterization of a single aerosol droplet in a single-beam gradient-force optical trap," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 4924-4927 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Symes, R. M. Sayer and J. P. Reid, "Cavity enhanced droplet spectroscopy: principles, perspectives and prospects," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 474-487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, "Observation of resonances in the radiation pressure on dielectric sphere," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351-1354 (1977).
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M. Cai, O. Painter, and KerryJ. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber-taper to silica-microsphere Whispering-Gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
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Rev. of Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Tona, and M. Kimura, "Parallel-plate ion trap useful for optical studies of microparticles," Rev. of Sci. Instrum. 75, 2276-2279 (2004).

Other (2)

Note that the thickness of a liquid-liquid interface is usually characterized by an interfacial 90-10 width (the distance required for the surrounding liquid density to drop from 90% to 10% of its bulk value). Usually 90-10 width for a water-oil liquid is smaller than 1 nm and therefore the surface of a droplet in the cladding medium is extremely smooth. (see D. M. Mitrinovic et al., "X-ray reflectivity study of the water-hexane interface," J. Phys. Chem. B 13, 1779-1782, 1999)

Cargille Laboratories: Refractive index liquid Series AAA 1.3 (background liquid), and immersion liquid code OHZB n = 1.4 (optical liquid)

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