Abstract

An electro-optic silicon modulator with negative electrical power dissipation is proposed. The device performs optical modulation through electrical control of losses caused by two photon absorption. It further exploits the nonlinear photovoltaic effect to recover the optical power that is normally dissipated when the modulator is in the on state.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE 81, 1687–1706 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  2. L. Pavesi and G. Guillot, ed., Optical interconnects: the Silicon approach (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2006; ISBN: 3540289100).
  3. D. J. Frank, “Scaling CMOS to the Limits,” IBM J. Research and Development 46, 235–244 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  4. International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, 2005 Edition, http://www.itrs.net/.
  5. S. Fathpour, K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Photovoltaic Effect in Silicon Raman Amplifiers,” in Optical Amplifiers & Their Applications Conf, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper PD1.
  6. S. Fathpour, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Energy harvesting in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061109 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. B. Jalali, S. Fathpour, and K. K. Tsia, “Energy Harvesting in Silicon Photonic Devices,” LEOS Annual Meeting 2006, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Irace, G. Breglio, M. Iodice, and A. Cutolo, “Light modulation with silicon devices,” in Silicon Photonics, L Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2004).
  9. L Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zendher modulator,” Opt. Express 13, 3129–3135 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. Huang, C. Gunn, G. Li, Y. Liang, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, and T. Pinguet, “A 10Gb/s photonic modulator and WDM MUX/DEMUX integrated with electronics in 0.13um SOI CMOS,” International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC 2006) Digest of Technical Papers (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp. 245–246.
  11. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–326 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon,” SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng., SPIE  704, 32–37 (1986).
  13. R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 2774–2780 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Irace, G. Breglio, and A. Cutolo, “All-silicon optoelectronic modulator with 1GHz switching capability,” Electron. Lett. 39, 232–233 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  16. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, “All optical switch on a silicon chip,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, CLEO 2004, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2004).
  17. R. L Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Raman amplification in ultrasmall silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 3713–2718 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. Fathpour, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Energy harvesting in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061109 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

L Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zendher modulator,” Opt. Express 13, 3129–3135 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–326 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

A. Irace, G. Breglio, and A. Cutolo, “All-silicon optoelectronic modulator with 1GHz switching capability,” Electron. Lett. 39, 232–233 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. J. Frank, “Scaling CMOS to the Limits,” IBM J. Research and Development 46, 235–244 (2002).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE 81, 1687–1706 (1993).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon,” SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng., SPIE  704, 32–37 (1986).

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, “All optical switch on a silicon chip,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, CLEO 2004, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2004).

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, “All optical switch on a silicon chip,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, CLEO 2004, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2004).

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon,” SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng., SPIE  704, 32–37 (1986).

Breglio, G.

A. Irace, G. Breglio, and A. Cutolo, “All-silicon optoelectronic modulator with 1GHz switching capability,” Electron. Lett. 39, 232–233 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Irace, G. Breglio, M. Iodice, and A. Cutolo, “Light modulation with silicon devices,” in Silicon Photonics, L Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2004).

Claps, R.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 2774–2780 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cutolo, A.

A. Irace, G. Breglio, and A. Cutolo, “All-silicon optoelectronic modulator with 1GHz switching capability,” Electron. Lett. 39, 232–233 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Irace, G. Breglio, M. Iodice, and A. Cutolo, “Light modulation with silicon devices,” in Silicon Photonics, L Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2004).

Dadap, J. I.

Dimitropoulos, D.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 2774–2780 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Espinola, R. L

Fathpour, S.

S. Fathpour, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Energy harvesting in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061109 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Fathpour, K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Photovoltaic Effect in Silicon Raman Amplifiers,” in Optical Amplifiers & Their Applications Conf, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper PD1.

B. Jalali, S. Fathpour, and K. K. Tsia, “Energy Harvesting in Silicon Photonic Devices,” LEOS Annual Meeting 2006, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006).
[Crossref]

Foster, M. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, “All optical switch on a silicon chip,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, CLEO 2004, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2004).

Franck, T.

Frank, D. J.

D. J. Frank, “Scaling CMOS to the Limits,” IBM J. Research and Development 46, 235–244 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, “All optical switch on a silicon chip,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, CLEO 2004, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2004).

Guillot, G.

L. Pavesi and G. Guillot, ed., Optical interconnects: the Silicon approach (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2006; ISBN: 3540289100).

Gunn, C.

A. Huang, C. Gunn, G. Li, Y. Liang, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, and T. Pinguet, “A 10Gb/s photonic modulator and WDM MUX/DEMUX integrated with electronics in 0.13um SOI CMOS,” International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC 2006) Digest of Technical Papers (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp. 245–246.

Hodge, D.

Huang, A.

A. Huang, C. Gunn, G. Li, Y. Liang, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, and T. Pinguet, “A 10Gb/s photonic modulator and WDM MUX/DEMUX integrated with electronics in 0.13um SOI CMOS,” International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC 2006) Digest of Technical Papers (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp. 245–246.

Iodice, M.

A. Irace, G. Breglio, M. Iodice, and A. Cutolo, “Light modulation with silicon devices,” in Silicon Photonics, L Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2004).

Irace, A.

A. Irace, G. Breglio, and A. Cutolo, “All-silicon optoelectronic modulator with 1GHz switching capability,” Electron. Lett. 39, 232–233 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Irace, G. Breglio, M. Iodice, and A. Cutolo, “Light modulation with silicon devices,” in Silicon Photonics, L Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2004).

Jalali, B.

S. Fathpour, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Energy harvesting in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061109 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 2774–2780 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Jalali, S. Fathpour, and K. K. Tsia, “Energy Harvesting in Silicon Photonic Devices,” LEOS Annual Meeting 2006, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006).
[Crossref]

S. Fathpour, K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Photovoltaic Effect in Silicon Raman Amplifiers,” in Optical Amplifiers & Their Applications Conf, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper PD1.

Jhaveri, R.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Keil, U. D.

Li, G.

A. Huang, C. Gunn, G. Li, Y. Liang, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, and T. Pinguet, “A 10Gb/s photonic modulator and WDM MUX/DEMUX integrated with electronics in 0.13um SOI CMOS,” International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC 2006) Digest of Technical Papers (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp. 245–246.

Liang, Y.

A. Huang, C. Gunn, G. Li, Y. Liang, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, and T. Pinguet, “A 10Gb/s photonic modulator and WDM MUX/DEMUX integrated with electronics in 0.13um SOI CMOS,” International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC 2006) Digest of Technical Papers (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp. 245–246.

Liao, L

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–326 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, “All optical switch on a silicon chip,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, CLEO 2004, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2004).

Liu, A.

McNab, S. J.

Mirsaidi, S.

A. Huang, C. Gunn, G. Li, Y. Liang, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, and T. Pinguet, “A 10Gb/s photonic modulator and WDM MUX/DEMUX integrated with electronics in 0.13um SOI CMOS,” International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC 2006) Digest of Technical Papers (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp. 245–246.

Morse, M.

Narasimha, A.

A. Huang, C. Gunn, G. Li, Y. Liang, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, and T. Pinguet, “A 10Gb/s photonic modulator and WDM MUX/DEMUX integrated with electronics in 0.13um SOI CMOS,” International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC 2006) Digest of Technical Papers (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp. 245–246.

Osgood, R. M.

Ouzounov, D. G.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, “All optical switch on a silicon chip,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, CLEO 2004, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2004).

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, “All optical switch on a silicon chip,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, CLEO 2004, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2004).

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi and G. Guillot, ed., Optical interconnects: the Silicon approach (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2006; ISBN: 3540289100).

Pinguet, T.

A. Huang, C. Gunn, G. Li, Y. Liang, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, and T. Pinguet, “A 10Gb/s photonic modulator and WDM MUX/DEMUX integrated with electronics in 0.13um SOI CMOS,” International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC 2006) Digest of Technical Papers (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp. 245–246.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–326 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raghunathan, V.

Rubin, D.

Samara-Rubio, D.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–326 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE 81, 1687–1706 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon,” SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng., SPIE  704, 32–37 (1986).

Tsia, K.

S. Fathpour, K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Photovoltaic Effect in Silicon Raman Amplifiers,” in Optical Amplifiers & Their Applications Conf, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper PD1.

Tsia, K. K.

S. Fathpour, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Energy harvesting in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061109 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Jalali, S. Fathpour, and K. K. Tsia, “Energy Harvesting in Silicon Photonic Devices,” LEOS Annual Meeting 2006, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Woo, J. C. S.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–326 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Fathpour, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Energy harvesting in silicon Raman amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061109 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Irace, G. Breglio, and A. Cutolo, “All-silicon optoelectronic modulator with 1GHz switching capability,” Electron. Lett. 39, 232–233 (2003).
[Crossref]

IBM J. Research and Development (1)

D. J. Frank, “Scaling CMOS to the Limits,” IBM J. Research and Development 46, 235–244 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–326 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE 81, 1687–1706 (1993).
[Crossref]

SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon,” SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng., SPIE  704, 32–37 (1986).

Other (7)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, “All optical switch on a silicon chip,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, CLEO 2004, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2004).

L. Pavesi and G. Guillot, ed., Optical interconnects: the Silicon approach (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 2006; ISBN: 3540289100).

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, 2005 Edition, http://www.itrs.net/.

S. Fathpour, K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Photovoltaic Effect in Silicon Raman Amplifiers,” in Optical Amplifiers & Their Applications Conf, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper PD1.

A. Huang, C. Gunn, G. Li, Y. Liang, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, and T. Pinguet, “A 10Gb/s photonic modulator and WDM MUX/DEMUX integrated with electronics in 0.13um SOI CMOS,” International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC 2006) Digest of Technical Papers (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp. 245–246.

B. Jalali, S. Fathpour, and K. K. Tsia, “Energy Harvesting in Silicon Photonic Devices,” LEOS Annual Meeting 2006, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006).
[Crossref]

A. Irace, G. Breglio, M. Iodice, and A. Cutolo, “Light modulation with silicon devices,” in Silicon Photonics, L Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2004).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the silicon electro-optical modulator with straddling p-n junction; the values of the shown geometrical dimensions used in the numerical simulations are: H=0.3 μm, W=0.5 μm, h=0.25 μm, d=2 μm, and L=1 cm; (b) typical current-voltage characteristics of a photodiode under optical illumination, showing one choice of on and off states of the modulator in the fourth quadrant with negative power dissipation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Electrical power versus voltage characteristics of the optical modulator, showing biasing conditions with maximum attainable power generation in the on state and zero power dissipation in the off state.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Average on-off power dissipation versus signal optical intensity at different modulation depths when the modulator is driving with an ideal digital waveform with zero rise/fall times; (b) optical intensity required for zero power dissipation for the digital waveform (Pavg = 0) and the sawtooth waveform (Ps = 0). For a practical digital waveform with finite rise and fall times, the power is between these two limits.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α FCA = Δ α e + Δ α h = 8.5 × 10 18 · Δ N + 6.0 × 10 18 ·Δ P ,
dI p ( z ) dz = ( α + α FCA ( z ) ) I p ( z ) βI p 2 ( z ) ,

Metrics