Abstract

We present a compact design for an integrated interconnect based on a hybrid imaging setup combining microchannel and conventional imaging. Within this setup the conventional imaging is performed by an aluminum-coated spherical lens. The aberrations introduced by this spherical mirror to the channels of the interconnect can be compensated by channel-wise adapted microlenses located at the in- and output interfaces. These microlenses are used for collimating or refocusing the beams, respectively. Within this paper we present the design of the microlens array with individually shaped lenses referred to as chirped mircolens array (cMLA) based on numerical optimization and the use of fitting functions. Further on we focus on the fabrication of the chirped microlens arrays by laser lithography and first experimental results of coupling efficiencies of singlemode as well as multimode fibers for the realized prototypes.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. S. Hinton, "Architectural considerations for photonic switching networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 1209-1226 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. W. Lohmann, "Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing," Opt. Commun. 86, 365-370 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. B. McCormick, "Free space optical interconnection techniques," Photonics in Switching, J. E. Midwinter, ed., (Academic Boston, 1993).
  4. S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, "Variations of hybrid imaging concept for optical computing applications," Optical Computing in Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America,Washington, D.C.), 183-185 (1995).
  5. J. Jahns and A. Huang, "Planar integration of free space optical components," Appl. Opt. 28, 1602-1605 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Duparré, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and A. Reimann, "Chirped arrays of refractive ellipsoidal microlenses for aberration correction under oblique incidence," Opt. Express 13, 10539-10551 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Wippermann, J. Duparré, P. Schreiber, and P. Dannberg "Design and fabrication of a chirped array of refractive ellipsoidal micro-lenses for an apposition eye camera objective," in Optical Design and Engineering II; L. Mazuray and R. Wartmann, eds., Proc. SPIE 5962 59622C (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, "Integrated micro-optical imaging system with high interconnection capacity fabricated in planar optics," Appl. Opt. 36, 4729-4735 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. B. Joyce, B. C. DeLoach, "Alignment of Gaussian Beams," Appl. Opt. 23, 4187-4196 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Yariv, "A coupled mode theory for Guided-Wave Optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 919-933 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  11. ZEMAX Instruction Manual (2004)
  12. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).
  13. G. N. Lawrence, "Optical Modelling," Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, R.R. Shannon and J.C. Wyant, eds., (Academic, New York, 1992), Vol. 11.
  14. D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, and N. Davies, "The manufacture of microlenses by melting photo resist," Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759-766 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. T. Gale, G. K. Lang, J. M. Raynor, H. Schuetz, "Fabrication of micro optical elements by laser beam writing in photo resist," in Micro-Optics II; A. M. Verga Scheggi; ed., Proc. SPIE 1506, 65-70 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, R. E. Kunz, and G. L. Bona, "Laser writing and replication of continous-relief Fresnel microlenses," OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics Vol.  11, 306-309 (1994).
  17. P. Dannberg, G. Mann, L. Wagner, and A. Braeuer, "Polymer UV- molding for micro-optical systems and O/Eintegration," in Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics; S. H. Lee and E. G. Johnson, eds., Proc. SPIE 4179, 137 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2005

1997

1994

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, R. E. Kunz, and G. L. Bona, "Laser writing and replication of continous-relief Fresnel microlenses," OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics Vol.  11, 306-309 (1994).

1991

A. W. Lohmann, "Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing," Opt. Commun. 86, 365-370 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Gale, G. K. Lang, J. M. Raynor, H. Schuetz, "Fabrication of micro optical elements by laser beam writing in photo resist," in Micro-Optics II; A. M. Verga Scheggi; ed., Proc. SPIE 1506, 65-70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, and N. Davies, "The manufacture of microlenses by melting photo resist," Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759-766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

H. S. Hinton, "Architectural considerations for photonic switching networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 1209-1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984

1973

A. Yariv, "A coupled mode theory for Guided-Wave Optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 919-933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bona, G. L.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, R. E. Kunz, and G. L. Bona, "Laser writing and replication of continous-relief Fresnel microlenses," OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics Vol.  11, 306-309 (1994).

Daly, D.

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, and N. Davies, "The manufacture of microlenses by melting photo resist," Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759-766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dannberg, P.

Davies, N.

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, and N. Davies, "The manufacture of microlenses by melting photo resist," Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759-766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

DeLoach, B. C.

Duparré, J.

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, R. E. Kunz, and G. L. Bona, "Laser writing and replication of continous-relief Fresnel microlenses," OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics Vol.  11, 306-309 (1994).

M. T. Gale, G. K. Lang, J. M. Raynor, H. Schuetz, "Fabrication of micro optical elements by laser beam writing in photo resist," in Micro-Optics II; A. M. Verga Scheggi; ed., Proc. SPIE 1506, 65-70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hinton, H. S.

H. S. Hinton, "Architectural considerations for photonic switching networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 1209-1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Huang, A.

Hutley, M. C.

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, and N. Davies, "The manufacture of microlenses by melting photo resist," Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759-766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

Joyce, W. B.

Kunz, R. E.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, R. E. Kunz, and G. L. Bona, "Laser writing and replication of continous-relief Fresnel microlenses," OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics Vol.  11, 306-309 (1994).

Lang, G. K.

M. T. Gale, G. K. Lang, J. M. Raynor, H. Schuetz, "Fabrication of micro optical elements by laser beam writing in photo resist," in Micro-Optics II; A. M. Verga Scheggi; ed., Proc. SPIE 1506, 65-70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lohmann, A. W.

A. W. Lohmann, "Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing," Opt. Commun. 86, 365-370 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Raynor, J. M.

M. T. Gale, G. K. Lang, J. M. Raynor, H. Schuetz, "Fabrication of micro optical elements by laser beam writing in photo resist," in Micro-Optics II; A. M. Verga Scheggi; ed., Proc. SPIE 1506, 65-70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, A.

Rossi, M.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, R. E. Kunz, and G. L. Bona, "Laser writing and replication of continous-relief Fresnel microlenses," OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics Vol.  11, 306-309 (1994).

Schuetz, H.

M. T. Gale, G. K. Lang, J. M. Raynor, H. Schuetz, "Fabrication of micro optical elements by laser beam writing in photo resist," in Micro-Optics II; A. M. Verga Scheggi; ed., Proc. SPIE 1506, 65-70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sinzinger, S.

Stevens, R. F.

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, and N. Davies, "The manufacture of microlenses by melting photo resist," Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759-766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wippermann, F.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, "A coupled mode theory for Guided-Wave Optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 919-933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Diffractive Optics

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, R. E. Kunz, and G. L. Bona, "Laser writing and replication of continous-relief Fresnel microlenses," OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics Vol.  11, 306-309 (1994).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Yariv, "A coupled mode theory for Guided-Wave Optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 919-933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

H. S. Hinton, "Architectural considerations for photonic switching networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 1209-1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, and N. Davies, "The manufacture of microlenses by melting photo resist," Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759-766 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. W. Lohmann, "Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing," Opt. Commun. 86, 365-370 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

M. T. Gale, G. K. Lang, J. M. Raynor, H. Schuetz, "Fabrication of micro optical elements by laser beam writing in photo resist," in Micro-Optics II; A. M. Verga Scheggi; ed., Proc. SPIE 1506, 65-70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Dannberg, G. Mann, L. Wagner, and A. Braeuer, "Polymer UV- molding for micro-optical systems and O/Eintegration," in Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics; S. H. Lee and E. G. Johnson, eds., Proc. SPIE 4179, 137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

ZEMAX Instruction Manual (2004)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

G. N. Lawrence, "Optical Modelling," Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, R.R. Shannon and J.C. Wyant, eds., (Academic, New York, 1992), Vol. 11.

F. B. McCormick, "Free space optical interconnection techniques," Photonics in Switching, J. E. Midwinter, ed., (Academic Boston, 1993).

S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, "Variations of hybrid imaging concept for optical computing applications," Optical Computing in Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America,Washington, D.C.), 183-185 (1995).

F. Wippermann, J. Duparré, P. Schreiber, and P. Dannberg "Design and fabrication of a chirped array of refractive ellipsoidal micro-lenses for an apposition eye camera objective," in Optical Design and Engineering II; L. Mazuray and R. Wartmann, eds., Proc. SPIE 5962 59622C (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup of the hybrid imaging system. F - focal length of the Fourier lens, f - focal length of the microlens.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematically setup of the integrated hybrid imaging system

Fig. 3. a)
Fig. 3. a)

Mismatch of the beam positions at the plane folding mirror and the output fibers caused by the spherical aberrations introduced by the spherical mirror. b) Aberration compensation using a cMLA. c) Optical path difference vs. ray height at spherical mirror (λ=1.55μm).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optimized mathematical functions (dashed line) for the five parameters needed for the description of a single lens of the chirped MLA. Diamonds mark the optimized results for the seven calculated channels.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic top view of the system and parameters needed for the calculation of the radial distance ri,j of each cell of the MLA.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Angle of rotation Θ and radial distance r for all cells of the MLA. The position of the z-axis marks the cell with index (0,0).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Decenter, focal length and conic constant for all lenses of the chirped MLA. The position of the z-axis marks the cell with index (0,0).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Calculated coupling efficiency for all channels of the system. The position of the z-axis marks the cell with index (0,0). Plotted scale reaches from 0.92 to 1.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Plotting scheme for writing the lenses. Blue areas are to be exposed when writing the coarse structure, the yellowish colored areas correspond to the structures when writing the fine structure.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Grey-scale drawing of the splitting scheme for a) the coarse structures and b) the fine structures for a detail of the array. c) detail picture of the fabricated micro lenses.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Detail of the assembled setup for lab verification.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Comparison of the fitted, ideal and measured profile for two lenses of the chirped MLA.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Plot of the height profile of the ideal and measured grating structure.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Coupling efficiency of the system as a function of the axial displacement.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η d = exp [ ( d d e ) 2 ]
η ϕ = exp [ ( ϕ ϕ e ) 2 ]
d e = 2 1 / 2 τ a · ( 1 ω 01 2 + 1 ω 02 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
Θ e = 2 3 / 2 τ a k · ( 1 ω 1 2 + 1 ω 2 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
η a = F x y W * x y dxdy 2 ∫∫F x y F * x y dxdy ·∫∫W x y W * x y dxdy
η total = η a η d η ϕ .
F = A 2 λZ ,
r i , j = { [ ( i N x 1 2 ) ·P P 2 ] 2 + [ ( j N y 1 2 ) · P + r 0 ] 2 } 1 2 ,
Θ i , j = arccos [ 1 + ( i N x 1 2 1 2 j + r 0 P ) 2 ] 1 2 .
d x i , j = d i , j · ( 1 + tan 2 Θ i , j ) 1 2 ,
d y i , j = d i , j · ( 1 + tan 2 Θ i , j ) 1 2 ,

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