Abstract

Incorporating active media into three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals (PCs) is a useful step towards exploring the functionalities of PCs. Here we report, for the first time, on the fabrication of 3D woodpile PCs with a commercial PbSe quantum dot (QD) composite material by using the two-photon polymerization technique. The fabricated crystals possess photonic band gaps in the near-infrared wavelength region, which have a suppression rate of ~50% in the stacking direction, measured with an angle-resolved Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. The woodpile structures fabricated under different conditions are also characterized by using a scanning near-field optical microscope, providing a useful feedback towards optimizing the fabrication of 3D woodpile PCs in QD composites.

©2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystal lattices within a PbS quantum-dot-doped polymer material

Michael James Ventura, Craig Bullen, and Min Gu
Opt. Express 15(4) 1817-1822 (2007)

Fabrication of woodpile structures by two-photon polymerization and investigation of their optical properties

Jesper Serbin, Aleksandr Ovsianikov, and Boris Chichkov
Opt. Express 12(21) 5221-5228 (2004)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–254 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. Mondia, G. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. S. Shoji and S. Kawata, “Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668–2670 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. Von Freymann, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete photonic bandgap in chalcogenide glasses,” Adv. Mater. 18, 265–269 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional Photonic Bandgap Materials: Silicon Double Inversion of Polymer Templates,” Adv. Mater. 18, 457–460 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Straub and M. Gu, “Near-infrared photonic crystals with higher-order bandgaps generated by two-photon photopolymerization,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1824–1826 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu, “Multiple higher-order stop gaps in infrared polymer photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901/1–043901/4 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional spiral-architecture photonic crystals obtained by direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 17, 541–545 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  10. B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. FrÖhlich, and M. Popall, “Femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for applications in photonics,” Opt. Lett. 28, 301–303 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. Deubel, G. Von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3, 444–447 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. J. Serbin and M. Gu, “Experimental evidence for superprism effects in three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 18, 221–224 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Serbin and M. Gu, “Superprism phenomena in waveguide-coupled woodpile structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization,” Opt. Express 14, 3563–3568 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. P. Lodahl, A. F. Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. G. R. Maskaly, M. A. Petruska, J. Nanda, I. V. Bezel, R D. Schaller, H. Htoon, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Amplified spontaneous emission in semiconductor-nanocrystal/synthetic-opal composites: Optical-gain enhancement via a photonic crystal pseudogap,” Adv. Mater. 18, 343–347 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  18. R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruska, and V. I. Klimov, “Tunable near-Infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission using PbSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765–13768 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Hoogland, V. Sukhovatkin, I. Howard, S. Cauchi, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “A solution-processed 1.53 um quantum dot laser with temperature-invariant emission wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 3273–3281 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. S. G. Johnson and J. D. JoannopoulosMIT Photonic Bands software, http://ab-initio.mit.edu/mpb, 1999.
  21. A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, C. A. White, and A. Rosenberg, “Mapping the optical intensity distribution in photonic crystals using a near-field scanning optical microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2801–2807 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  22. E. Fliick, N. F Van Hulst, W. L. Vos, and L. Kuipers, “Near-field optical investigation of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 56011–156014 (2003).

2006 (6)

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. Von Freymann, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete photonic bandgap in chalcogenide glasses,” Adv. Mater. 18, 265–269 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional Photonic Bandgap Materials: Silicon Double Inversion of Polymer Templates,” Adv. Mater. 18, 457–460 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. R. Maskaly, M. A. Petruska, J. Nanda, I. V. Bezel, R D. Schaller, H. Htoon, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Amplified spontaneous emission in semiconductor-nanocrystal/synthetic-opal composites: Optical-gain enhancement via a photonic crystal pseudogap,” Adv. Mater. 18, 343–347 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Serbin and M. Gu, “Experimental evidence for superprism effects in three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 18, 221–224 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Hoogland, V. Sukhovatkin, I. Howard, S. Cauchi, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “A solution-processed 1.53 um quantum dot laser with temperature-invariant emission wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 3273–3281 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Serbin and M. Gu, “Superprism phenomena in waveguide-coupled woodpile structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization,” Opt. Express 14, 3563–3568 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional spiral-architecture photonic crystals obtained by direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 17, 541–545 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

P. Lodahl, A. F. Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Deubel, G. Von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3, 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruska, and V. I. Klimov, “Tunable near-Infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission using PbSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765–13768 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. Fliick, N. F Van Hulst, W. L. Vos, and L. Kuipers, “Near-field optical investigation of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 56011–156014 (2003).

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu, “Multiple higher-order stop gaps in infrared polymer photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901/1–043901/4 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. FrÖhlich, and M. Popall, “Femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for applications in photonics,” Opt. Lett. 28, 301–303 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, C. A. White, and A. Rosenberg, “Mapping the optical intensity distribution in photonic crystals using a near-field scanning optical microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2801–2807 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. Mondia, G. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Shoji and S. Kawata, “Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668–2670 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–254 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ananthavel, S. P.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Barlow, S.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bezel, I. V.

G. R. Maskaly, M. A. Petruska, J. Nanda, I. V. Bezel, R D. Schaller, H. Htoon, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Amplified spontaneous emission in semiconductor-nanocrystal/synthetic-opal composites: Optical-gain enhancement via a photonic crystal pseudogap,” Adv. Mater. 18, 343–347 (2006).
[Crossref]

Biswas, R.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–254 (1998).
[Crossref]

Blanco, A.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. Mondia, G. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bur, J.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–254 (1998).
[Crossref]

Busch, K.

M. Deubel, G. Von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3, 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campillo, A. L.

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, C. A. White, and A. Rosenberg, “Mapping the optical intensity distribution in photonic crystals using a near-field scanning optical microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2801–2807 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cauchi, S.

Chichkov, B. N.

Chomski, E.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. Mondia, G. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chutinan, A.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cronauer, C.

Cumpston, B. H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Deubel, M.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. Von Freymann, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete photonic bandgap in chalcogenide glasses,” Adv. Mater. 18, 265–269 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Deubel, G. Von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3, 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Domann, G.

Driel, A. F. Van

P. Lodahl, A. F. Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Driel, H. van

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. Mondia, G. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dyer, D. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Egbert, A.

Ehrlich, J. E.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Erskine, L. L

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fleming, J. G.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–254 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fliick, E.

E. Fliick, N. F Van Hulst, W. L. Vos, and L. Kuipers, “Near-field optical investigation of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 56011–156014 (2003).

Freymann, G. Von

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. Von Freymann, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete photonic bandgap in chalcogenide glasses,” Adv. Mater. 18, 265–269 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional Photonic Bandgap Materials: Silicon Double Inversion of Polymer Templates,” Adv. Mater. 18, 457–460 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Deubel, G. Von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3, 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

FrÖhlich, L.

Grabtchak, S.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. Mondia, G. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

J. Serbin and M. Gu, “Experimental evidence for superprism effects in three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 18, 221–224 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Serbin and M. Gu, “Superprism phenomena in waveguide-coupled woodpile structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization,” Opt. Express 14, 3563–3568 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu, “Multiple higher-order stop gaps in infrared polymer photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901/1–043901/4 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Straub and M. Gu, “Near-infrared photonic crystals with higher-order bandgaps generated by two-photon photopolymerization,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1824–1826 (2002).
[Crossref]

Heikal, A. A.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hetherington, D. L.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–254 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ho, K. M.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–254 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hoogland, S.

Houbertz, R.

Howard, I.

Hsu, J. W. P.

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, C. A. White, and A. Rosenberg, “Mapping the optical intensity distribution in photonic crystals using a near-field scanning optical microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2801–2807 (2001).
[Crossref]

Htoon, H.

G. R. Maskaly, M. A. Petruska, J. Nanda, I. V. Bezel, R D. Schaller, H. Htoon, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Amplified spontaneous emission in semiconductor-nanocrystal/synthetic-opal composites: Optical-gain enhancement via a photonic crystal pseudogap,” Adv. Mater. 18, 343–347 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hulst, N. F Van

E. Fliick, N. F Van Hulst, W. L. Vos, and L. Kuipers, “Near-field optical investigation of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 56011–156014 (2003).

Ibisate, M.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. Mondia, G. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Irman, A.

P. Lodahl, A. F. Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. G. Johnson and J. D. JoannopoulosMIT Photonic Bands software, http://ab-initio.mit.edu/mpb, 1999.

John, S.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. Von Freymann, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete photonic bandgap in chalcogenide glasses,” Adv. Mater. 18, 265–269 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. Mondia, G. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. G.

S. G. Johnson and J. D. JoannopoulosMIT Photonic Bands software, http://ab-initio.mit.edu/mpb, 1999.

Juodkazis, S.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional spiral-architecture photonic crystals obtained by direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 17, 541–545 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kawata, S.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Shoji and S. Kawata, “Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668–2670 (2000).
[Crossref]

Klimov, V. I.

G. R. Maskaly, M. A. Petruska, J. Nanda, I. V. Bezel, R D. Schaller, H. Htoon, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Amplified spontaneous emission in semiconductor-nanocrystal/synthetic-opal composites: Optical-gain enhancement via a photonic crystal pseudogap,” Adv. Mater. 18, 343–347 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruska, and V. I. Klimov, “Tunable near-Infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission using PbSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765–13768 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kuebler, S. M.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kuipers, L.

E. Fliick, N. F Van Hulst, W. L. Vos, and L. Kuipers, “Near-field optical investigation of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 56011–156014 (2003).

Kurtz, S. R.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–254 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, I. Y. S.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Leonard, S.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. Mondia, G. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levina, L.

Lin, S. Y.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–254 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lodahl, P.

P. Lodahl, A. F. Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez, C.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. Mondia, G. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marder, S. R

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Maskaly, G. R.

G. R. Maskaly, M. A. Petruska, J. Nanda, I. V. Bezel, R D. Schaller, H. Htoon, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Amplified spontaneous emission in semiconductor-nanocrystal/synthetic-opal composites: Optical-gain enhancement via a photonic crystal pseudogap,” Adv. Mater. 18, 343–347 (2006).
[Crossref]

Matsuo, S.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional spiral-architecture photonic crystals obtained by direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 17, 541–545 (2005).
[Crossref]

McCord-Maughon, D.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Meseguer, F.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. Mondia, G. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miguez, H.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. Mondia, G. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Misawa, H.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional spiral-architecture photonic crystals obtained by direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 17, 541–545 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mizeikis, V.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional spiral-architecture photonic crystals obtained by direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 17, 541–545 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mondia, J.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. Mondia, G. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanda, J.

G. R. Maskaly, M. A. Petruska, J. Nanda, I. V. Bezel, R D. Schaller, H. Htoon, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Amplified spontaneous emission in semiconductor-nanocrystal/synthetic-opal composites: Optical-gain enhancement via a photonic crystal pseudogap,” Adv. Mater. 18, 343–347 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nikolaev, I. S.

P. Lodahl, A. F. Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noda, S.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ostendorf, A.

Overgaag, K.

P. Lodahl, A. F. Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozin, G.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. Mondia, G. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozin, G. A.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. Von Freymann, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete photonic bandgap in chalcogenide glasses,” Adv. Mater. 18, 265–269 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional Photonic Bandgap Materials: Silicon Double Inversion of Polymer Templates,” Adv. Mater. 18, 457–460 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pereira, S.

M. Deubel, G. Von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3, 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perez-Willard, F.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. Von Freymann, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete photonic bandgap in chalcogenide glasses,” Adv. Mater. 18, 265–269 (2006).
[Crossref]

Perry, J. W.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Petruska, M. A.

G. R. Maskaly, M. A. Petruska, J. Nanda, I. V. Bezel, R D. Schaller, H. Htoon, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Amplified spontaneous emission in semiconductor-nanocrystal/synthetic-opal composites: Optical-gain enhancement via a photonic crystal pseudogap,” Adv. Mater. 18, 343–347 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruska, and V. I. Klimov, “Tunable near-Infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission using PbSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765–13768 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pietryga, J. M.

G. R. Maskaly, M. A. Petruska, J. Nanda, I. V. Bezel, R D. Schaller, H. Htoon, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Amplified spontaneous emission in semiconductor-nanocrystal/synthetic-opal composites: Optical-gain enhancement via a photonic crystal pseudogap,” Adv. Mater. 18, 343–347 (2006).
[Crossref]

Popall, M.

Qin, J.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rockel, H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rosenberg, A.

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, C. A. White, and A. Rosenberg, “Mapping the optical intensity distribution in photonic crystals using a near-field scanning optical microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2801–2807 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rumi, M.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sargent, E. H.

Schaller, R D.

G. R. Maskaly, M. A. Petruska, J. Nanda, I. V. Bezel, R D. Schaller, H. Htoon, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Amplified spontaneous emission in semiconductor-nanocrystal/synthetic-opal composites: Optical-gain enhancement via a photonic crystal pseudogap,” Adv. Mater. 18, 343–347 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schaller, R. D.

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruska, and V. I. Klimov, “Tunable near-Infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission using PbSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765–13768 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schulz, J.

Seet, K. K.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional spiral-architecture photonic crystals obtained by direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 17, 541–545 (2005).
[Crossref]

Serbin, J.

Shoji, S.

S. Shoji and S. Kawata, “Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668–2670 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sigalas, M. M.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–254 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smith, B. K.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–254 (1998).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Deubel, G. Von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3, 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Straub, M.

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu, “Multiple higher-order stop gaps in infrared polymer photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901/1–043901/4 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Straub and M. Gu, “Near-infrared photonic crystals with higher-order bandgaps generated by two-photon photopolymerization,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1824–1826 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sukhovatkin, V.

Sun, H. B.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tétreault, N.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional Photonic Bandgap Materials: Silicon Double Inversion of Polymer Templates,” Adv. Mater. 18, 457–460 (2006).
[Crossref]

Toader, O.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. Mondia, G. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomoda, K.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vanmaekelbergh, D.

P. Lodahl, A. F. Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ventura, M.

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu, “Multiple higher-order stop gaps in infrared polymer photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901/1–043901/4 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vos, W. L.

P. Lodahl, A. F. Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Fliick, N. F Van Hulst, W. L. Vos, and L. Kuipers, “Near-field optical investigation of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 56011–156014 (2003).

Wegener, M.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. Von Freymann, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete photonic bandgap in chalcogenide glasses,” Adv. Mater. 18, 265–269 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Deubel, G. Von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3, 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, C. A.

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, C. A. White, and A. Rosenberg, “Mapping the optical intensity distribution in photonic crystals using a near-field scanning optical microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2801–2807 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wong, S.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. Von Freymann, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete photonic bandgap in chalcogenide glasses,” Adv. Mater. 18, 265–269 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, X. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, N.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zubrzycki, W.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–254 (1998).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (5)

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional spiral-architecture photonic crystals obtained by direct laser writing,” Adv. Mater. 17, 541–545 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. Von Freymann, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete photonic bandgap in chalcogenide glasses,” Adv. Mater. 18, 265–269 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional Photonic Bandgap Materials: Silicon Double Inversion of Polymer Templates,” Adv. Mater. 18, 457–460 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. R. Maskaly, M. A. Petruska, J. Nanda, I. V. Bezel, R D. Schaller, H. Htoon, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, “Amplified spontaneous emission in semiconductor-nanocrystal/synthetic-opal composites: Optical-gain enhancement via a photonic crystal pseudogap,” Adv. Mater. 18, 343–347 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Serbin and M. Gu, “Experimental evidence for superprism effects in three-dimensional polymer photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 18, 221–224 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Shoji and S. Kawata, “Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668–2670 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, C. A. White, and A. Rosenberg, “Mapping the optical intensity distribution in photonic crystals using a near-field scanning optical microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2801–2807 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruska, and V. I. Klimov, “Tunable near-Infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission using PbSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765–13768 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. Deubel, G. Von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3, 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (5)

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. Mondia, G. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–254 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lodahl, A. F. Van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

E. Fliick, N. F Van Hulst, W. L. Vos, and L. Kuipers, “Near-field optical investigation of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 56011–156014 (2003).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu, “Multiple higher-order stop gaps in infrared polymer photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901/1–043901/4 (2003).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. G. Johnson and J. D. JoannopoulosMIT Photonic Bands software, http://ab-initio.mit.edu/mpb, 1999.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a). Sketch of a woodpile structure fabricated with 2PP. (b) The first Brillouin zone of the woodpile structure. (c) SEM image of a 50 μm × 50 μm ×13.5 μm 3D woodpile PC with a solid frame to support the structure. (d) SEM image of polymerized rods with rough surfaces after improper post processing. (e) SEM image of smooth rods after proper post processing.
Fig. 2. (a).
Fig. 2. (a). Sketch of the reflective objective of FTIR with a pinhole setup for the measurement of PBGs. The pinhole provides a confined light cone with a half angle of θ. (b) Transmission spectra of a 3D QD-doped PC measured in the stacking direction with different confined angles. [N means no pinhole being used. R, suppression rate after baseline correction. Spectra were translated along y-axis to 100% at 2200 nm. The shadow area corresponds to the calculated PBG as Fig. 2(c).] (c) Calculated band structure of the woodpile PC with an fct lattice (n=1.494) by using the free MPB software package [20]. The shadow area indicates the PBG in the stacking direction, i.e., the ΓX direction. (d) Transmission spectra of 3D QD-doped PCs with different lattice constants measured in the stacking direction with θ=5°.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Topography signals (a, c, e) and optical signals (b, d, f) recorded simultaneously with a SNOM from 3D woodpile structures fabricated with different conditions. (a, b) The voids between the rods were totally filled with unwanted resin. (c, d) The voids between the rods were partially filled with unwanted resin. (e, f) A well-developed woodpile PC with a high quality PBG. Units of x and y axes: μm. Units of vertical z axes: nm (for a, c, e) or a.u. (for b, d, f).

Metrics