Abstract

An optical diode (OD) and its application based on the photonic band-gap (PBG) property of chiral photonic crystals are presented. The OD is constructed from wave-plates and cholesteric liquid crystals with two different pitches. The component is polarization sensitive and exhibits passive anisotropic transmission analogous to the electronic diode. The non-reciprocal transmission of linearly polarized light at the different PBG regions is discussed. A new scheme of a color-separating system with the OD is proposed. The OD behavior constitutes the operational mechanism for a color splitter.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006

M. H. Song, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, "Simple electro-tunable optical diode using photonic and anisotropic liquid crystal films," Thin Solid Films 509, 49-52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, "Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Vardanyan and A. A. Gevorgyan, "Wave nonreciprocity in inhomogeneous gyrotropic media and multilayer systems: II. multilayer systems," Opt. Spectrosc. 99, 992-999 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Feise, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Bistable diode action in left-handed periodic structures," Phys. Rev. E 71, 037602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. Semenova, Y. Panarin, G. Farrell, and S. Dovgalets, "Liquid crystal based optical switches," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 385-398 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Moreira, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Cao, C. Bailey, B. Taheri, and P. Palffy-Muhoray, "Cholesteric liquid-crystal laser as an optic fiber-based temperature sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2691-2693 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tanaka, H. Takano, and T. Kurokawa, "Circular polarization resonator based on cholesteric liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1062-1067 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. H. Gevorgyan, "Optical diode based on a highly anisotropic layer of a helical periodic medium subjected to a magnetic field," Tech. Phys. 47, 1008-1013 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. W. McCall and A. Lakhtakia, "Development and assessment of coupled wave theory of axial propagation in thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic media. Part 1: reflectances and transmittances," J. Mod. Optics 47, 973-991 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, "The photonic band edge optical diode," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2023-2026 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1975

M. Tur, "Reflection at the boundary between glass and cholesteric liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 29, 345-359 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973

1951

H. de Vries, "Rotatory power and other optical properties of certain liquid crystals," Acta Cryst. 4, 219-226 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, C.

M. F. Moreira, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Cao, C. Bailey, B. Taheri, and P. Palffy-Muhoray, "Cholesteric liquid-crystal laser as an optic fiber-based temperature sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2691-2693 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barna, V.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, "Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartolino, R.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, "Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berreman, D. W.

Bloemer, M. J.

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, "The photonic band edge optical diode," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2023-2026 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, "The photonic band edge optical diode," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2023-2026 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

M. F. Moreira, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Cao, C. Bailey, B. Taheri, and P. Palffy-Muhoray, "Cholesteric liquid-crystal laser as an optic fiber-based temperature sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2691-2693 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Caputo, R.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, "Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carvalho, I. C. S.

M. F. Moreira, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Cao, C. Bailey, B. Taheri, and P. Palffy-Muhoray, "Cholesteric liquid-crystal laser as an optic fiber-based temperature sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2691-2693 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Luca, A.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, "Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Vries, H.

H. de Vries, "Rotatory power and other optical properties of certain liquid crystals," Acta Cryst. 4, 219-226 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Dovgalets, S.

Y. Semenova, Y. Panarin, G. Farrell, and S. Dovgalets, "Liquid crystal based optical switches," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 385-398 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. P.

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, "The photonic band edge optical diode," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2023-2026 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dreher, R.

R. Dreher and G. Meier, "Optical properties of cholesteric liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 8, 1616-1623 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, G.

Y. Semenova, Y. Panarin, G. Farrell, and S. Dovgalets, "Liquid crystal based optical switches," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 385-398 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feise, M. W.

M. W. Feise, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Bistable diode action in left-handed periodic structures," Phys. Rev. E 71, 037602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gevorgyan, A. A.

G. A. Vardanyan and A. A. Gevorgyan, "Wave nonreciprocity in inhomogeneous gyrotropic media and multilayer systems: II. multilayer systems," Opt. Spectrosc. 99, 992-999 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gevorgyan, A. H.

A. H. Gevorgyan, "Optical diode based on a highly anisotropic layer of a helical periodic medium subjected to a magnetic field," Tech. Phys. 47, 1008-1013 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

M. H. Song, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, "Simple electro-tunable optical diode using photonic and anisotropic liquid crystal films," Thin Solid Films 509, 49-52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

M. W. Feise, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Bistable diode action in left-handed periodic structures," Phys. Rev. E 71, 037602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, T.

Y. Tanaka, H. Takano, and T. Kurokawa, "Circular polarization resonator based on cholesteric liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1062-1067 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lakhtakia, A.

M. W. McCall and A. Lakhtakia, "Development and assessment of coupled wave theory of axial propagation in thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic media. Part 1: reflectances and transmittances," J. Mod. Optics 47, 973-991 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McCall, M. W.

M. W. McCall and A. Lakhtakia, "Development and assessment of coupled wave theory of axial propagation in thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic media. Part 1: reflectances and transmittances," J. Mod. Optics 47, 973-991 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meier, G.

R. Dreher and G. Meier, "Optical properties of cholesteric liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 8, 1616-1623 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Moreira, M. F.

M. F. Moreira, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Cao, C. Bailey, B. Taheri, and P. Palffy-Muhoray, "Cholesteric liquid-crystal laser as an optic fiber-based temperature sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2691-2693 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

M. H. Song, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, "Simple electro-tunable optical diode using photonic and anisotropic liquid crystal films," Thin Solid Films 509, 49-52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

M. F. Moreira, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Cao, C. Bailey, B. Taheri, and P. Palffy-Muhoray, "Cholesteric liquid-crystal laser as an optic fiber-based temperature sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2691-2693 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Panarin, Y.

Y. Semenova, Y. Panarin, G. Farrell, and S. Dovgalets, "Liquid crystal based optical switches," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 385-398 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

M. H. Song, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, "Simple electro-tunable optical diode using photonic and anisotropic liquid crystal films," Thin Solid Films 509, 49-52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Price, G. N.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, "Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scalora, M.

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, "The photonic band edge optical diode," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2023-2026 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scaramuzza, N.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, "Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semenova, Y.

Y. Semenova, Y. Panarin, G. Farrell, and S. Dovgalets, "Liquid crystal based optical switches," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 385-398 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shadrivov, I. V.

M. W. Feise, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Bistable diode action in left-handed periodic structures," Phys. Rev. E 71, 037602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, M. H.

M. H. Song, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, "Simple electro-tunable optical diode using photonic and anisotropic liquid crystal films," Thin Solid Films 509, 49-52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Strangi, G.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, "Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taheri, B.

M. F. Moreira, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Cao, C. Bailey, B. Taheri, and P. Palffy-Muhoray, "Cholesteric liquid-crystal laser as an optic fiber-based temperature sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2691-2693 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takanishi, Y.

M. H. Song, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, "Simple electro-tunable optical diode using photonic and anisotropic liquid crystal films," Thin Solid Films 509, 49-52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takano, H.

Y. Tanaka, H. Takano, and T. Kurokawa, "Circular polarization resonator based on cholesteric liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1062-1067 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

M. H. Song, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, "Simple electro-tunable optical diode using photonic and anisotropic liquid crystal films," Thin Solid Films 509, 49-52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

Y. Tanaka, H. Takano, and T. Kurokawa, "Circular polarization resonator based on cholesteric liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1062-1067 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Toyooka, T.

M. H. Song, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, "Simple electro-tunable optical diode using photonic and anisotropic liquid crystal films," Thin Solid Films 509, 49-52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

M. Tur, "Reflection at the boundary between glass and cholesteric liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 29, 345-359 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, "Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vardanyan, G. A.

G. A. Vardanyan and A. A. Gevorgyan, "Wave nonreciprocity in inhomogeneous gyrotropic media and multilayer systems: II. multilayer systems," Opt. Spectrosc. 99, 992-999 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Versace, C.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, "Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J. W.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Acta Cryst.

H. de Vries, "Rotatory power and other optical properties of certain liquid crystals," Acta Cryst. 4, 219-226 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. F. Moreira, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Cao, C. Bailey, B. Taheri, and P. Palffy-Muhoray, "Cholesteric liquid-crystal laser as an optic fiber-based temperature sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2691-2693 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, "The photonic band edge optical diode," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2023-2026 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Optics

M. W. McCall and A. Lakhtakia, "Development and assessment of coupled wave theory of axial propagation in thin-film helicoidal bianisotropic media. Part 1: reflectances and transmittances," J. Mod. Optics 47, 973-991 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Tanaka, H. Takano, and T. Kurokawa, "Circular polarization resonator based on cholesteric liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1062-1067 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

M. Tur, "Reflection at the boundary between glass and cholesteric liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 29, 345-359 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Y. Semenova, Y. Panarin, G. Farrell, and S. Dovgalets, "Liquid crystal based optical switches," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 385-398 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc.

G. A. Vardanyan and A. A. Gevorgyan, "Wave nonreciprocity in inhomogeneous gyrotropic media and multilayer systems: II. multilayer systems," Opt. Spectrosc. 99, 992-999 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

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M. W. Feise, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Bistable diode action in left-handed periodic structures," Phys. Rev. E 71, 037602 (2005).
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G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, "Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063903 (2005).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) PGB optical diode (OD) consisting of a half-wave plate, two quarter-wave plates, and two right-handed helical CLC layers with different pitches. The open arrows indicate the incident light propagating in directions I and II, respectively. (b) Two dispersion relations of RCP light for CLC1 and CLC2. The colored regions are the PBGs of CLC1 (blue) and CLC2 (green). (c) Dispersion curves of the OD for s-polarized incident light. Spectral positions of the PBGs depend on the direction of light propagation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectra of the OD for normal incident s-polarized light (θ=0°). (a) and (b) are the reflection and transmission spectra for light incident in direction I. (c) and (d) are those for light incident in direction II. The bold and dotted curves correspond to output reflectance and transmittance of p- and s-polarization components, respectively. The solid curves correlate to the total output reflectance and transmittance.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Scheme of a color-separating system made by using an OD as a color splitter. The sand p-polarization states of the light mixed from three colors RGB are denoted as pR , sG , sB , pRG , sRG , and sRGB .

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Same as Fig. 2, except that the s-polarized light is oblique incident at angle θ=10°.

Equations (5)

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d Ψ ( z ) dz = c Δ ( z ) Ψ ( z ) ,
1 dz ( 1 k 0 Δ ¯ ¯ H d dz E ) + k 0 Δ ¯ ¯ E E = 0 ,
Δ ¯ ¯ H = [ 0 ( k x 2 k 0 2 1 ε 1 ) 1 0 ] 1 ,
Δ ¯ ¯ E = [ 2 δ sin ϕ cos ϕ ( ε δ + 2 δ sin 2 ϕ k x 2 k 0 2 ) ( ε δ + 2 δ cos 2 ϕ ) 2 δ sin ϕ cos ϕ ] for wave plates ,
Δ ¯ ¯ E = [ sin 2 q i z ( ε δ cos 2 q i z k x 2 k 0 2 ) ( ε + δ cos 2 q i z ) sin 2 q i z ] for CLC films .

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