Abstract

We create planar-periodic alignment in nematic liquid crystal (LC) cell by using a command layer of azo-dye molecules directly deposited on the cell substrates and exposed with two interfering laser beams of opposite circular polarizations. Permanent high efficiency polarization gratings are thus created. The diffraction efficiency of those gratings is controlled by a uniform electric field applied across the cell. The electro-optical properties of such polarization gratings are studied. Obtained gratings can be used for electrically controlled discrimination and detection of polarized components of light.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. Chigrinov, Liquid Crystal Devices: Physics and Applications (Artech-House, Boston, 1999).
  2. J.L. Janning, "Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 173-174 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. "Means and method for inducing uniform parallel alignment of liquid crystal material in a liquid-crystal cell," U.S. Patent No 4,153,529 (1979).
  4. O. Yaroshchuk, R. Kravchuk, A. Dobrovolskyy, L. Qiu, and O. Lavrentovich, "Planar and tilted uniform alignment of liquid crystals by plasma-treated substrates," Liq. Cryst. 31, 859-869 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W.M. Gibbons, P.J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B.J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light", Nature 351, 49-50, (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H.S. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takade, and H. Takatsu, "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Chigrinov, A. Muravski, H.S. Kwok, H. Takada, H. Akiyama, and H. Takatsu, "Anchoring properties of photoaligned azo-dye materials," Phys Rev E 68, 061702-1-061702-5 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. V. Galstyan, B. Saad, M. M. Denariez-Roberge, "Excitation transfer from azo dye to nematic host during photoisomerization," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9319-9325 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Li, Y. Liang and I. C. Khoo, "Transient laser induced orthogonal director-axis reorientation in dye-doped liquid crystals (DDLC)," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 251, 85-92 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. I. Barnik, A. S. Zolotko, V. G. Rumyantsev, and D. B. Terskov, "Photoinduced director reorientation in azo-dye-doped nematic liquid crystal," Crystallogr. Rep. 40, 691-694 (1995).
  11. D. Dumont, T.V. Galstian, S. Senkow, and A.M. Ritcey," Liquid crystal photoalignment using new photo-isomerisable Langmuir-Blodgett films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 341-352 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Yu. Reznikov, O. Ostroverkhova, K. Singer, J.H. Kim, S. Kumar, O. Lavrentovich, B.Wang and J.West, "Photoalignment of liquid crystals by liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1930-1933 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C.-J. Yu, D.-W. Kim, J. Kim, S.-D. Lee, "Polarization-invariant grating based on a photoaligned liquid crystal in an oppositely twisted binary configuration," Opt. Lett. 30, 1995-1997 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "Electric field controlled polarization grating based on a hybrid structure "photosensitive polymer-liquid crystal,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G.P. Crawford, J.N. Eakin, M.D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R.A. Pelcovits, "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L.M. Blinov, "Permanent polarization gratings in photosensitive Langmuir-Blodgett films for polarimetric applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 19, 1157-1161 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, "Diffraction efficiency and selectivity of polarization holographic recording," Optica Acta 31, 579-588 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Tordorov and L. Nikolova, "Spectrophotopolarimeter: fast simultaneous real-time measurement of light parameters," Opt. Lett. 17, 358 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2005

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "Electric field controlled polarization grating based on a hybrid structure "photosensitive polymer-liquid crystal,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G.P. Crawford, J.N. Eakin, M.D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R.A. Pelcovits, "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-J. Yu, D.-W. Kim, J. Kim, S.-D. Lee, "Polarization-invariant grating based on a photoaligned liquid crystal in an oppositely twisted binary configuration," Opt. Lett. 30, 1995-1997 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

O. Yaroshchuk, R. Kravchuk, A. Dobrovolskyy, L. Qiu, and O. Lavrentovich, "Planar and tilted uniform alignment of liquid crystals by plasma-treated substrates," Liq. Cryst. 31, 859-869 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H.S. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takade, and H. Takatsu, "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Dumont, T.V. Galstian, S. Senkow, and A.M. Ritcey," Liquid crystal photoalignment using new photo-isomerisable Langmuir-Blodgett films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 341-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L.M. Blinov, "Permanent polarization gratings in photosensitive Langmuir-Blodgett films for polarimetric applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 19, 1157-1161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

Yu. Reznikov, O. Ostroverkhova, K. Singer, J.H. Kim, S. Kumar, O. Lavrentovich, B.Wang and J.West, "Photoalignment of liquid crystals by liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1930-1933 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

T. V. Galstyan, B. Saad, M. M. Denariez-Roberge, "Excitation transfer from azo dye to nematic host during photoisomerization," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9319-9325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. I. Barnik, A. S. Zolotko, V. G. Rumyantsev, and D. B. Terskov, "Photoinduced director reorientation in azo-dye-doped nematic liquid crystal," Crystallogr. Rep. 40, 691-694 (1995).

1994

H. Li, Y. Liang and I. C. Khoo, "Transient laser induced orthogonal director-axis reorientation in dye-doped liquid crystals (DDLC)," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 251, 85-92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

W.M. Gibbons, P.J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B.J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light", Nature 351, 49-50, (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, "Diffraction efficiency and selectivity of polarization holographic recording," Optica Acta 31, 579-588 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1972

J.L. Janning, "Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 173-174 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, H.

V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H.S. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takade, and H. Takatsu, "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arbuzov, A. V.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "Electric field controlled polarization grating based on a hybrid structure "photosensitive polymer-liquid crystal,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnik, M. I.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "Electric field controlled polarization grating based on a hybrid structure "photosensitive polymer-liquid crystal,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Barnik, A. S. Zolotko, V. G. Rumyantsev, and D. B. Terskov, "Photoinduced director reorientation in azo-dye-doped nematic liquid crystal," Crystallogr. Rep. 40, 691-694 (1995).

Blinov, L. M.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "Electric field controlled polarization grating based on a hybrid structure "photosensitive polymer-liquid crystal,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blinov, L.M.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L.M. Blinov, "Permanent polarization gratings in photosensitive Langmuir-Blodgett films for polarimetric applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 19, 1157-1161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Callan-Jones, A.

G.P. Crawford, J.N. Eakin, M.D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R.A. Pelcovits, "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V.

V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H.S. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takade, and H. Takatsu, "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, G.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "Electric field controlled polarization grating based on a hybrid structure "photosensitive polymer-liquid crystal,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L.M. Blinov, "Permanent polarization gratings in photosensitive Langmuir-Blodgett films for polarimetric applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 19, 1157-1161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G.P.

G.P. Crawford, J.N. Eakin, M.D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R.A. Pelcovits, "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Denariez-Roberge, M. M.

T. V. Galstyan, B. Saad, M. M. Denariez-Roberge, "Excitation transfer from azo dye to nematic host during photoisomerization," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9319-9325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dobrovolskyy, A.

O. Yaroshchuk, R. Kravchuk, A. Dobrovolskyy, L. Qiu, and O. Lavrentovich, "Planar and tilted uniform alignment of liquid crystals by plasma-treated substrates," Liq. Cryst. 31, 859-869 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, D.

D. Dumont, T.V. Galstian, S. Senkow, and A.M. Ritcey," Liquid crystal photoalignment using new photo-isomerisable Langmuir-Blodgett films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 341-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eakin, J.N.

G.P. Crawford, J.N. Eakin, M.D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R.A. Pelcovits, "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Galstian, T.V.

D. Dumont, T.V. Galstian, S. Senkow, and A.M. Ritcey," Liquid crystal photoalignment using new photo-isomerisable Langmuir-Blodgett films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 341-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Galstyan, T. V.

T. V. Galstyan, B. Saad, M. M. Denariez-Roberge, "Excitation transfer from azo dye to nematic host during photoisomerization," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9319-9325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gibbons, W.M.

W.M. Gibbons, P.J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B.J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light", Nature 351, 49-50, (1991).
[CrossRef]

Janning, J.L.

J.L. Janning, "Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 173-174 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kawara, T.

V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H.S. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takade, and H. Takatsu, "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

H. Li, Y. Liang and I. C. Khoo, "Transient laser induced orthogonal director-axis reorientation in dye-doped liquid crystals (DDLC)," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 251, 85-92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-W.

Kim, J.

Kim, J.H.

Yu. Reznikov, O. Ostroverkhova, K. Singer, J.H. Kim, S. Kumar, O. Lavrentovich, B.Wang and J.West, "Photoalignment of liquid crystals by liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1930-1933 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kozenkov, V.

V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H.S. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takade, and H. Takatsu, "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kravchuk, R.

O. Yaroshchuk, R. Kravchuk, A. Dobrovolskyy, L. Qiu, and O. Lavrentovich, "Planar and tilted uniform alignment of liquid crystals by plasma-treated substrates," Liq. Cryst. 31, 859-869 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

Yu. Reznikov, O. Ostroverkhova, K. Singer, J.H. Kim, S. Kumar, O. Lavrentovich, B.Wang and J.West, "Photoalignment of liquid crystals by liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1930-1933 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwok, H.S.

V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H.S. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takade, and H. Takatsu, "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lavrentovich, O.

O. Yaroshchuk, R. Kravchuk, A. Dobrovolskyy, L. Qiu, and O. Lavrentovich, "Planar and tilted uniform alignment of liquid crystals by plasma-treated substrates," Liq. Cryst. 31, 859-869 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu. Reznikov, O. Ostroverkhova, K. Singer, J.H. Kim, S. Kumar, O. Lavrentovich, B.Wang and J.West, "Photoalignment of liquid crystals by liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1930-1933 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-D.

Li, H.

H. Li, Y. Liang and I. C. Khoo, "Transient laser induced orthogonal director-axis reorientation in dye-doped liquid crystals (DDLC)," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 251, 85-92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

H. Li, Y. Liang and I. C. Khoo, "Transient laser induced orthogonal director-axis reorientation in dye-doped liquid crystals (DDLC)," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 251, 85-92 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mazzulla, A.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "Electric field controlled polarization grating based on a hybrid structure "photosensitive polymer-liquid crystal,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L.M. Blinov, "Permanent polarization gratings in photosensitive Langmuir-Blodgett films for polarimetric applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 19, 1157-1161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nikolova, L.

T. Tordorov and L. Nikolova, "Spectrophotopolarimeter: fast simultaneous real-time measurement of light parameters," Opt. Lett. 17, 358 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, "Diffraction efficiency and selectivity of polarization holographic recording," Optica Acta 31, 579-588 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ostroverkhova, O.

Yu. Reznikov, O. Ostroverkhova, K. Singer, J.H. Kim, S. Kumar, O. Lavrentovich, B.Wang and J.West, "Photoalignment of liquid crystals by liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1930-1933 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palto, S. P.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "Electric field controlled polarization grating based on a hybrid structure "photosensitive polymer-liquid crystal,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pelcovits, R.A.

G.P. Crawford, J.N. Eakin, M.D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R.A. Pelcovits, "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Provenzano, C.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "Electric field controlled polarization grating based on a hybrid structure "photosensitive polymer-liquid crystal,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prudnikova, E.

V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H.S. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takade, and H. Takatsu, "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, L.

O. Yaroshchuk, R. Kravchuk, A. Dobrovolskyy, L. Qiu, and O. Lavrentovich, "Planar and tilted uniform alignment of liquid crystals by plasma-treated substrates," Liq. Cryst. 31, 859-869 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Radcliffe, M.D.

G.P. Crawford, J.N. Eakin, M.D. Radcliffe, A. Callan-Jones, and R.A. Pelcovits, "Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings using polarization holography alignment techniques," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reznikov, Yu.

Yu. Reznikov, O. Ostroverkhova, K. Singer, J.H. Kim, S. Kumar, O. Lavrentovich, B.Wang and J.West, "Photoalignment of liquid crystals by liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1930-1933 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritcey, A.M.

D. Dumont, T.V. Galstian, S. Senkow, and A.M. Ritcey," Liquid crystal photoalignment using new photo-isomerisable Langmuir-Blodgett films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 341-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rumyantsev, V. G.

M. I. Barnik, A. S. Zolotko, V. G. Rumyantsev, and D. B. Terskov, "Photoinduced director reorientation in azo-dye-doped nematic liquid crystal," Crystallogr. Rep. 40, 691-694 (1995).

Saad, B.

T. V. Galstyan, B. Saad, M. M. Denariez-Roberge, "Excitation transfer from azo dye to nematic host during photoisomerization," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9319-9325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Senkow, S.

D. Dumont, T.V. Galstian, S. Senkow, and A.M. Ritcey," Liquid crystal photoalignment using new photo-isomerisable Langmuir-Blodgett films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 341-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, P.J.

W.M. Gibbons, P.J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B.J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light", Nature 351, 49-50, (1991).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K.

Yu. Reznikov, O. Ostroverkhova, K. Singer, J.H. Kim, S. Kumar, O. Lavrentovich, B.Wang and J.West, "Photoalignment of liquid crystals by liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1930-1933 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, S.-T.

W.M. Gibbons, P.J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B.J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light", Nature 351, 49-50, (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swetlin, B.J.

W.M. Gibbons, P.J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B.J. Swetlin, "Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light", Nature 351, 49-50, (1991).
[CrossRef]

Takade, H.

V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H.S. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takade, and H. Takatsu, "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takatsu, H.

V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H.S. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takade, and H. Takatsu, "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Terskov, D. B.

M. I. Barnik, A. S. Zolotko, V. G. Rumyantsev, and D. B. Terskov, "Photoinduced director reorientation in azo-dye-doped nematic liquid crystal," Crystallogr. Rep. 40, 691-694 (1995).

Todorov, T.

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, "Diffraction efficiency and selectivity of polarization holographic recording," Optica Acta 31, 579-588 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tordorov, T.

Umanskii, B. A.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "Electric field controlled polarization grating based on a hybrid structure "photosensitive polymer-liquid crystal,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yaroshchuk, O.

O. Yaroshchuk, R. Kravchuk, A. Dobrovolskyy, L. Qiu, and O. Lavrentovich, "Planar and tilted uniform alignment of liquid crystals by plasma-treated substrates," Liq. Cryst. 31, 859-869 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.-J.

Zolotko, A. S.

M. I. Barnik, A. S. Zolotko, V. G. Rumyantsev, and D. B. Terskov, "Photoinduced director reorientation in azo-dye-doped nematic liquid crystal," Crystallogr. Rep. 40, 691-694 (1995).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J.L. Janning, "Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 173-174 (1972).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "Electric field controlled polarization grating based on a hybrid structure "photosensitive polymer-liquid crystal,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crystallogr. Rep.

M. I. Barnik, A. S. Zolotko, V. G. Rumyantsev, and D. B. Terskov, "Photoinduced director reorientation in azo-dye-doped nematic liquid crystal," Crystallogr. Rep. 40, 691-694 (1995).

J. Appl. Phys.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The structure of sulfuric azo-dye SD1. The absorption oscillator is parallel to the molecular axis. Under the action of polarized light the SD1 molecules tend to reorient perpendicularly to the polarization of the activated light.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup; λ/2 - half wave plate for power balance between interfering beams, BE - beam expander, BS - beam splitter, PG - Glan prism, λ/4 - quarter wave plates.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Atomic Force Microscope comparative scans of the command substrate: a) pure glass substrate, b) non-exposed SD1 layer on the glass substrate, c) SD1 layer exposed with “polarization interference” patterned light, d) SD1 layer exposed with uniform plane polarized light (at normal incidence).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Microscope images of the LC cell with one substrate coated with CTAB layer and the second substrate coated with azo-dye layer and uniformly (non-patterned) irradiated with single laser beam. The polarizers of the microscope are crossed. The polarization of exposing beam was (a) parallel to one of polarizers of microscope; (b) 45° degree with respect to polarizers of microscope. The central circular structure is an artifact due to the lamp illumination.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Diffraction patterns from the LC polarization grating for different polarizations of the probe beam and voltages. a) U=0V, linear polarized (p polarization) probe; b) U=15V, linear polarized (p polarization) probe; c) U=15V, right circular polarized (RCP) probe; d) U=15V, left circular polarized (LCP) probe.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Diffraction efficiencies of the zero-order (dashed lines) and ±1 orders (solid and doted lines) as a function of the polarization state of incident light. a) no voltage is applied to the sample, b) applied voltage is 15V. The state of polarization is changed from RCP to LCP via linear polarization (p polarization).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Microscope photos of LC polarization grating: a) between crossed polarizers, b) without analyzer.

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