Abstract

We report on laser micro-welding of materials based on a localized heat accumulation effect using an amplified femtosecond Er-fiber laser with a wavelength of 1558 nm and a repetition rate of 500 kHz. We demonstrated the welding of non-alkali alumino silicate glass substrates, resulting in a joint strength of 9.87 MPa. We also welded a non-alkali glass substrate and a silicon substrate using the 1558-nm laser pulses, resulting in a joint strength of 3.74 MPa. Our laser micro-welding technique can be extended to welding of semiconductor materials and has potential for various applications, such as three-dimensional stacks and assembly of electronic devices and microelectromechanical system devices.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. W. Y. Tan and F. E. H. Tay, "Localized laser assisted eutectic bonding of quartz and silicon by Nd:YAG pulsed-laser," Sens. Actuators A 120, 550-561 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 44, L687-L689 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. B. Schaffer, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 76, 351-354 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. D. Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. R. Gattass, L. R. Cerami, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining of bulk glass with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses at variable repetition rates," Opt. Express 14, 5279-5284 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, D. Wirtmann, J. Gottmann, and F. Yoshino, "High-precision, high-throughput fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses," presented at the 4th International Congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing (LAMP2006), Kyoto, Japan, 16-19 May, 2006.
  9. J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, and C. B. Schaffer, "Three-dimensional micromaching inside transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses: new applications," presented at CLEO/QELS and PhAST 2006, California, USA, 21-26 May, 2006.
  10. S. P. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, Theory of elasticity, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York 1970).
  11. K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "In situ observation of photoinduced refractive-index changes in filaments formed in glasses by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 19-21 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Onda, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Study of filamentary damage in synthesized silica induced by chirped femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22,2437-2443 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. http://www.hoyacandeo.co.jp/english/products/opt_02.html.
  14. G. W. C. Kaye and T. H. Laby, Tables of physical and chemical constants, 16th ed. (Longman, New York 1995).
  15. T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, "Fabrication of gratings by use of femtosecond fiber laser in glass," JLMN-Journal of Laser Micro / Nanoengineering (submitted).
  16. T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, H. Nagai, M. Yoshida, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Structural modification in fused silica by a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm," Opt. Express 14, 6971-6980 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. M. Eaton, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, A. Arai, H. Zhang, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, "Thermal heating effects in writing optical waveguides with a 0.1 - 5 MHz rate ultrafast fiber laser," in Microelectronics and Photonics IV, J. Fieret, P. R. Herman, T. Okada, C. B. Arnold, F. G. Bachmann, W. Hoving, K. Washio, Y. Lu, D. B. Geohegan, F. Trager, J. J. Dubowski, eds., Proc. SPIE 5713, 35-42 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. L. Shah, A. Y. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 1999-2006 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. J. Wild, A. Gillner, and R. Poprawe, "Locally selective bonding of silicon and glass with laser," Sens. Actuators A 93, 63-69 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Gillner, J. Holtkamp, C. Hartmann, A. Olowinsky, J. Gedicke, K. Klages, L. Bosse, and A. Bayer, "Laser applications in microtechnology," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 167, 494-498 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. V. Shank, R. Yen, and C. Hirlimann, "Time-resolved reflectivity measurements of femtosecond-optical-pulse-induced phase transitions in silicon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454-457 (1983).
    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

L. Shah, A. Y. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 1999-2006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Onda, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Study of filamentary damage in synthesized silica induced by chirped femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22,2437-2443 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Y. Tan and F. E. H. Tay, "Localized laser assisted eutectic bonding of quartz and silicon by Nd:YAG pulsed-laser," Sens. Actuators A 120, 550-561 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 44, L687-L689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Gillner, J. Holtkamp, C. Hartmann, A. Olowinsky, J. Gedicke, K. Klages, L. Bosse, and A. Bayer, "Laser applications in microtechnology," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 167, 494-498 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

2001

1983

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, and C. Hirlimann, "Time-resolved reflectivity measurements of femtosecond-optical-pulse-induced phase transitions in silicon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454-457 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A. Y.

Bayer, A.

A. Gillner, J. Holtkamp, C. Hartmann, A. Olowinsky, J. Gedicke, K. Klages, L. Bosse, and A. Bayer, "Laser applications in microtechnology," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 167, 494-498 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bosse, L.

A. Gillner, J. Holtkamp, C. Hartmann, A. Olowinsky, J. Gedicke, K. Klages, L. Bosse, and A. Bayer, "Laser applications in microtechnology," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 167, 494-498 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bovatsek, J.

Brodeur, A.

Cerami, L. R.

Cerullo, G.

Eaton, S. M.

García, J. F.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95(2001).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

Gedicke, J.

A. Gillner, J. Holtkamp, C. Hartmann, A. Olowinsky, J. Gedicke, K. Klages, L. Bosse, and A. Bayer, "Laser applications in microtechnology," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 167, 494-498 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gillner, A.

A. Gillner, J. Holtkamp, C. Hartmann, A. Olowinsky, J. Gedicke, K. Klages, L. Bosse, and A. Bayer, "Laser applications in microtechnology," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 167, 494-498 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Wild, A. Gillner, and R. Poprawe, "Locally selective bonding of silicon and glass with laser," Sens. Actuators A 93, 63-69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, C.

A. Gillner, J. Holtkamp, C. Hartmann, A. Olowinsky, J. Gedicke, K. Klages, L. Bosse, and A. Bayer, "Laser applications in microtechnology," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 167, 494-498 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Hirlimann, C.

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, and C. Hirlimann, "Time-resolved reflectivity measurements of femtosecond-optical-pulse-induced phase transitions in silicon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454-457 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Holtkamp, J.

A. Gillner, J. Holtkamp, C. Hartmann, A. Olowinsky, J. Gedicke, K. Klages, L. Bosse, and A. Bayer, "Laser applications in microtechnology," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 167, 494-498 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Klages, K.

A. Gillner, J. Holtkamp, C. Hartmann, A. Olowinsky, J. Gedicke, K. Klages, L. Bosse, and A. Bayer, "Laser applications in microtechnology," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 167, 494-498 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

Marangoni, M.

Mazur, E.

Nagai, H.

Nishii, J.

Olowinsky, A.

A. Gillner, J. Holtkamp, C. Hartmann, A. Olowinsky, J. Gedicke, K. Klages, L. Bosse, and A. Bayer, "Laser applications in microtechnology," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 167, 494-498 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Onda, S.

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Onda, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Study of filamentary damage in synthesized silica induced by chirped femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22,2437-2443 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

Polli, D.

Poprawe, R.

M. J. Wild, A. Gillner, and R. Poprawe, "Locally selective bonding of silicon and glass with laser," Sens. Actuators A 93, 63-69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95(2001).
[CrossRef]

Shah, L.

Shank, C. V.

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, and C. Hirlimann, "Time-resolved reflectivity measurements of femtosecond-optical-pulse-induced phase transitions in silicon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454-457 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Silvestri, S. D.

Taccheo, S.

Tamaki, T.

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, H. Nagai, M. Yoshida, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Structural modification in fused silica by a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm," Opt. Express 14, 6971-6980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 44, L687-L689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tan, A. W. Y.

A. W. Y. Tan and F. E. H. Tay, "Localized laser assisted eutectic bonding of quartz and silicon by Nd:YAG pulsed-laser," Sens. Actuators A 120, 550-561 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tay, F. E. H.

A. W. Y. Tan and F. E. H. Tay, "Localized laser assisted eutectic bonding of quartz and silicon by Nd:YAG pulsed-laser," Sens. Actuators A 120, 550-561 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toma, T.

Watanabe, W.

Wild, M. J.

M. J. Wild, A. Gillner, and R. Poprawe, "Locally selective bonding of silicon and glass with laser," Sens. Actuators A 93, 63-69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Yen, R.

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, and C. Hirlimann, "Time-resolved reflectivity measurements of femtosecond-optical-pulse-induced phase transitions in silicon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454-457 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

Yoshino, F.

Zhang, H.

Appl. Phys. A

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Process. Technol.

A. Gillner, J. Holtkamp, C. Hartmann, A. Olowinsky, J. Gedicke, K. Klages, L. Bosse, and A. Bayer, "Laser applications in microtechnology," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 167, 494-498 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 44, L687-L689 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, and C. Hirlimann, "Time-resolved reflectivity measurements of femtosecond-optical-pulse-induced phase transitions in silicon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454-457 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A

A. W. Y. Tan and F. E. H. Tay, "Localized laser assisted eutectic bonding of quartz and silicon by Nd:YAG pulsed-laser," Sens. Actuators A 120, 550-561 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Wild, A. Gillner, and R. Poprawe, "Locally selective bonding of silicon and glass with laser," Sens. Actuators A 93, 63-69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, D. Wirtmann, J. Gottmann, and F. Yoshino, "High-precision, high-throughput fusion welding of glass using femtosecond laser pulses," presented at the 4th International Congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing (LAMP2006), Kyoto, Japan, 16-19 May, 2006.

J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, and C. B. Schaffer, "Three-dimensional micromaching inside transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses: new applications," presented at CLEO/QELS and PhAST 2006, California, USA, 21-26 May, 2006.

S. P. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, Theory of elasticity, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York 1970).

http://www.hoyacandeo.co.jp/english/products/opt_02.html.

G. W. C. Kaye and T. H. Laby, Tables of physical and chemical constants, 16th ed. (Longman, New York 1995).

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, "Fabrication of gratings by use of femtosecond fiber laser in glass," JLMN-Journal of Laser Micro / Nanoengineering (submitted).

S. M. Eaton, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, A. Arai, H. Zhang, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, "Thermal heating effects in writing optical waveguides with a 0.1 - 5 MHz rate ultrafast fiber laser," in Microelectronics and Photonics IV, J. Fieret, P. R. Herman, T. Okada, C. B. Arnold, F. G. Bachmann, W. Hoving, K. Washio, Y. Lu, D. B. Geohegan, F. Trager, J. J. Dubowski, eds., Proc. SPIE 5713, 35-42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of laser micro-welding of two substrates. (a) Two stacked substrates. (b) Fixing of two substrates using sample holder and a pressing lens. (c) Welding of two substrates by focusing femtosecond laser pulses at the interface between the two substrates.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of welding volumes (a) in the xy-plane and (b) in the yz-plane.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic diagram of a tensile tester.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). Optical images of the refractive-index change in the xy-plane as a function of exposure time. (b) Dependence of the diameter on the exposure time.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical images of the welding volumes produced at the scan speed of 20 μm/s in the xy-plane and in the xz-plane. Dashed line in (b) shows the welding volumes.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Optical image of welding volume in the xz-plane produced at a scan speed of 200 μm/s and a repetition rate of 500 kHz. The input energy was 0.8 μJ/pulse.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Young′s moduli and Poisson′s ratios for the materials used.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

W = 4 3 a 3 r 1 1 v 1 2 E 1 + 1 v 1 2 E 2 ,
P mean = 4 3 π a r 1 1 v 1 2 E 1 + 1 v 2 2 E 2 ,
P max = 1.5 P mean ,

Metrics