Abstract

We report on the fabrication of high quality embedded channel waveguides inside Bi-doped silicate glass using femtosecond waveguide inscription. Waveguides are fabricated using both single and multi-scan fabrication techniques. Refractive index modifications of up to ∆n = 4.3×10-3 are observed, allowing the fabrication of waveguides nearly mode-matched to telecom fibers. When optically pumped at 980 and 810 nm broadband fluorescence emission centered at 1.3 μm with a FWHM of up to 500 nm is detected.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. C.B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J.F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26,93-95 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77,109-111 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Shah, A.Y. Arai, S.M. Eaton, and P.R. Herman, "Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, (2005) 1999-2006
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R.R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I.J. Blewett, A.K. Kar, and D.T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,111109 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12,277-285 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, "C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Express 13,5976-5982 (2005)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R.R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Active waveguide fabrication in erbium doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,121102 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyflouride-silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Liu, Z. Zhang, C. Flueraru, X. Liu, S. Chang and C. Grover, "Waveguide Shaping and Writing in Fused Silica Using a Femtosecond Laser." IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10,169-173 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Batchelor, W.J. Chung, S. Shen, and A. Jha, "Enhanced room-temperature emission in Cr4+ ions containing alumino-silicate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,4035-4037 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, "Broadband infrared luminescence from Li2O-Al2O3-ZnO-SiO2 glasses doped with Bi2O3," Opt. Express 13,6892-6898 (2005)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. X. Meng, J. Qiu, M. Peng, D. Chen, Q. Zhao, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, "Near infrared broadband emission of bismuth-doped aluminophosphate glass," Opt. Express 13,1628-1634 (2005)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, "Superbroadband 1310 nm emission from bismuth and tantalum codoped germanium oxide glasses," Opt. Lett. 30,2433-2435 (2005)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. Meng, J. Qiu, M. Peng, D. Chen, Q. Zhao, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, "Infrared broadband emission of bismuthdoped barium-aluminum-borate glasses," Opt. Express 13,1635-1642 (2005)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. Suzuki and Y. Ohishi, "Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,191912 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Fujimoto and M. Nakatsuka, "Optical Amplification in bismuth-doped silica glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,3325-3326 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur-yanov, "CW bismuth fibre laser," Quantum Electron. 35,1083-1084 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku and Y. Hibino, "Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar lightwave circuit," Opt. Lett. 30,723-725 (2005)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

R.R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I.J. Blewett, A.K. Kar, and D.T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,111109 (2006)
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12,277-285 (2006)
[CrossRef]

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyflouride-silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006)
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki and Y. Ohishi, "Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,191912 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005 (9)

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur-yanov, "CW bismuth fibre laser," Quantum Electron. 35,1083-1084 (2005)
[CrossRef]

R.R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Active waveguide fabrication in erbium doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,121102 (2005)
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, J. Qiu, M. Peng, D. Chen, Q. Zhao, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, "Near infrared broadband emission of bismuth-doped aluminophosphate glass," Opt. Express 13,1628-1634 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Meng, J. Qiu, M. Peng, D. Chen, Q. Zhao, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, "Infrared broadband emission of bismuthdoped barium-aluminum-borate glasses," Opt. Express 13,1635-1642 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Shah, A.Y. Arai, S.M. Eaton, and P.R. Herman, "Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, (2005) 1999-2006
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku and Y. Hibino, "Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar lightwave circuit," Opt. Lett. 30,723-725 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, "Superbroadband 1310 nm emission from bismuth and tantalum codoped germanium oxide glasses," Opt. Lett. 30,2433-2435 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, "C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Express 13,5976-5982 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, "Broadband infrared luminescence from Li2O-Al2O3-ZnO-SiO2 glasses doped with Bi2O3," Opt. Express 13,6892-6898 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Liu, Z. Zhang, C. Flueraru, X. Liu, S. Chang and C. Grover, "Waveguide Shaping and Writing in Fused Silica Using a Femtosecond Laser." IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10,169-173 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

C. Batchelor, W.J. Chung, S. Shen, and A. Jha, "Enhanced room-temperature emission in Cr4+ ions containing alumino-silicate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,4035-4037 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Y. Fujimoto and M. Nakatsuka, "Optical Amplification in bismuth-doped silica glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,3325-3326 (2003)
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77,109-111 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Arai, A.Y.

Batchelor, C.

C. Batchelor, W.J. Chung, S. Shen, and A. Jha, "Enhanced room-temperature emission in Cr4+ ions containing alumino-silicate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,4035-4037 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Blewett, I. J.

R.R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Active waveguide fabrication in erbium doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,121102 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Blewett, I.J.

R.R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I.J. Blewett, A.K. Kar, and D.T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,111109 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Bookey, H. T.

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyflouride-silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, A.

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77,109-111 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Campbell, S.

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyflouride-silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006)
[CrossRef]

R.R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I.J. Blewett, A.K. Kar, and D.T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,111109 (2006)
[CrossRef]

R.R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Active waveguide fabrication in erbium doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,121102 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12,277-285 (2006)
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, "C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Express 13,5976-5982 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S.

J. Liu, Z. Zhang, C. Flueraru, X. Liu, S. Chang and C. Grover, "Waveguide Shaping and Writing in Fused Silica Using a Femtosecond Laser." IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10,169-173 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Chiodo, N.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12,277-285 (2006)
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, "C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Express 13,5976-5982 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, W.J.

C. Batchelor, W.J. Chung, S. Shen, and A. Jha, "Enhanced room-temperature emission in Cr4+ ions containing alumino-silicate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,4035-4037 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Della Valle, G.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12,277-285 (2006)
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, "C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Express 13,5976-5982 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur-yanov, "CW bismuth fibre laser," Quantum Electron. 35,1083-1084 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Dvoyrin, V. V.

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur-yanov, "CW bismuth fibre laser," Quantum Electron. 35,1083-1084 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S.M.

Flueraru, C.

J. Liu, Z. Zhang, C. Flueraru, X. Liu, S. Chang and C. Grover, "Waveguide Shaping and Writing in Fused Silica Using a Femtosecond Laser." IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10,169-173 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, Y.

Y. Fujimoto and M. Nakatsuka, "Optical Amplification in bismuth-doped silica glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,3325-3326 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Garcia, J.F.

Grover, C.

J. Liu, Z. Zhang, C. Flueraru, X. Liu, S. Chang and C. Grover, "Waveguide Shaping and Writing in Fused Silica Using a Femtosecond Laser." IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10,169-173 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Gur-yanov, A. N.

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur-yanov, "CW bismuth fibre laser," Quantum Electron. 35,1083-1084 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Herman, P.R.

Hibino, Y.

Jha, A.

C. Batchelor, W.J. Chung, S. Shen, and A. Jha, "Enhanced room-temperature emission in Cr4+ ions containing alumino-silicate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,4035-4037 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

Kar, A. K.

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyflouride-silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006)
[CrossRef]

R.R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Active waveguide fabrication in erbium doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,121102 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Kar, A.K.

R.R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I.J. Blewett, A.K. Kar, and D.T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,111109 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Killi, A.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12,277-285 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Kohtoku, M.

Laporta, P.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12,277-285 (2006)
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, "C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Express 13,5976-5982 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, Z. Zhang, C. Flueraru, X. Liu, S. Chang and C. Grover, "Waveguide Shaping and Writing in Fused Silica Using a Femtosecond Laser." IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10,169-173 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

J. Liu, Z. Zhang, C. Flueraru, X. Liu, S. Chang and C. Grover, "Waveguide Shaping and Writing in Fused Silica Using a Femtosecond Laser." IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10,169-173 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Mashinsky, V. M.

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur-yanov, "CW bismuth fibre laser," Quantum Electron. 35,1083-1084 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Meng, X.

Morgner, U.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12,277-285 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, M.

Y. Fujimoto and M. Nakatsuka, "Optical Amplification in bismuth-doped silica glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,3325-3326 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Nasu, Y.

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77,109-111 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

T. Suzuki and Y. Ohishi, "Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,191912 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12,277-285 (2006)
[CrossRef]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, "C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Express 13,5976-5982 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, M.

Psaila, N.

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyflouride-silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12,277-285 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Reid, D. T.

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyflouride-silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006)
[CrossRef]

R.R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Active waveguide fabrication in erbium doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,121102 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Reid, D.T.

R.R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I.J. Blewett, A.K. Kar, and D.T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,111109 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C.B.

Shah, L.

Shen, S.

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyflouride-silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006)
[CrossRef]

C. Batchelor, W.J. Chung, S. Shen, and A. Jha, "Enhanced room-temperature emission in Cr4+ ions containing alumino-silicate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,4035-4037 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

T. Suzuki and Y. Ohishi, "Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,191912 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12,277-285 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, S.

Thomson, R. R.

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyflouride-silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Thomson, R.R.

R.R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I.J. Blewett, A.K. Kar, and D.T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,111109 (2006)
[CrossRef]

R.R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Active waveguide fabrication in erbium doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,121102 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77,109-111 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Umnikov, A. A.

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur-yanov, "CW bismuth fibre laser," Quantum Electron. 35,1083-1084 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77,109-111 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Yashkov, M. V.

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur-yanov, "CW bismuth fibre laser," Quantum Electron. 35,1083-1084 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

J. Liu, Z. Zhang, C. Flueraru, X. Liu, S. Chang and C. Grover, "Waveguide Shaping and Writing in Fused Silica Using a Femtosecond Laser." IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10,169-173 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q.

Zhu, C.

Appl. Phys. A (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77,109-111 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

R.R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I.J. Blewett, A.K. Kar, and D.T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,111109 (2006)
[CrossRef]

R.R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Active waveguide fabrication in erbium doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,121102 (2005)
[CrossRef]

C. Batchelor, W.J. Chung, S. Shen, and A. Jha, "Enhanced room-temperature emission in Cr4+ ions containing alumino-silicate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,4035-4037 (2003)
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki and Y. Ohishi, "Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,191912 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Y. Fujimoto and M. Nakatsuka, "Optical Amplification in bismuth-doped silica glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,3325-3326 (2003)
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Liu, Z. Zhang, C. Flueraru, X. Liu, S. Chang and C. Grover, "Waveguide Shaping and Writing in Fused Silica Using a Femtosecond Laser." IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10,169-173 (2004)
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyflouride-silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006)
[CrossRef]

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12,277-285 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Quantum Electron. (1)

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur-yanov, "CW bismuth fibre laser," Quantum Electron. 35,1083-1084 (2005)
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental arrangement for waveguide fabrication

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

a) Facet image of the optimal single-scan WG, b) Facet image of the the optimal multi-scan WG, c) Refractive index profile of the optimal single-scan WG, d) Refractive index profile of the optimal multi-scan WG, e) Near-field mode image of the optimal single-scan WG, f) Near-field mode image of the optimal multi-scan WG

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Refractive index profile of the building block scan used to fabricate the optimal multi-scan WG

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Upconversion observed when pumping the optimal multi-scan waveguide with 220 mW at 980 nm. The pump light enters the sample from the right hand side.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Fluorescence spectra of the optimal single-scan waveguide pumped at 810 nm and 980 nm.

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