Abstract

We experimentally measure and theoretically model the light transmission characteristics of subwavelength apertures. The characterization consists of translating a point source at varying vertical height and lateral displacement from the aperture and measuring the resulting transmission. We define the variation of the transmission with lateral source displacement as the collection mode point spread function (CPSF). This transmission geometry is particularly relevant to subwavelength aperture based imaging devices and enables determination of their resolution. This study shows that the achieved resolutions degrade as a function of sample height and that the behavior of sensor devices based on the use of apertures for detection is different from those devices where the apertures are used as light sources. In addition, we find that the measured CPSF is dependent on the collection numerical aperture (NA). Finally, we establish that resolution beyond the diffraction limit for a nominal optical wavelength of 650 nm and nominal medium refractive index of 1.5 is achievable with subwavelength aperture based devices when the aperture size is smaller than 225 nm.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: Utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6, 355-360, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis and C. Yang, "Optofluidic microscopy- a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip," Lab on a Chip 6, 1274 - 1276, (2006).

2005

M. G. L. Gustafsson, "Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: Wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102, 13081-13086, (2005).

E. Popov, M. Neviere, P. Boyer and N. Bonod, "Light transmission through a subwavelength hole," Opt. Commun. 255, 338-348, (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. F. Xu, "Obtaining super resolution light spot using surface plasmon assisted sharp ridge nanoaperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wenger, P. F. Lenne, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, J. Dintinger and T. W. Ebbesen, "Single molecule fluorescence in rectangular nano-apertures," Opt. Express 13, 7035-7044, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

H. J. Lezec and T. Thio, "Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 12, 3629-3651, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films," Langmuir 20, 4813-4815, (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247, (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Shi, L. Hesselink and R. L. Thornton, "Ultrahigh light transmission through a C-shaped nanoaperture," Opt. Lett. 28, 1320-1322, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead and W. W. Webb, "Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations," Science 299, 682-686, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822, (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. O. Tegenfeldt, O. Bakajin, C. F. Chou, S. S. Chan, R. Austin, W. Fann, L. Liou, E. Chan, T. Duke and E. C. Cox, "Near-field scanner for moving molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1378-1381, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester and J. H. J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517, (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, "Radiation force exerted on subwavelength particles near a nanoaperture," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4534-4537, (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. Thio and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beyond the Bethe limit: Tunable enhanced light transmission through a single sub-wavelength aperture," Adv. Mater. 11, 860-862, (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669, (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Collino and P. Monk, "The perfectly matched layer in curvilinear coordinates," SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing 19, 2061-2090, (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. D. Gedney, "An anisotropic perfectly matched layer-absorbing medium for the truncation of FDTD lattices," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 44, 1630-1639, (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berenger, "Three-dimensional perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comp. Phys. 127, 363-379, (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. P. Tsai, A. Othonos, M. Moskovits and D. Uttamchandani, "Raman-Spectroscopy Using a Fiber Optic Probe with Subwavelength Aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1768-1770, (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hell and J. Wichmann, "Breaking the Diffraction Resolution Limit by Stimulated-Emission - Stimulated-Emission-Depletion Fluorescence Microscopy," Opt. Lett. 19, 780-782, (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the Diffraction Barrier - Optical Microscopy on a Nanometric Scale," Science 251, 1468-1470, (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1954

Akhremitchev, B. B.

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R.

J. O. Tegenfeldt, O. Bakajin, C. F. Chou, S. S. Chan, R. Austin, W. Fann, L. Liou, E. Chan, T. Duke and E. C. Cox, "Near-field scanner for moving molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1378-1381, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bain, J. A.

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bakajin, O.

J. O. Tegenfeldt, O. Bakajin, C. F. Chou, S. S. Chan, R. Austin, W. Fann, L. Liou, E. Chan, T. Duke and E. C. Cox, "Near-field scanner for moving molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1378-1381, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldwin, K.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester and J. H. J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baugh, L. R.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis and C. Yang, "Optofluidic microscopy- a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip," Lab on a Chip 6, 1274 - 1276, (2006).

Berenger, J. P.

J. P. Berenger, "Three-dimensional perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comp. Phys. 127, 363-379, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the Diffraction Barrier - Optical Microscopy on a Nanometric Scale," Science 251, 1468-1470, (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonod, N.

E. Popov, M. Neviere, P. Boyer and N. Bonod, "Light transmission through a subwavelength hole," Opt. Commun. 255, 338-348, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, P.

E. Popov, M. Neviere, P. Boyer and N. Bonod, "Light transmission through a subwavelength hole," Opt. Commun. 255, 338-348, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brolo, A. G.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films," Langmuir 20, 4813-4815, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, E.

J. O. Tegenfeldt, O. Bakajin, C. F. Chou, S. S. Chan, R. Austin, W. Fann, L. Liou, E. Chan, T. Duke and E. C. Cox, "Near-field scanner for moving molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1378-1381, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, S. S.

J. O. Tegenfeldt, O. Bakajin, C. F. Chou, S. S. Chan, R. Austin, W. Fann, L. Liou, E. Chan, T. Duke and E. C. Cox, "Near-field scanner for moving molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1378-1381, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chichester, R.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester and J. H. J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C. F.

J. O. Tegenfeldt, O. Bakajin, C. F. Chou, S. S. Chan, R. Austin, W. Fann, L. Liou, E. Chan, T. Duke and E. C. Cox, "Near-field scanner for moving molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1378-1381, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collino, F.

F. Collino and P. Monk, "The perfectly matched layer in curvilinear coordinates," SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing 19, 2061-2090, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Conley, N. R.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: Utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6, 355-360, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, E. C.

J. O. Tegenfeldt, O. Bakajin, C. F. Chou, S. S. Chan, R. Austin, W. Fann, L. Liou, E. Chan, T. Duke and E. C. Cox, "Near-field scanner for moving molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1378-1381, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Craighead, H. G.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead and W. W. Webb, "Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations," Science 299, 682-686, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degiron, A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822, (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822, (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhar, L.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester and J. H. J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dintinger, J.

Duke, T.

J. O. Tegenfeldt, O. Bakajin, C. F. Chou, S. S. Chan, R. Austin, W. Fann, L. Liou, E. Chan, T. Duke and E. C. Cox, "Near-field scanner for moving molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1378-1381, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

J. Wenger, P. F. Lenne, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, J. Dintinger and T. W. Ebbesen, "Single molecule fluorescence in rectangular nano-apertures," Opt. Express 13, 7035-7044, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822, (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. Thio and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beyond the Bethe limit: Tunable enhanced light transmission through a single sub-wavelength aperture," Adv. Mater. 11, 860-862, (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, D.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis and C. Yang, "Optofluidic microscopy- a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip," Lab on a Chip 6, 1274 - 1276, (2006).

Fann, W.

J. O. Tegenfeldt, O. Bakajin, C. F. Chou, S. S. Chan, R. Austin, W. Fann, L. Liou, E. Chan, T. Duke and E. C. Cox, "Near-field scanner for moving molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1378-1381, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foquet, M.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead and W. W. Webb, "Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations," Science 299, 682-686, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fromm, D. P.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: Utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6, 355-360, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822, (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gedney, S. D.

S. D. Gedney, "An anisotropic perfectly matched layer-absorbing medium for the truncation of FDTD lattices," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 44, 1630-1639, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films," Langmuir 20, 4813-4815, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grupp, E.

E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. Thio and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beyond the Bethe limit: Tunable enhanced light transmission through a single sub-wavelength aperture," Adv. Mater. 11, 860-862, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, M. G. L.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, "Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: Wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102, 13081-13086, (2005).

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the Diffraction Barrier - Optical Microscopy on a Nanometric Scale," Science 251, 1468-1470, (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hell, S. W.

Heng, X.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis and C. Yang, "Optofluidic microscopy- a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip," Lab on a Chip 6, 1274 - 1276, (2006).

Hesselink, L.

Hobson, W. S.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester and J. H. J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, L.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester and J. H. J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Itagi, A.

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jin, E. X.

E. X. Jin and X. F. Xu, "Obtaining super resolution light spot using surface plasmon assisted sharp ridge nanoaperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kavanagh, K. L.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films," Langmuir 20, 4813-4815, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, "Radiation force exerted on subwavelength particles near a nanoaperture," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4534-4537, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: Utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6, 355-360, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korlach, J.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead and W. W. Webb, "Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations," Science 299, 682-686, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the Diffraction Barrier - Optical Microscopy on a Nanometric Scale," Science 251, 1468-1470, (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leathem, B.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films," Langmuir 20, 4813-4815, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lenne, P. F.

Levene, M. J.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead and W. W. Webb, "Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations," Science 299, 682-686, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec and T. Thio, "Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 12, 3629-3651, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822, (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. Thio and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beyond the Bethe limit: Tunable enhanced light transmission through a single sub-wavelength aperture," Adv. Mater. 11, 860-862, (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822, (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liou, L.

J. O. Tegenfeldt, O. Bakajin, C. F. Chou, S. S. Chan, R. Austin, W. Fann, L. Liou, E. Chan, T. Duke and E. C. Cox, "Near-field scanner for moving molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1378-1381, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopata, J.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester and J. H. J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822, (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: Utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6, 355-360, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monk, P.

F. Collino and P. Monk, "The perfectly matched layer in curvilinear coordinates," SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing 19, 2061-2090, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moskovits, M.

D. P. Tsai, A. Othonos, M. Moskovits and D. Uttamchandani, "Raman-Spectroscopy Using a Fiber Optic Probe with Subwavelength Aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1768-1770, (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murray, C. A.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester and J. H. J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neviere, M.

E. Popov, M. Neviere, P. Boyer and N. Bonod, "Light transmission through a subwavelength hole," Opt. Commun. 255, 338-348, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, "Radiation force exerted on subwavelength particles near a nanoaperture," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4534-4537, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Othonos, A.

D. P. Tsai, A. Othonos, M. Moskovits and D. Uttamchandani, "Raman-Spectroscopy Using a Fiber Optic Probe with Subwavelength Aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1768-1770, (1994).
[CrossRef]

Partovi, A.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester and J. H. J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peale, D.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester and J. H. J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Popov, E.

Psaltis, D.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis and C. Yang, "Optofluidic microscopy- a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip," Lab on a Chip 6, 1274 - 1276, (2006).

Rigneault, H.

Schlesinger, T. E.

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: Utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6, 355-360, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, L. G.

Shi, X. L.

Stancil, D. D.

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stebounova, L.

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sternberg, P. W.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis and C. Yang, "Optofluidic microscopy- a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip," Lab on a Chip 6, 1274 - 1276, (2006).

Sundaramurthy, A.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: Utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6, 355-360, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tangherlini, F. R.

Tegenfeldt, J. O.

J. O. Tegenfeldt, O. Bakajin, C. F. Chou, S. S. Chan, R. Austin, W. Fann, L. Liou, E. Chan, T. Duke and E. C. Cox, "Near-field scanner for moving molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1378-1381, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

H. J. Lezec and T. Thio, "Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 12, 3629-3651, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. Thio and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beyond the Bethe limit: Tunable enhanced light transmission through a single sub-wavelength aperture," Adv. Mater. 11, 860-862, (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, R. L.

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the Diffraction Barrier - Optical Microscopy on a Nanometric Scale," Science 251, 1468-1470, (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, D. P.

D. P. Tsai, A. Othonos, M. Moskovits and D. Uttamchandani, "Raman-Spectroscopy Using a Fiber Optic Probe with Subwavelength Aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1768-1770, (1994).
[CrossRef]

Turner, S. W.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead and W. W. Webb, "Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations," Science 299, 682-686, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uttamchandani, D.

D. P. Tsai, A. Othonos, M. Moskovits and D. Uttamchandani, "Raman-Spectroscopy Using a Fiber Optic Probe with Subwavelength Aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1768-1770, (1994).
[CrossRef]

Walker, G. C.

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead and W. W. Webb, "Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations," Science 299, 682-686, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the Diffraction Barrier - Optical Microscopy on a Nanometric Scale," Science 251, 1468-1470, (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenger, J.

Wichmann, J.

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wuttig, M.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester and J. H. J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wynn, J.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester and J. H. J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. F.

E. X. Jin and X. F. Xu, "Obtaining super resolution light spot using surface plasmon assisted sharp ridge nanoaperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis and C. Yang, "Optofluidic microscopy- a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip," Lab on a Chip 6, 1274 - 1276, (2006).

Yaqoob, Z.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis and C. Yang, "Optofluidic microscopy- a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip," Lab on a Chip 6, 1274 - 1276, (2006).

Yeh, J. H. J.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester and J. H. J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zydzik, G.

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester and J. H. J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. Thio and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beyond the Bethe limit: Tunable enhanced light transmission through a single sub-wavelength aperture," Adv. Mater. 11, 860-862, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. X. Jin and X. F. Xu, "Obtaining super resolution light spot using surface plasmon assisted sharp ridge nanoaperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Tsai, A. Othonos, M. Moskovits and D. Uttamchandani, "Raman-Spectroscopy Using a Fiber Optic Probe with Subwavelength Aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1768-1770, (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Partovi, D. Peale, M. Wuttig, C. A. Murray, G. Zydzik, L. Hopkins, K. Baldwin, W. S. Hobson, J. Wynn, J. Lopata, L. Dhar, R. Chichester and J. H. J. Yeh, "High-power laser light source for near-field optics and its application to high-density optical data storage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1515-1517, (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247, (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

S. D. Gedney, "An anisotropic perfectly matched layer-absorbing medium for the truncation of FDTD lattices," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 44, 1630-1639, (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Comp. Phys.

J. P. Berenger, "Three-dimensional perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comp. Phys. 127, 363-379, (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Lab on a Chip

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis and C. Yang, "Optofluidic microscopy- a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip," Lab on a Chip 6, 1274 - 1276, (2006).

Langmuir

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films," Langmuir 20, 4813-4815, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: Utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6, 355-360, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

E. Popov, M. Neviere, P. Boyer and N. Bonod, "Light transmission through a subwavelength hole," Opt. Commun. 255, 338-348, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. O. Tegenfeldt, O. Bakajin, C. F. Chou, S. S. Chan, R. Austin, W. Fann, L. Liou, E. Chan, T. Duke and E. C. Cox, "Near-field scanner for moving molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1378-1381, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, "Radiation force exerted on subwavelength particles near a nanoaperture," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4534-4537, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

M. G. L. Gustafsson, "Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: Wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102, 13081-13086, (2005).

Science

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the Diffraction Barrier - Optical Microscopy on a Nanometric Scale," Science 251, 1468-1470, (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822, (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead and W. W. Webb, "Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations," Science 299, 682-686, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing

F. Collino and P. Monk, "The perfectly matched layer in curvilinear coordinates," SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing 19, 2061-2090, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Jin, The finite element method in electromagnetics (2nd edition, New York: Wiley, 2002.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Two schemes of subwavelength aperture based imaging devices (ABIDs): (a) type-I, (b) type-II. H: vertical separation of point from aperture. x: the lateral displacement of point detector/source from the aperture.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Illustration of the experimental scheme. The NSOM tip scans over the subwavelength aperture (diameter: D) milled in a thin aluminum film (thickness: t) at a constant height (H). Substrate is an ultra-clean quartz wafer. x: the lateral distance between the NSOM tip and the aperture center. (b) SEM image of a FIB milled aperture; D=100 nm. (c) SEM image of a NSOM tip with a diameter of ~100 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

NSOM measurements of a subwavelength aperture (D= 300 nm). (a1) An illustration of the experimental scheme, with the NSOM tip engaged in the near field; (a2) the collected NSOM image with the experimental geometry shown in (a1); (a3) the CPSF curve extracted from the NSOM image shown in (a2). (b1) - (b3) The corresponding geometry and data with H = 460 nm. (c1) - (c3) The corresponding geometry and data with H = 1150 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic of the simulation geometry. The arrows indicate the movement of the light source in the simulation space. The detection plane is 0.2μm underneath the subwavelength aperture. H1 = 0.2μm (distance between metal’s bottom surface and the detector plane). D, H and x are defined the same way as those in Fig. 2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Examples of the simulation results with all three polarizations considered. (a) Cross sectional plot of power flow (|S|), time averaged; H=50 nm, D= 300 nm, x= 0. (c) Plot of |S| on the detector plane. (b) and (d) show the corresponding plots when x is changed to x = -0.15 μm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a)-(c) Simulation generated CPSF plots for source at different heights from the aperture. The blue cross and the red cross indicate the transmissions corresponding to the point source geometries in Fig. 5(a) and Fig. 5(b), respectively.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(log-log scale): CPSF’s FWHM versus the gap height (H) for a range of aperture sizes (realistic NSOM tip scenario). The lines represent simulation results and the circles represent experimental data. To match with the experimental conditions, only the line sources at lateral directions (i.e. x and y) were considered. The simulation model was adapted to match with the NSOM radiation characteristics. The collection N.A. for the transmission is effectively unity.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(log-log scale): CPSF’s FWHM versus the gap height (H) for a range of aperture sizes (effective point source scenario). The lines represent simulation results and the circles represent experimental data. Line sources of all three orientations were considered - the light source is modeled as an effective isotropic point source. Black line: the far field trend of large apertures (FWHM ~ 1.53 H). The collection N.A. for the transmission is effectively unity.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a), (b) 2D cross sectional plots of power flow, |S| for two different lateral displacements. The source lateral displacement is 0 in (a) and -500nm in (b). Aperture size is 300 nm; H= 1150 nm. (c) Light collection geometry in the experiment showing that the effective numerical aperture is reduced by the presence of the quartz wafer. (d) Plots of the CPSFs from experiment (black) and simulation (red dashed). Effective NA =0.267. H= 1150 nm. (e) Corresponding plots in the case where effective NA = 0.4. (f) Simulation CPSF curve with a perfect collection NA, i.e. NA=1.0. (Note that FWHMs indicated in figure (d) and (e) are obtained from experimental results. All the experimental FWHMs are summarized in Table 2.)

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a), (b) 2D cross sectional plots of power flow, |S| for two different lateral displacements: 0 nm in (a) and -500nm in (b). Aperture size is 300 nm; H= 1150 nm. (c) Plots of the CPSFs from experiment (black) and simulation (red dashed). Effective NA= 0.267. H= 1150 nm. (d) Corresponding plots in the case where effective NA = 0.4. (e) Simulation CPSF curve with a perfect collection NA, i.e. NA=1.0. (Note that FWHMs indicated in figure (c) and (d) are obtained from experimental results. All the experimental FWHMs are summarized in Table 2.)

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Comparison of type II ABIDs with conventional microscopes. Blue asterisk: Near field resolution of type II ABIDs vs. D (simulation). Simulation assumed an effective isotropic point source. Blue dashed line: linear fit of the resolution limit of type II ABIDs. Red error bars: Near field resolution of type II ABIDs based on our experiment. Black dashed line: diffraction limited resolution of an ideal conventional microscope.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Depth of field (DOF) of the subwavelength apertures

Equations (4)

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a z = 1 j ( z z 0 L ) m δ
T = S A = S ( x , H ) cos ( θ ) A = S ( x , H ) A H 2 x 2 + H 2 A x 2 H 2 H 2 x 2 + H 2
FWHM = 2 2 1 . H 1.53 H
FWHM = 1.03 × λ D · H

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