Abstract

Integral imaging is one of the most promising techniques for delivering three-dimensional content. Most processing tasks usually require prior knowledge of the size and positions of the elemental images that comprise an integral image. In this paper we propose an automated method for calibrating the acquisition setup, by applying a preprocessing stage to an acquired integral image. The skew angle is extracted and the size and positions of the elemental images are accurately determined. For these purposes a method is developed to automatically identify an elemental image lattice that best matches the acquired integral image.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Lippmann, "La Photographie Integrále," C.R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).
  2. B. Javidi, F.Okano eds., Three-Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002), Chap. 4-6.
  3. A. Stern and B. Javidi, "Three-Dimensional Image Sensing, Visualization, and Processing Using Integral Imaging," inProceedings of the IEEE 94, pp.591-607 (2006).
  4. J. S. Jang, B. Javidi, "Formation of orthoscopic three dimensional real images in direct pickup one-step integral imaging," Opt. Eng. 42, 1869-1870 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. -H. Park, Y. Kim, J. Kim, S. -W. Min, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional display scheme based on integral imaging with three-dimensional information processing," Opt. Express 12, 6020-6032 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-24-6020.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Martinez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and G. Saavedra, "Formation of real, orthoscopic integral images by smart pixel mapping," Opt. Express 13, 9175-9180 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-23-9175.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. Sgouros, A. Andreou, M. Sangriotis, P. Papageorgas, D. Maroulis, N. Theofanous, "Compression of IP images for autostereoscopic 3D imaging applications," in Proc. of IEEE International Symp. on Image and Signal and Image Processing (IEEE, Rome, 2003) pp. 223-227.
  8. S. Yeom, A. Stern, and B. Javidi, "Compression of 3D color integral images," Opt. Express 12, 1632-1642 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1632.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Frauel and B. Javidi, "Digital three-dimensional image correlation by use of computer-reconstructed integral imaging," Appl. Opt. 41, 5488-5496.
    [PubMed]
  10. S. Hong and B. Javidi, "Improved resolution 3D object reconstruction using computational integral imaging with time multiplexing," Opt. Express 12, 4579-4588 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-19-4579.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Yeom and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional distortion-tolerant object recognition using integral imaging," Opt. Express 12, 5795-5809 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-23-5795.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R.C. Gonzalez, R.E. Woods and S.L Eddins, Digital image processing, using MATLAB (Prentice Hall, NJ, 2004), Chap. 10.
  13. T.H. Cormen, C.E. Leiserson, R.L. Rivest, Introduction to algorithms, (MIT Press, MA, 2000), Chap 16.
  14. S. S. Athineos, N. P. Sgouros et al, "Photorealistic Integral Photography using a Ray Traced Model of the Capturing Optics," J. Electron. Imaging (to be published).
  15. R.C. Gonzalez and R.E. Woods, Digital image processing, second ed.(Prentice Hall, NJ, 2002), Chap. 3.
  16. J. F. Canny, "A Computational Approach for Edge Detection," Trans. Pat. Anal. Mach. Intell. 8, 679-698 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Zheng, H. Li, D. Doermann, "A parallel-line detection algorithm based on HMM decoding," Trans. Pat. Anal. Mach. Intell. 27, 777-792 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Stern and B. Javidi, "Three-Dimensional Image Sensing, Visualization, and Processing Using Integral Imaging," inProceedings of the IEEE 94, pp.591-607 (2006).

2005 (2)

2004 (4)

2003 (1)

J. S. Jang, B. Javidi, "Formation of orthoscopic three dimensional real images in direct pickup one-step integral imaging," Opt. Eng. 42, 1869-1870 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. F. Canny, "A Computational Approach for Edge Detection," Trans. Pat. Anal. Mach. Intell. 8, 679-698 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, "La Photographie Integrále," C.R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

Athineos, S. S.

S. S. Athineos, N. P. Sgouros et al, "Photorealistic Integral Photography using a Ray Traced Model of the Capturing Optics," J. Electron. Imaging (to be published).

Canny, J. F.

J. F. Canny, "A Computational Approach for Edge Detection," Trans. Pat. Anal. Mach. Intell. 8, 679-698 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Doermann, D.

Y. Zheng, H. Li, D. Doermann, "A parallel-line detection algorithm based on HMM decoding," Trans. Pat. Anal. Mach. Intell. 27, 777-792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frauel, Y.

Hong, S.

Jang, J. S.

J. S. Jang, B. Javidi, "Formation of orthoscopic three dimensional real images in direct pickup one-step integral imaging," Opt. Eng. 42, 1869-1870 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

Kim, J.

Kim, Y.

Lee, B.

Li, H.

Y. Zheng, H. Li, D. Doermann, "A parallel-line detection algorithm based on HMM decoding," Trans. Pat. Anal. Mach. Intell. 27, 777-792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, "La Photographie Integrále," C.R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

Martinez-Corral, M.

Martínez-Cuenca, R.

Min, S. -W.

Park, J. -H.

Saavedra, G.

Sgouros, N. P.

S. S. Athineos, N. P. Sgouros et al, "Photorealistic Integral Photography using a Ray Traced Model of the Capturing Optics," J. Electron. Imaging (to be published).

Stern, A.

A. Stern and B. Javidi, "Three-Dimensional Image Sensing, Visualization, and Processing Using Integral Imaging," inProceedings of the IEEE 94, pp.591-607 (2006).

S. Yeom, A. Stern, and B. Javidi, "Compression of 3D color integral images," Opt. Express 12, 1632-1642 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1632.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeom, S.

Zheng, Y.

Y. Zheng, H. Li, D. Doermann, "A parallel-line detection algorithm based on HMM decoding," Trans. Pat. Anal. Mach. Intell. 27, 777-792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

C.R. Acad. Sci. (1)

G. Lippmann, "La Photographie Integrále," C.R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

S. S. Athineos, N. P. Sgouros et al, "Photorealistic Integral Photography using a Ray Traced Model of the Capturing Optics," J. Electron. Imaging (to be published).

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. S. Jang, B. Javidi, "Formation of orthoscopic three dimensional real images in direct pickup one-step integral imaging," Opt. Eng. 42, 1869-1870 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Proceedings of the IEEE (1)

A. Stern and B. Javidi, "Three-Dimensional Image Sensing, Visualization, and Processing Using Integral Imaging," inProceedings of the IEEE 94, pp.591-607 (2006).

Trans. Pat. Anal. Mach. Intell. (2)

J. F. Canny, "A Computational Approach for Edge Detection," Trans. Pat. Anal. Mach. Intell. 8, 679-698 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zheng, H. Li, D. Doermann, "A parallel-line detection algorithm based on HMM decoding," Trans. Pat. Anal. Mach. Intell. 27, 777-792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

R.C. Gonzalez and R.E. Woods, Digital image processing, second ed.(Prentice Hall, NJ, 2002), Chap. 3.

R.C. Gonzalez, R.E. Woods and S.L Eddins, Digital image processing, using MATLAB (Prentice Hall, NJ, 2004), Chap. 10.

T.H. Cormen, C.E. Leiserson, R.L. Rivest, Introduction to algorithms, (MIT Press, MA, 2000), Chap 16.

B. Javidi, F.Okano eds., Three-Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002), Chap. 4-6.

N. Sgouros, A. Andreou, M. Sangriotis, P. Papageorgas, D. Maroulis, N. Theofanous, "Compression of IP images for autostereoscopic 3D imaging applications," in Proc. of IEEE International Symp. on Image and Signal and Image Processing (IEEE, Rome, 2003) pp. 223-227.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Integral Imaging (a) acquisition and (b) display setup principles.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A portion of a physically acquired InIm. (a) Initial gray-scale image, (b) edge detection result, (c) edge image after vertical 1D median filtering.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The column in the HT space corresponding to the skew angle θs has a large number of strong peaks, (b) the corresponding variance σ2s) vs. θ.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Deskewed part of an InIm, (b) Row-wise and (c) column-wise median filtering.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Portion of (a) a vertical projection profile, (b) the corresponding thresholded projection profile.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Joint histogram of interline distances used to determine dp

Fig.7.
Fig.7.

(a) Uncalibrated portion of an InIm. Pseudoscopy elimination in the deskewed InIm, using (b) constant and (c) variable, pitch size.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

l i = p 0 + j · p l p ccd
l i = k + j · n + f 0 + j · f l p ccd
l j = k + j · n + λ r + e 0 + j q r = k + j · n + λ r + j q r
d j = l j + 1 l j = n + λ r + ( j + 1 ) q r λ r + j q r
n i = m i and ( q r ) i = m i m i

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