Abstract

We report what we believe to be the first Tilted short-period Fiber Bragg Grating photowritten in a microstructured optical fiber for refractive index measurement. We investigate the spectral sensitivity of Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating to refractive index liquid inserted into the holes of a multimode microstructured fiber. We measure the wavelength shift of the first four modes experimentally observed when calibrated oils are inserted into the fiber holes, and thus we determine the refractive index resolution for each of these modes. Moreover, a cross comparison between experimental and simulation results of a modal analysis is performed. Two simulation tools are used, respectively based on the localized functions method and on a finite element method. All results are in very good agreement.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (1)

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg Grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, pp 992-997 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fiber-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (July 2001)
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser and G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-Mode Resonances in Hybrid Polymer-Silica Microstructured Optical Fiber Gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 495-497 (2000)
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, G. Qi, M. Marro, V. Bhatia, L. L. Hepburn, M. Swan, A. Collier and D. L. Weidman, "Suppression of cladding mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1583-1590 (2000)
[CrossRef]

C. Kerbage, B. Eggleton, P. Westbrook and R. Windeler, "Experimental and scalar beam propagation analysis of an air-silica microstructure fiber," Opt. Express 7, pp. 113-122 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

1998 (1)

Bennet, P. J.

Bennett, P. J.

T.M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick, and P. J. Bennett, "Holey optical fibers: an efficient modal model," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1093-1101 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

L. Dong, G. Qi, M. Marro, V. Bhatia, L. L. Hepburn, M. Swan, A. Collier and D. L. Weidman, "Suppression of cladding mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1583-1590 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Blanc, W.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg Grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, pp 992-997 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Blondy, J-M.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg Grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, pp 992-997 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Bouwmans, G.

Broderick, N. G. R.

T.M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick, and P. J. Bennett, "Holey optical fibers: an efficient modal model," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1093-1101 (1999)
[CrossRef]

N. G. R. Broderick, T. M. Monro, P. J. Bennet, and D. J. Richardson, "Non linearity in holey optical fibers: measurement and future opportunities," Opt. Lett. 24, 1395-1397 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Buckley, E.

Burdge, G. L.

P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser and G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-Mode Resonances in Hybrid Polymer-Silica Microstructured Optical Fiber Gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 495-497 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

Collier, A.

L. Dong, G. Qi, M. Marro, V. Bhatia, L. L. Hepburn, M. Swan, A. Collier and D. L. Weidman, "Suppression of cladding mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1583-1590 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Dewynter-Marty, V.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg Grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, pp 992-997 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Digweed, J.

Dong, L.

L. Dong, G. Qi, M. Marro, V. Bhatia, L. L. Hepburn, M. Swan, A. Collier and D. L. Weidman, "Suppression of cladding mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1583-1590 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Dussardier, B.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg Grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, pp 992-997 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B.

Eggleton, B. J.

P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser and G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-Mode Resonances in Hybrid Polymer-Silica Microstructured Optical Fiber Gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 495-497 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B.J.

Ferdinand, P.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg Grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, pp 992-997 (2006)
[CrossRef]

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fiber-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (July 2001)
[CrossRef]

Février, S.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructured fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003)
[CrossRef]

G. Kakarantzas, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Structural long period gratings in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1013-1015 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Frignac, Y.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg Grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, pp 992-997 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Groothoff, N.

Hale, A.

P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser and G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-Mode Resonances in Hybrid Polymer-Silica Microstructured Optical Fiber Gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 495-497 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Hepburn, L. L.

L. Dong, G. Qi, M. Marro, V. Bhatia, L. L. Hepburn, M. Swan, A. Collier and D. L. Weidman, "Suppression of cladding mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1583-1590 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Humbert, G.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructured fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Kakarantzas, G.

Kerbage, C.

Knight, J. C.

Laffont, G.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg Grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, pp 992-997 (2006)
[CrossRef]

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fiber-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (July 2001)
[CrossRef]

Lyttikainen, K.

Malki, A.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructured fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003)
[CrossRef]

G. Kakarantzas, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Structural long period gratings in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1013-1015 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Marro, M.

L. Dong, G. Qi, M. Marro, V. Bhatia, L. L. Hepburn, M. Swan, A. Collier and D. L. Weidman, "Suppression of cladding mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1583-1590 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Mogilevtsev, D.

Monro, T. M.

Monro, T.M.

T.M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick, and P. J. Bennett, "Holey optical fibers: an efficient modal model," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1093-1101 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Pagnoux, D.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg Grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, pp 992-997 (2006)
[CrossRef]

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructured fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003)
[CrossRef]

G. Kakarantzas, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Structural long period gratings in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1013-1015 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Percival, R. M.

Phan Huy, M. C.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg Grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, pp 992-997 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Qi, G.

L. Dong, G. Qi, M. Marro, V. Bhatia, L. L. Hepburn, M. Swan, A. Collier and D. L. Weidman, "Suppression of cladding mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1583-1590 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

T.M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick, and P. J. Bennett, "Holey optical fibers: an efficient modal model," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1093-1101 (1999)
[CrossRef]

N. G. R. Broderick, T. M. Monro, P. J. Bennet, and D. J. Richardson, "Non linearity in holey optical fibers: measurement and future opportunities," Opt. Lett. 24, 1395-1397 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Roy, P.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg Grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, pp 992-997 (2006)
[CrossRef]

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructured fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003)
[CrossRef]

G. Kakarantzas, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Structural long period gratings in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1013-1015 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Russel, P. S. J.

Russell, P. S. J.

Ryan, T.

Spalter, S.

Strasser, T. A.

P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser and G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-Mode Resonances in Hybrid Polymer-Silica Microstructured Optical Fiber Gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 495-497 (2000)
[CrossRef]

B.J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spalter, and T. A. Strasser, "Grating resonances in air-silica microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 24, 1460-1462 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Swan, M.

L. Dong, G. Qi, M. Marro, V. Bhatia, L. L. Hepburn, M. Swan, A. Collier and D. L. Weidman, "Suppression of cladding mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1583-1590 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W.J.

Weidman, D. L.

L. Dong, G. Qi, M. Marro, V. Bhatia, L. L. Hepburn, M. Swan, A. Collier and D. L. Weidman, "Suppression of cladding mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1583-1590 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P.

Westbrook, P. S.

P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser and G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-Mode Resonances in Hybrid Polymer-Silica Microstructured Optical Fiber Gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 495-497 (2000)
[CrossRef]

B.J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spalter, and T. A. Strasser, "Grating resonances in air-silica microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 24, 1460-1462 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R.

Windeler, R. S.

P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser and G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-Mode Resonances in Hybrid Polymer-Silica Microstructured Optical Fiber Gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 495-497 (2000)
[CrossRef]

B.J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spalter, and T. A. Strasser, "Grating resonances in air-silica microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 24, 1460-1462 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Zagari, J.

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructured fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003)
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

T.M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick, and P. J. Bennett, "Holey optical fibers: an efficient modal model," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1093-1101 (1999)
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, G. Qi, M. Marro, V. Bhatia, L. L. Hepburn, M. Swan, A. Collier and D. L. Weidman, "Suppression of cladding mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1583-1590 (2000)
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser and G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-Mode Resonances in Hybrid Polymer-Silica Microstructured Optical Fiber Gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 495-497 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg Grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, pp 992-997 (2006)
[CrossRef]

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fiber-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (July 2001)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (11)

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Mesure de la salinité et suivi de polymérisation d’une résine à l’aide d’un réfractomètre à réseau de Bragg à traits inclinés," Optix 2001, Marseille 26-28 Novembre

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Fiber Bragg grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibers for sensing application based on refractive index measurement," Proc. 17th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors OFS17 (Bruges, May 2005)

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Holey fiber based nonlinear optical devices for telecommunications," Proc. 29th CLEO/QELS (Baltimore, June 2003)

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http://www.comsol.com/

R. Parmentier, M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, and B. Dussardier, "Cross comparison between theoretical and experimental modal field patterns in a doped-core microstructured fiber," Summer school on advanced glass-based nanophotonics POWAG 2004

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical microscope image of the manufactured six-hole MOF.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Lloyd mirror interferometer setup used for TFBG photowriting.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectra of (a) non-tilted, (b) 4°-tilted, (c) 8°-tilted, (d) 12°-tilted and (e) 16°-tilted FBGs photowritten in classical single-mode fiber with the Lloyd interferometer setup [23].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Coupling between the fundamental mode (forward propagating guided mode) and backward cladding modes induced by TFBG [23]: on the right, coupling diagram showing the fundamental forward-propagating mode coupled to a backward-propagating cladding mode through the coupling vector (Λeff is the effective period of the grating, that is Λ – the fringe’s period – divided by cos θ – the tilt angle).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission spectrum of a 16°-tilted FBG photowritten in a standard singlemode fiber and for two distinct values of the surrounding refractive index [12].

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transmission spectrum of (a) non-tilted, (b) 3°-tilted, (c) 4°-tilted, (d) 6°-tilted FBG photowritten in the six-hole fiber.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Near-IR modal imaging setup.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Experimental TFBG transmission spectrum with corresponding experimental (top line), LFM-simulated (middle line) and FEM-simulated (bottom line, with commercial software Femlab) modal field pattern for the six-holes fiber

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Transmission spectrum of two 6°-tilted TFBGs photowritten in the core of two different sections of the six-holes fiber, revealing a) modes E and F or b) modes D, E, and F

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Wavelength shift of the first four resonances versus the refractive index of the fluid inserted into the holes.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Refractive index resolution of the first four modes (based on a 1 pm spectral resolution, [24]).

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