Abstract

This paper presents an all-fiber design of a quasi-distributed polarimetric temperature sensor array that utilizes commercially available single polarization and high birefringence fibers. The modulation depth of temperature induced loss and the operational temperature range of individual sensors in the network are set by the rotational alignment of fibers before fusion splicing and through fine adjustment of the sensing fiber lengths. A practical sensor network was built with sensors that operated in the temperature range from 0 to 100 C. Individual sensors in the network generated temperature dependent loss that changed proportionally from 0.9 to 1.8 dB. With current standard telecommunication OTDRs, more than 20 prototype sensors could be interrogated.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. M. D. Mermelstein, R. Posey, Jr., G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, "Rayleigh scattering optical frequency correlation in a single-mode optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 58-60 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li "The Shape of Fiber Tapers," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432-438 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2005

2004

2002

O. Wallner, W.R. Leeb, P.J. Winzer, "Minimum length of a single-mode fiber spatial filter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 19, 2445-2448 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and H. F. Taylor, "Multiplexed fiber Fabry-Perot temperature sensor system using white-light interferometry," Opt. Lett. 27, 903-905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

W. J. Bock and W. Urbanczyk, "Coherence Multiplexing of Fiber-Optics Pressure and Temperature Sensor Based on Highly Birefringent Fibers," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 392-397 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Lecoeuche, M. W. Hathaway, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, "20-km Distributed Temperature Sensor Based on Spontaneous Brillouin Scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1367-1369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. De Souza and T. P. Newson, "Brillouin-based fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor with optical preamplification," Opt. Lett. 25, 1331-1333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, E. DeLaRosa, "Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Završnik, D. Donlagi? and D. Donlagi?, "Polarimetric temperature sensor: extinction ratio and sensing lenght examination," Opt. Eng. 36, 3200-3205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. DeLaRosa, L. A. Zenteno, A. N. Starodumov, and D. Monzon, "All-fiber absolute temperature sensor using unbalanced high-birefringence Sagnac loop," Opt. Lett. 22, 481-483 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1994

1993

1992

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li "The Shape of Fiber Tapers," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432-438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakley, "Control of optical fiber taper shape", Electron. Lett. 27, 1654-1656 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

1989

1988

Alahbabi, M. N.

Andres, M. V.

Atkins, R. A.

Berkey, G. E.

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li "The Shape of Fiber Tapers," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432-438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakley, "Control of optical fiber taper shape", Electron. Lett. 27, 1654-1656 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bock, W. J.

W. J. Bock and W. Urbanczyk, "Coherence Multiplexing of Fiber-Optics Pressure and Temperature Sensor Based on Highly Birefringent Fibers," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 392-397 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cai, H. W.

Y. G. Zhan, H. W. Cai, R. H. Qu, S. Q. Xiang, Z. J. Fang, and X. Z. Wang, "Fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor for multiplexed measurement with high resolution," Opt. Eng. 43, 2358-2361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.

Cho, Y. T.

Cooper, D. J. F.

Coroy, T.

Cruz, J. L.

De Souza, K.

Diez, A.

Donlagic, D.

M. Završnik, D. Donlagi? and D. Donlagi?, "Polarimetric temperature sensor: extinction ratio and sensing lenght examination," Opt. Eng. 36, 3200-3205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Završnik, D. Donlagi? and D. Donlagi?, "Polarimetric temperature sensor: extinction ratio and sensing lenght examination," Opt. Eng. 36, 3200-3205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Z. J.

Y. G. Zhan, H. W. Cai, R. H. Qu, S. Q. Xiang, Z. J. Fang, and X. Z. Wang, "Fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor for multiplexed measurement with high resolution," Opt. Eng. 43, 2358-2361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Farahani, M. A.

Gauthier, R. C.

Gogolla, T.

Hathaway, M. W.

V. Lecoeuche, M. W. Hathaway, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, "20-km Distributed Temperature Sensor Based on Spontaneous Brillouin Scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1367-1369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, T.

Huang, Z.

Jackson, D. A.

V. Lecoeuche, M. W. Hathaway, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, "20-km Distributed Temperature Sensor Based on Spontaneous Brillouin Scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1367-1369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Rathod, R. D. Pechstedt, D. A. Jackson, and D. J. Webb, "Distributed temperature-change sensor based on Rayleigh back scattering in an optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 19, 593-595 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, G. A.

Kenny, R. P.

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakley, "Control of optical fiber taper shape", Electron. Lett. 27, 1654-1656 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kurashima, T.

Lecoeuche, V.

V. Lecoeuche, M. W. Hathaway, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, "20-km Distributed Temperature Sensor Based on Spontaneous Brillouin Scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1367-1369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. E.

Leeb, W.R.

O. Wallner, W.R. Leeb, P.J. Winzer, "Minimum length of a single-mode fiber spatial filter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 19, 2445-2448 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Li, Y. W.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li "The Shape of Fiber Tapers," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432-438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. J.

Lit, J. W. Y.

Mermelstein, M. D.

Monzon, D.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, E. DeLaRosa, "Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Monzon-Hernandez, D.

Mora, J.

Newson, T. P.

Nolan, D. A.

Oakley, K. P.

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakley, "Control of optical fiber taper shape", Electron. Lett. 27, 1654-1656 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pannell, C. N.

V. Lecoeuche, M. W. Hathaway, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, "20-km Distributed Temperature Sensor Based on Spontaneous Brillouin Scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1367-1369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pechstedt, R. D.

Perez-Millan, P.

Posey, R.

Qu, R. H.

Y. G. Zhan, H. W. Cai, R. H. Qu, S. Q. Xiang, Z. J. Fang, and X. Z. Wang, "Fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor for multiplexed measurement with high resolution," Opt. Eng. 43, 2358-2361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rathod, R.

Shen, F.

Smith, P. W. E.

Starodumov, A. N.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, E. DeLaRosa, "Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tateda, M.

Taylor, H. F.

Tsai, W. H.

Urbanczyk, W.

W. J. Bock and W. Urbanczyk, "Coherence Multiplexing of Fiber-Optics Pressure and Temperature Sensor Based on Highly Birefringent Fibers," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 392-397 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vohra, S. T.

Wallner, O.

O. Wallner, W.R. Leeb, P.J. Winzer, "Minimum length of a single-mode fiber spatial filter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 19, 2445-2448 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

Wang, X. Z.

Y. G. Zhan, H. W. Cai, R. H. Qu, S. Q. Xiang, Z. J. Fang, and X. Z. Wang, "Fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor for multiplexed measurement with high resolution," Opt. Eng. 43, 2358-2361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

V. Lecoeuche, M. W. Hathaway, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, "20-km Distributed Temperature Sensor Based on Spontaneous Brillouin Scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1367-1369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Rathod, R. D. Pechstedt, D. A. Jackson, and D. J. Webb, "Distributed temperature-change sensor based on Rayleigh back scattering in an optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 19, 593-595 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winzer, P.J.

O. Wallner, W.R. Leeb, P.J. Winzer, "Minimum length of a single-mode fiber spatial filter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 19, 2445-2448 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Wood, W. A.

Xiang, S. Q.

Y. G. Zhan, H. W. Cai, R. H. Qu, S. Q. Xiang, Z. J. Fang, and X. Z. Wang, "Fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor for multiplexed measurement with high resolution," Opt. Eng. 43, 2358-2361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Završnik, M.

M. Završnik, D. Donlagi? and D. Donlagi?, "Polarimetric temperature sensor: extinction ratio and sensing lenght examination," Opt. Eng. 36, 3200-3205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zenteno, L. A.

D. A. Nolan, G. E. Berkey, M. Li, X. Chen, W. A. Wood, and L. A. Zenteno, " Single-polarization fiber with a high extinction ratio," Opt. Lett. 29, 1855-1857 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, E. DeLaRosa, "Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, Y. G.

Y. G. Zhan, H. W. Cai, R. H. Qu, S. Q. Xiang, Z. J. Fang, and X. Z. Wang, "Fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor for multiplexed measurement with high resolution," Opt. Eng. 43, 2358-2361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

Zhu, Y.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, E. DeLaRosa, "Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakley, "Control of optical fiber taper shape", Electron. Lett. 27, 1654-1656 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

V. Lecoeuche, M. W. Hathaway, D. J. Webb, C. N. Pannell, and D. A. Jackson, "20-km Distributed Temperature Sensor Based on Spontaneous Brillouin Scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1367-1369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

W. J. Bock and W. Urbanczyk, "Coherence Multiplexing of Fiber-Optics Pressure and Temperature Sensor Based on Highly Birefringent Fibers," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 392-397 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.

O. Wallner, W.R. Leeb, P.J. Winzer, "Minimum length of a single-mode fiber spatial filter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 19, 2445-2448 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

Y. G. Zhan, H. W. Cai, R. H. Qu, S. Q. Xiang, Z. J. Fang, and X. Z. Wang, "Fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor for multiplexed measurement with high resolution," Opt. Eng. 43, 2358-2361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Završnik, D. Donlagi? and D. Donlagi?, "Polarimetric temperature sensor: extinction ratio and sensing lenght examination," Opt. Eng. 36, 3200-3205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

C. E. Lee and H. F. Taylor, "Optical-fiber Fabry-Perot embedded sensor," Opt. Lett. 14, 1225-1227 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, and M. Tateda, "Distributed-temperature sensing using stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical silica fibers," Opt. Lett. 15, 1038-1040 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rathod, R. D. Pechstedt, D. A. Jackson, and D. J. Webb, "Distributed temperature-change sensor based on Rayleigh back scattering in an optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 19, 593-595 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. DeLaRosa, L. A. Zenteno, A. N. Starodumov, and D. Monzon, "All-fiber absolute temperature sensor using unbalanced high-birefringence Sagnac loop," Opt. Lett. 22, 481-483 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and H. F. Taylor, "Multiplexed fiber Fabry-Perot temperature sensor system using white-light interferometry," Opt. Lett. 27, 903-905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. De Souza and T. P. Newson, "Brillouin-based fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor with optical preamplification," Opt. Lett. 25, 1331-1333 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Mermelstein, R. Posey, Jr., G. A. Johnson, and S. T. Vohra, "Rayleigh scattering optical frequency correlation in a single-mode optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 58-60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Lee, R. A. Atkins, and H. F. Taylor, "Performer of a fiber-optics temperature sensor from -200 to 10500C," Opt. Lett. 13, 1038-1040 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Nolan, G. E. Berkey, M. Li, X. Chen, W. A. Wood, and L. A. Zenteno, " Single-polarization fiber with a high extinction ratio," Opt. Lett. 29, 1855-1857 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, Z. Huang, F. Shen and A. Wang, "Sapphire-fiber-based white-light interferometric sensor for high-temperature measurements," Opt. Lett. 30, 711-713 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement with combined spontaneous Raman and Brillouin scattering," Opt. Lett. 30, 1276-1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

http://www.corning.com/photonicmaterials/pdf/PI203_Corning%20Single%20Polarization_4-2005.pdf.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MPG (1602 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Quasi distributed sensor array

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Structure of the individual sensor segment

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Typical transmission temperature characteristics of the sensor segment after successful splicing

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Tuning of the sensor

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(Movie 1,56MB) OTDR response of three sensors at different temperatures.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δϕ = k L sens Δ T
L sens = π k Δ T max
I out = I 0 [ 1 4 ( 2 + cos [ 2 ( Φ 1 Φ 2 ) ] + cos [ 2 ( Φ 1 + Φ 2 ) ] 2 cos ϕ sin [ 2 Φ 1 ] sin [ 2 Φ 2 ] ) ]
I extrem = I 0 [ 1 4 ( 2 + cos [ 2 ( Φ 1 Φ 2 ) ] + cos [ 2 ( Φ 1 + Φ 2 ) ] 2 sin [ 2 Φ 1 ] sin [ 2 Φ 2 ] ) ]
Φ 1 = ± Φ 2 + ; k = 0 , ± 1 , ± 2 ,
I out = I 0 [ 1 4 ( 3 + cos [ 4 Φ ] 2 cos [ ϕ ] sin 2 [ 2 Φ ] ) ]
I out = I 0 [ 1 4 ( 3 + cos [ 4 Φ ] 2 cos [ ϕ ] sin 2 [ 2 Φ ] ) ]
mod [ dB ] = 10 Log [ cos 2 [ 2 Φ ] ]
Φ 1 = ± Φ 2 = 1 2 arccos 10 mod [ dB ] 10
Δ l cor = B L 2 π Δ φ
sensor resolution = temperature range * ( OTDR resolution ) / ( sensor mod ulation depth )
Sensor sensitivity = sensor mod ulation depth / ( temperature range )
1 / 2 * beath lenght * ( max imum initial offset / temperature range )

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