Abstract

We use the soft lithography technique to fabricate a polymeric waveguide Bragg grating filter. Master grating structure is patterned by e-beam lithography. Using an elastomeric stamp and capillary action, uniform grating structures with very thin residual layers are transferred to the UV curable polymer without the use of an imprint machine. The waveguide layer based on BCB optical polymer is fabricated by conventional optical lithography. This approach provides processing simplicity to fabricate Bragg grating filters.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution," Science 272, 85-87 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Kumar and G. M. Whitesides, "Features of gold having micrometer to centimeter dimensions can be formed through a combination of stamping with an elastomeric stamp and an alkanethiol "ink" followed by chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2002-2004 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, "Soft lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2122-2124 (2005).
  4. L. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski and M. A. Cappuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257-3259 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Huang, G. T. Paloczi, A. Yariv, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, "Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography, " J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8606-8613 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang, A. Yariv, J. Luo and A. K. Y. Jen, "Replica-molded electro-optic polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1662-1664 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Perentos, G. Kostovski, and A. Mitchell, "Polymer long-period raised rib waveguide gratings using nanoimprint lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2595-2597 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, "Polymeric waveguide wavelength filter using electron-beam direct writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3576-3578 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. B. Blomquist and R. A. Norwood, "Integrated multichanel OADM’s using polymer Bragg grating MZI’s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416-1418 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S.W. Ahn, K. D. Lee, D. H. Kim, and S. S. Lee, "Polymeric waveguide filter based on Bragg grating nanoimprint technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2122-2124 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. W. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, "Improved pattern trancfer in soft lithography using composite stamp" Langmuir. 18, 5314-5320 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. V. Wong, J. Ferrera, J. N. Damask, T. E. Murphy, H. I. Smith and H. A. Haus, "Distributed Bragg grating integrated-optical filters: Synthesis and fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2859-2864 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Zhu, Y. Huang, W. Green, and A. Yariv, "Polymeric multi-channel bandpass filters in phase-shifted Bragg waveguide grating by beam writing," Opt. Express 12, 6372-6376 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, "Soft lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2122-2124 (2005).

A. Perentos, G. Kostovski, and A. Mitchell, "Polymer long-period raised rib waveguide gratings using nanoimprint lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2595-2597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.W. Ahn, K. D. Lee, D. H. Kim, and S. S. Lee, "Polymeric waveguide filter based on Bragg grating nanoimprint technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2122-2124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

L. Zhu, Y. Huang, W. Green, and A. Yariv, "Polymeric multi-channel bandpass filters in phase-shifted Bragg waveguide grating by beam writing," Opt. Express 12, 6372-6376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, G. T. Paloczi, A. Yariv, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, "Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography, " J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8606-8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang, A. Yariv, J. Luo and A. K. Y. Jen, "Replica-molded electro-optic polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1662-1664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. W. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, "Improved pattern trancfer in soft lithography using composite stamp" Langmuir. 18, 5314-5320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, "Polymeric waveguide wavelength filter using electron-beam direct writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3576-3578 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

L. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski and M. A. Cappuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. B. Blomquist and R. A. Norwood, "Integrated multichanel OADM’s using polymer Bragg grating MZI’s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416-1418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution," Science 272, 85-87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

V. V. Wong, J. Ferrera, J. N. Damask, T. E. Murphy, H. I. Smith and H. A. Haus, "Distributed Bragg grating integrated-optical filters: Synthesis and fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2859-2864 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. Kumar and G. M. Whitesides, "Features of gold having micrometer to centimeter dimensions can be formed through a combination of stamping with an elastomeric stamp and an alkanethiol "ink" followed by chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2002-2004 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S.W.

S.W. Ahn, K. D. Lee, D. H. Kim, and S. S. Lee, "Polymeric waveguide filter based on Bragg grating nanoimprint technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2122-2124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blomquist, R. B.

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. B. Blomquist and R. A. Norwood, "Integrated multichanel OADM’s using polymer Bragg grating MZI’s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416-1418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cappuzzo, M. A.

L. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski and M. A. Cappuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution," Science 272, 85-87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

Y. Huang, G. T. Paloczi, A. Yariv, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, "Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography, " J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8606-8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Damask, J. N.

V. V. Wong, J. Ferrera, J. N. Damask, T. E. Murphy, H. I. Smith and H. A. Haus, "Distributed Bragg grating integrated-optical filters: Synthesis and fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2859-2864 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

L. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski and M. A. Cappuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. B. Blomquist and R. A. Norwood, "Integrated multichanel OADM’s using polymer Bragg grating MZI’s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416-1418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ferrera, J.

V. V. Wong, J. Ferrera, J. N. Damask, T. E. Murphy, H. I. Smith and H. A. Haus, "Distributed Bragg grating integrated-optical filters: Synthesis and fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2859-2864 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Glass, C.

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. B. Blomquist and R. A. Norwood, "Integrated multichanel OADM’s using polymer Bragg grating MZI’s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416-1418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Green, W.

Haus, H. A.

V. V. Wong, J. Ferrera, J. N. Damask, T. E. Murphy, H. I. Smith and H. A. Haus, "Distributed Bragg grating integrated-optical filters: Synthesis and fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2859-2864 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

L. Zhu, Y. Huang, W. Green, and A. Yariv, "Polymeric multi-channel bandpass filters in phase-shifted Bragg waveguide grating by beam writing," Opt. Express 12, 6372-6376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang, A. Yariv, J. Luo and A. K. Y. Jen, "Replica-molded electro-optic polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1662-1664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, G. T. Paloczi, A. Yariv, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, "Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography, " J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8606-8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang, A. Yariv, J. Luo and A. K. Y. Jen, "Replica-molded electro-optic polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1662-1664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. H.

S.W. Ahn, K. D. Lee, D. H. Kim, and S. S. Lee, "Polymeric waveguide filter based on Bragg grating nanoimprint technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2122-2124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kostovski, G.

A. Perentos, G. Kostovski, and A. Mitchell, "Polymer long-period raised rib waveguide gratings using nanoimprint lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2595-2597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, P. R.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution," Science 272, 85-87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar and G. M. Whitesides, "Features of gold having micrometer to centimeter dimensions can be formed through a combination of stamping with an elastomeric stamp and an alkanethiol "ink" followed by chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2002-2004 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Laskowski, E. J.

L. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski and M. A. Cappuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. D.

S.W. Ahn, K. D. Lee, D. H. Kim, and S. S. Lee, "Polymeric waveguide filter based on Bragg grating nanoimprint technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2122-2124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

S.W. Ahn, K. D. Lee, D. H. Kim, and S. S. Lee, "Polymeric waveguide filter based on Bragg grating nanoimprint technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2122-2124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. C.

T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. W. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, "Improved pattern trancfer in soft lithography using composite stamp" Langmuir. 18, 5314-5320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang, A. Yariv, J. Luo and A. K. Y. Jen, "Replica-molded electro-optic polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1662-1664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meier, M.

L. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski and M. A. Cappuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, A.

A. Perentos, G. Kostovski, and A. Mitchell, "Polymer long-period raised rib waveguide gratings using nanoimprint lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2595-2597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, T. E.

V. V. Wong, J. Ferrera, J. N. Damask, T. E. Murphy, H. I. Smith and H. A. Haus, "Distributed Bragg grating integrated-optical filters: Synthesis and fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2859-2864 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. B. Blomquist and R. A. Norwood, "Integrated multichanel OADM’s using polymer Bragg grating MZI’s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416-1418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Odom, T. W.

T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. W. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, "Improved pattern trancfer in soft lithography using composite stamp" Langmuir. 18, 5314-5320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paloczi, G. T.

Y. Huang, G. T. Paloczi, A. Yariv, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, "Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography, " J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8606-8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang, A. Yariv, J. Luo and A. K. Y. Jen, "Replica-molded electro-optic polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1662-1664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paul, K. E.

T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. W. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, "Improved pattern trancfer in soft lithography using composite stamp" Langmuir. 18, 5314-5320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perentos, A.

A. Perentos, G. Kostovski, and A. Mitchell, "Polymer long-period raised rib waveguide gratings using nanoimprint lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2595-2597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poga, C.

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. B. Blomquist and R. A. Norwood, "Integrated multichanel OADM’s using polymer Bragg grating MZI’s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416-1418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pun, E. Y. B.

W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, "Polymeric waveguide wavelength filter using electron-beam direct writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3576-3578 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Renstrom, P. J.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution," Science 272, 85-87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, L. A.

L. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski and M. A. Cappuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

V. V. Wong, J. Ferrera, J. N. Damask, T. E. Murphy, H. I. Smith and H. A. Haus, "Distributed Bragg grating integrated-optical filters: Synthesis and fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2859-2864 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, "Soft lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2122-2124 (2005).

T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. W. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, "Improved pattern trancfer in soft lithography using composite stamp" Langmuir. 18, 5314-5320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar and G. M. Whitesides, "Features of gold having micrometer to centimeter dimensions can be formed through a combination of stamping with an elastomeric stamp and an alkanethiol "ink" followed by chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2002-2004 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, D. W.

T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. W. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, "Improved pattern trancfer in soft lithography using composite stamp" Langmuir. 18, 5314-5320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wong, V. V.

V. V. Wong, J. Ferrera, J. N. Damask, T. E. Murphy, H. I. Smith and H. A. Haus, "Distributed Bragg grating integrated-optical filters: Synthesis and fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2859-2864 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. H.

W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, "Polymeric waveguide wavelength filter using electron-beam direct writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3576-3578 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, "Soft lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2122-2124 (2005).

Yariv, A.

G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang, A. Yariv, J. Luo and A. K. Y. Jen, "Replica-molded electro-optic polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1662-1664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, G. T. Paloczi, A. Yariv, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, "Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography, " J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8606-8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhu, Y. Huang, W. Green, and A. Yariv, "Polymeric multi-channel bandpass filters in phase-shifted Bragg waveguide grating by beam writing," Opt. Express 12, 6372-6376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, S.

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. B. Blomquist and R. A. Norwood, "Integrated multichanel OADM’s using polymer Bragg grating MZI’s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416-1418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Y. Huang, G. T. Paloczi, A. Yariv, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, "Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography, " J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8606-8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. Kumar and G. M. Whitesides, "Features of gold having micrometer to centimeter dimensions can be formed through a combination of stamping with an elastomeric stamp and an alkanethiol "ink" followed by chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2002-2004 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski and M. A. Cappuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, "Polymeric waveguide wavelength filter using electron-beam direct writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3576-3578 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang, A. Yariv, J. Luo and A. K. Y. Jen, "Replica-molded electro-optic polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1662-1664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

A. Perentos, G. Kostovski, and A. Mitchell, "Polymer long-period raised rib waveguide gratings using nanoimprint lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2595-2597 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. B. Blomquist and R. A. Norwood, "Integrated multichanel OADM’s using polymer Bragg grating MZI’s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1416-1418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S.W. Ahn, K. D. Lee, D. H. Kim, and S. S. Lee, "Polymeric waveguide filter based on Bragg grating nanoimprint technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2122-2124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, "Soft lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2122-2124 (2005).

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

Y. Huang, G. T. Paloczi, A. Yariv, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, "Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography, " J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8606-8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

V. V. Wong, J. Ferrera, J. N. Damask, T. E. Murphy, H. I. Smith and H. A. Haus, "Distributed Bragg grating integrated-optical filters: Synthesis and fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2859-2864 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir. (1)

T. W. Odom, J. C. Love, D. W. Wolfe, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, "Improved pattern trancfer in soft lithography using composite stamp" Langmuir. 18, 5314-5320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Science (1)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution," Science 272, 85-87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram for transferring the grating structure; a) spinning the pre-polymer on the wafer, b) placing the PDMS stamp on pre-polymer layer and exposing with UV light, c) removing the elastomeric stamp from the wafer, d) optical microscope image of the patterned region, e) AFM image of the grating structure, f) SEM image of the grating structure with residual layer indicated.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cross-sectional view of the polymeric waveguide Bragg grating filter. The grating structure is on the 7 μm thick thermal oxide, the core of the wave guide is BCB and the upper cladding is PMGI, dimensions are in μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectrum of the waveguide grating filter a) TM polarization, n eff =1.515 and Δn=0.002 from fitting results b) TE polarization, n eff =1.517 and Δn=0.002 from fitting results.

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