Abstract

An adaptive optics (AO) test bed has been designed and implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of the next generation of AO components and their associated control system. The optical design presented herein incorporates a turbulence generator, tip-tilt mirror, 140-actuator micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) deformable mirror, Shack-Hartmann wave front sensor, and a science camera. This system has been operated in a closed AO loop at a 261 Hz sample rate. This paper focuses on the performance of the MEMS DM. It was examined using an interferometer to determine the influence functions, response time, and the quadratic relationship of displacement of the actuators to an applied voltage.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. P. Kotova et al., "Modal liquid crystal wavefront corrector," Opt. Express 10,1258 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  2. M. Langlois, C. D. Saunter, C. N. Dunlop, R. M. Myers, and G. D. Love, "Multi-conjugate adaptive optics: laboratory experience," Opt. Express 12, 1689 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Paterson, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror," Opt. Express 6, 175 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. A. Perreault, T. G. Bifano, B. M. Levine, and M. N. Horenstein, "Adaptive optic correction using micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirrors," Opt. Eng. 41, 561-566 Mar. 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Bifano, P. Bierden, H. Zhu, S. Cornelissen, and J. H. Kim, "Megapixel wavefront correctors," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D. B. Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds., Proc. SPIE 5490, 1472-1484 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. A. Macintosh et al., "The Gemini Planet Imager," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II, B. L. Ellerbroek and D. B. Calia, eds., Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. L. Ellerbroek et al., "A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics system," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. B. Calia, eds., Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720D (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Conan, P. Hampton, and C. Bradley, "The woofer-tweeter experiment," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II, edited by B.L. Ellerbroek, D.B. Calia, eds., Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721V (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. J. Booth, T. Wilson, T. Ota and T. Sugiura, "Dynamic axial position control of a laser trapped particle by wave-front modification," Opt. Lett. 28, 465-468, 2003.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, and C. Bradley, "Hot air turbulence generator for the testing of adaptive optics systems: principles and characterization," Appl. Opt. 45, 4888-4897 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. H. Southwell, "Wave-front estimation from wave-front slope measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 998 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. J. Noll, "Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207-211, 1976.
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, and C. Bradley, "Hot air turbulence generator for the testing of adaptive optics systems: principles and characterization," Appl. Opt. 45, 4888-4897 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. Langlois, C. D. Saunter, C. N. Dunlop, R. M. Myers, and G. D. Love, "Multi-conjugate adaptive optics: laboratory experience," Opt. Express 12, 1689 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. J. Booth, T. Wilson, T. Ota and T. Sugiura, "Dynamic axial position control of a laser trapped particle by wave-front modification," Opt. Lett. 28, 465-468, 2003.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

S. P. Kotova et al., "Modal liquid crystal wavefront corrector," Opt. Express 10,1258 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. A. Perreault, T. G. Bifano, B. M. Levine, and M. N. Horenstein, "Adaptive optic correction using micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirrors," Opt. Eng. 41, 561-566 Mar. 2002.
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. Paterson, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror," Opt. Express 6, 175 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

W. H. Southwell, "Wave-front estimation from wave-front slope measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 998 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

R. J. Noll, "Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207-211, 1976.
[CrossRef]

Bifano, T. G.

J. A. Perreault, T. G. Bifano, B. M. Levine, and M. N. Horenstein, "Adaptive optic correction using micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirrors," Opt. Eng. 41, 561-566 Mar. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Booth, M. J.

M. J. Booth, T. Wilson, T. Ota and T. Sugiura, "Dynamic axial position control of a laser trapped particle by wave-front modification," Opt. Lett. 28, 465-468, 2003.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, C.

O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, and C. Bradley, "Hot air turbulence generator for the testing of adaptive optics systems: principles and characterization," Appl. Opt. 45, 4888-4897 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dainty, J. C.

C. Paterson, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror," Opt. Express 6, 175 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunlop, C. N.

M. Langlois, C. D. Saunter, C. N. Dunlop, R. M. Myers, and G. D. Love, "Multi-conjugate adaptive optics: laboratory experience," Opt. Express 12, 1689 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horenstein, M. N.

J. A. Perreault, T. G. Bifano, B. M. Levine, and M. N. Horenstein, "Adaptive optic correction using micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirrors," Opt. Eng. 41, 561-566 Mar. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Jolissaint, L.

O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, and C. Bradley, "Hot air turbulence generator for the testing of adaptive optics systems: principles and characterization," Appl. Opt. 45, 4888-4897 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keskin, O.

O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, and C. Bradley, "Hot air turbulence generator for the testing of adaptive optics systems: principles and characterization," Appl. Opt. 45, 4888-4897 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotova, S. P.

S. P. Kotova et al., "Modal liquid crystal wavefront corrector," Opt. Express 10,1258 (2002).
[PubMed]

Langlois, M.

M. Langlois, C. D. Saunter, C. N. Dunlop, R. M. Myers, and G. D. Love, "Multi-conjugate adaptive optics: laboratory experience," Opt. Express 12, 1689 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levine, B. M.

J. A. Perreault, T. G. Bifano, B. M. Levine, and M. N. Horenstein, "Adaptive optic correction using micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirrors," Opt. Eng. 41, 561-566 Mar. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Love, G. D.

M. Langlois, C. D. Saunter, C. N. Dunlop, R. M. Myers, and G. D. Love, "Multi-conjugate adaptive optics: laboratory experience," Opt. Express 12, 1689 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munro, I.

C. Paterson, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror," Opt. Express 6, 175 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myers, R. M.

M. Langlois, C. D. Saunter, C. N. Dunlop, R. M. Myers, and G. D. Love, "Multi-conjugate adaptive optics: laboratory experience," Opt. Express 12, 1689 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noll, R. J.

R. J. Noll, "Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207-211, 1976.
[CrossRef]

Ota, T.

M. J. Booth, T. Wilson, T. Ota and T. Sugiura, "Dynamic axial position control of a laser trapped particle by wave-front modification," Opt. Lett. 28, 465-468, 2003.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paterson, C.

C. Paterson, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror," Opt. Express 6, 175 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perreault, J. A.

J. A. Perreault, T. G. Bifano, B. M. Levine, and M. N. Horenstein, "Adaptive optic correction using micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirrors," Opt. Eng. 41, 561-566 Mar. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Saunter, C. D.

M. Langlois, C. D. Saunter, C. N. Dunlop, R. M. Myers, and G. D. Love, "Multi-conjugate adaptive optics: laboratory experience," Opt. Express 12, 1689 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southwell, W. H.

W. H. Southwell, "Wave-front estimation from wave-front slope measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 998 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, T.

M. J. Booth, T. Wilson, T. Ota and T. Sugiura, "Dynamic axial position control of a laser trapped particle by wave-front modification," Opt. Lett. 28, 465-468, 2003.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, T.

M. J. Booth, T. Wilson, T. Ota and T. Sugiura, "Dynamic axial position control of a laser trapped particle by wave-front modification," Opt. Lett. 28, 465-468, 2003.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, and C. Bradley, "Hot air turbulence generator for the testing of adaptive optics systems: principles and characterization," Appl. Opt. 45, 4888-4897 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

W. H. Southwell, "Wave-front estimation from wave-front slope measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 998 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Noll, "Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207-211, 1976.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. A. Perreault, T. G. Bifano, B. M. Levine, and M. N. Horenstein, "Adaptive optic correction using micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirrors," Opt. Eng. 41, 561-566 Mar. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

S. P. Kotova et al., "Modal liquid crystal wavefront corrector," Opt. Express 10,1258 (2002).
[PubMed]

M. Langlois, C. D. Saunter, C. N. Dunlop, R. M. Myers, and G. D. Love, "Multi-conjugate adaptive optics: laboratory experience," Opt. Express 12, 1689 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Paterson, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, "A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror," Opt. Express 6, 175 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

M. J. Booth, T. Wilson, T. Ota and T. Sugiura, "Dynamic axial position control of a laser trapped particle by wave-front modification," Opt. Lett. 28, 465-468, 2003.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

T. Bifano, P. Bierden, H. Zhu, S. Cornelissen, and J. H. Kim, "Megapixel wavefront correctors," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D. B. Calia, B. L. Ellerbroek, and R. Ragazzoni, eds., Proc. SPIE 5490, 1472-1484 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Macintosh et al., "The Gemini Planet Imager," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II, B. L. Ellerbroek and D. B. Calia, eds., Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ellerbroek et al., "A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics system," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. B. Calia, eds., Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720D (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Conan, P. Hampton, and C. Bradley, "The woofer-tweeter experiment," in Advances in Adaptive Optics II, edited by B.L. Ellerbroek, D.B. Calia, eds., Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721V (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Science and WFS optical paths on the test bed. (Lens focal lengths are indicated.)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Map of the 80 illuminated DM actuators. (Broken actuators signified by ‘x’.)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Deformable mirror single actuator influence function at 75%.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

0± and 45± cross-sections of DM influence function.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Individual, superimposed, and 2-actuator influence function cross-sections.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Best fit of Zernike modes and the residual error for the 140-actuator DM.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Best fit of Zernike modes and the residual error for a 1024-actuator DM.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

DM displacement for an increasing and decreasing voltage cycle.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a). DM displacement response time to a (b) voltage step.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ ϕ 2 = ϕ 2 = 0.134 ( D r 0 ) 5 3
δ = 2 λ 2 π 3 σ ϕ = 3 λ π 0 . 366 ( D r 0 ) 5 6 = 1.51 μm
δ ( V ) = ( 33.4 V 2 + 186 V + 30.9 ) pm

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