Abstract

Recent work has indicated the potential of light to modify the growth of neuronal cells. The two reported studies however, were performed on two independent optical set-ups and on differing cell-types at different temperatures and at different wavelengths. Therefore, it is unknown whether there is a bias for this effect to a particular wavelength which would have implications for the mechanisms for this phenomenon. Localized changes in heat have been suggested as a possible mechanism for this process, but as yet there is no direct experimental evidence to support or discount this hypothesis. In this paper, we report the first direct comparison on one cell type, of this process at two near infra-red wavelengths: 780 nm and 1064 nm using exactly the same beam shape. We show that light at both wavelengths is equally effective in initiating this process. We also directly measure the temperature rise caused by each wavelength in water and its absorption in the cellular medium. The recorded temperature rises are insufficient to change the rate of actin polymerization.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Albrecht-Buehler, "Surface extensions of 3T3 cells towards distant infrared light sources," J. Cell. Biol.,  114, 493-502 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, "Guiding neuronal growth with light, " Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 99, 16024 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. W. Dent and F. B. Gertler, "Cytoskeletal dynamics and transport in growth cone motility and axon guidance," Neuron 40, 2, 209-227 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Stuhrmann, M. Gögler, T. Betz, A. Ehrlicher, D. Koch, and J. Käs, "Automated tracking and laser micromanipulation of motile cells," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 035105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Mohanty, M. Sharma, M. Panicker, and P. Gupta, "Controlled induction, enhancement, and guidance of neuronal growth cones by use of line optical tweezers," Opt. Lett. 30, 2596-2598 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Pichaud, A. Briscoe and C. Desplan, "Evolution of color vision," Curr. Opin. Neuobiol. 9, 622 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. S. Niranjan and P. B. Yim, "The polymerization of actin: Thermodynamics near the polymerization line," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 4070-4084 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Mao, J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, S. B. Smith, I. TinocoJr., and C. Bustamante, "Temperature control methods in a laser-tweezers system," Biophys. J. 89, 1308-1316 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Felgner, O. Müller, and M. Schliwa, "Calibration of light forces in optical tweezers," Appl. Opt. 34, 977-982 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, "Laser-induced heating in optical traps," Biophys. J. 84, 1308-1316 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman and B. J. Tromberg, "Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers," Biophys. J. 68, 2137-2144 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. C. Kuo, "A simple assay for local heating by optical tweezers," Methods Cell Biol. 55, 43-45 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (3)

B. Stuhrmann, M. Gögler, T. Betz, A. Ehrlicher, D. Koch, and J. Käs, "Automated tracking and laser micromanipulation of motile cells," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 035105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Mao, J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, S. B. Smith, I. TinocoJr., and C. Bustamante, "Temperature control methods in a laser-tweezers system," Biophys. J. 89, 1308-1316 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mohanty, M. Sharma, M. Panicker, and P. Gupta, "Controlled induction, enhancement, and guidance of neuronal growth cones by use of line optical tweezers," Opt. Lett. 30, 2596-2598 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, "Laser-induced heating in optical traps," Biophys. J. 84, 1308-1316 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Dent and F. B. Gertler, "Cytoskeletal dynamics and transport in growth cone motility and axon guidance," Neuron 40, 2, 209-227 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Niranjan and P. B. Yim, "The polymerization of actin: Thermodynamics near the polymerization line," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 4070-4084 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, "Guiding neuronal growth with light, " Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 99, 16024 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

F. Pichaud, A. Briscoe and C. Desplan, "Evolution of color vision," Curr. Opin. Neuobiol. 9, 622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. C. Kuo, "A simple assay for local heating by optical tweezers," Methods Cell Biol. 55, 43-45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

H. Felgner, O. Müller, and M. Schliwa, "Calibration of light forces in optical tweezers," Appl. Opt. 34, 977-982 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman and B. J. Tromberg, "Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers," Biophys. J. 68, 2137-2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

G. Albrecht-Buehler, "Surface extensions of 3T3 cells towards distant infrared light sources," J. Cell. Biol.,  114, 493-502 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albrecht-Buehler, G.

G. Albrecht-Buehler, "Surface extensions of 3T3 cells towards distant infrared light sources," J. Cell. Biol.,  114, 493-502 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arias-Gonzalez, J. R.

H. Mao, J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, S. B. Smith, I. TinocoJr., and C. Bustamante, "Temperature control methods in a laser-tweezers system," Biophys. J. 89, 1308-1316 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berns, M. W.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman and B. J. Tromberg, "Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers," Biophys. J. 68, 2137-2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betz, T.

B. Stuhrmann, M. Gögler, T. Betz, A. Ehrlicher, D. Koch, and J. Käs, "Automated tracking and laser micromanipulation of motile cells," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 035105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, "Guiding neuronal growth with light, " Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 99, 16024 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briscoe, A.

F. Pichaud, A. Briscoe and C. Desplan, "Evolution of color vision," Curr. Opin. Neuobiol. 9, 622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bustamante, C.

H. Mao, J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, S. B. Smith, I. TinocoJr., and C. Bustamante, "Temperature control methods in a laser-tweezers system," Biophys. J. 89, 1308-1316 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapman, C. F.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman and B. J. Tromberg, "Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers," Biophys. J. 68, 2137-2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, D. K.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman and B. J. Tromberg, "Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers," Biophys. J. 68, 2137-2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dent, E. W.

E. W. Dent and F. B. Gertler, "Cytoskeletal dynamics and transport in growth cone motility and axon guidance," Neuron 40, 2, 209-227 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desplan, C.

F. Pichaud, A. Briscoe and C. Desplan, "Evolution of color vision," Curr. Opin. Neuobiol. 9, 622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlicher, A.

B. Stuhrmann, M. Gögler, T. Betz, A. Ehrlicher, D. Koch, and J. Käs, "Automated tracking and laser micromanipulation of motile cells," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 035105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, "Guiding neuronal growth with light, " Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 99, 16024 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Felgner, H.

Gertler, F. B.

E. W. Dent and F. B. Gertler, "Cytoskeletal dynamics and transport in growth cone motility and axon guidance," Neuron 40, 2, 209-227 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gittes, F.

E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, "Laser-induced heating in optical traps," Biophys. J. 84, 1308-1316 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gögler, M.

B. Stuhrmann, M. Gögler, T. Betz, A. Ehrlicher, D. Koch, and J. Käs, "Automated tracking and laser micromanipulation of motile cells," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 035105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, P.

Kas, J.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, "Guiding neuronal growth with light, " Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 99, 16024 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Käs, J.

B. Stuhrmann, M. Gögler, T. Betz, A. Ehrlicher, D. Koch, and J. Käs, "Automated tracking and laser micromanipulation of motile cells," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 035105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koch, D.

B. Stuhrmann, M. Gögler, T. Betz, A. Ehrlicher, D. Koch, and J. Käs, "Automated tracking and laser micromanipulation of motile cells," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 035105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, "Guiding neuronal growth with light, " Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 99, 16024 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, S. C.

S. C. Kuo, "A simple assay for local heating by optical tweezers," Methods Cell Biol. 55, 43-45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman and B. J. Tromberg, "Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers," Biophys. J. 68, 2137-2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mao, H.

H. Mao, J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, S. B. Smith, I. TinocoJr., and C. Bustamante, "Temperature control methods in a laser-tweezers system," Biophys. J. 89, 1308-1316 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, V.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, "Guiding neuronal growth with light, " Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 99, 16024 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohanty, S.

Müller, O.

Niranjan, P. S.

P. S. Niranjan and P. B. Yim, "The polymerization of actin: Thermodynamics near the polymerization line," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 4070-4084 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Panicker, M.

Peterman, E. J. G.

E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, "Laser-induced heating in optical traps," Biophys. J. 84, 1308-1316 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pichaud, F.

F. Pichaud, A. Briscoe and C. Desplan, "Evolution of color vision," Curr. Opin. Neuobiol. 9, 622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raizen, M. G.

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, "Guiding neuronal growth with light, " Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 99, 16024 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schliwa, M.

Schmidt, C. F.

E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, "Laser-induced heating in optical traps," Biophys. J. 84, 1308-1316 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, M.

Smith, S. B.

H. Mao, J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, S. B. Smith, I. TinocoJr., and C. Bustamante, "Temperature control methods in a laser-tweezers system," Biophys. J. 89, 1308-1316 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonek, G. J.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman and B. J. Tromberg, "Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers," Biophys. J. 68, 2137-2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stuhrmann, B.

B. Stuhrmann, M. Gögler, T. Betz, A. Ehrlicher, D. Koch, and J. Käs, "Automated tracking and laser micromanipulation of motile cells," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 035105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, "Guiding neuronal growth with light, " Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 99, 16024 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tinoco, I.

H. Mao, J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, S. B. Smith, I. TinocoJr., and C. Bustamante, "Temperature control methods in a laser-tweezers system," Biophys. J. 89, 1308-1316 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman and B. J. Tromberg, "Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers," Biophys. J. 68, 2137-2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yim, P. B.

P. S. Niranjan and P. B. Yim, "The polymerization of actin: Thermodynamics near the polymerization line," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 4070-4084 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biophys. J. (3)

E. J. G. Peterman, F. Gittes, and C. F. Schmidt, "Laser-induced heating in optical traps," Biophys. J. 84, 1308-1316 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, D. K. Cheng, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, C. F. Chapman and B. J. Tromberg, "Evidence for localized cell heating induced by infrared optical tweezers," Biophys. J. 68, 2137-2144 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mao, J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, S. B. Smith, I. TinocoJr., and C. Bustamante, "Temperature control methods in a laser-tweezers system," Biophys. J. 89, 1308-1316 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Neuobiol. (1)

F. Pichaud, A. Briscoe and C. Desplan, "Evolution of color vision," Curr. Opin. Neuobiol. 9, 622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Cell. Biol. (1)

G. Albrecht-Buehler, "Surface extensions of 3T3 cells towards distant infrared light sources," J. Cell. Biol.,  114, 493-502 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

P. S. Niranjan and P. B. Yim, "The polymerization of actin: Thermodynamics near the polymerization line," J. Chem. Phys. 119, 4070-4084 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Methods Cell Biol. (1)

S. C. Kuo, "A simple assay for local heating by optical tweezers," Methods Cell Biol. 55, 43-45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neuron (1)

E. W. Dent and F. B. Gertler, "Cytoskeletal dynamics and transport in growth cone motility and axon guidance," Neuron 40, 2, 209-227 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci (1)

A. Ehrlicher, T. Betz, B. Stuhrmann, D. Koch, V. Milner, M. G. Raizen, and J. Kas, "Guiding neuronal growth with light, " Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 99, 16024 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

B. Stuhrmann, M. Gögler, T. Betz, A. Ehrlicher, D. Koch, and J. Käs, "Automated tracking and laser micromanipulation of motile cells," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 035105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The optical setup. The system used laser wavelengths of 780 nm and 1064 nm each focused to approximately the same beam spot in the sample plane.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Examples showing the influence of laser light (circled) of (A) 1064 nm or (B) 780 nm wavelength on growth cone direction. Each image is 6 minute intervals for a total of 30 min of observed growth. The black circle denotes the position of the laser spot which was moved over time. The arrow in the top images indicates the original direction of neuronal growth. The arrows in the bottom images indicate the final direction, thus showing the change in direction of growth caused by the influence of the laser light.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured transmittance of water and Dulbecco’s Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM), the neuron growth culture media. Data was acquired using an ellipsometer.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of the results from 150 separate experiments. *Significantly different from non-laser control (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.05 where p denotes the 95% confidence level). #Non significant difference between these two wavelengths (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.05). For every cell sample dish investigated, the laser power was increased until the neuron retraction was observed. The power was then reduced to below this retraction threshold to begin the growth process.

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