Abstract

A novel fiber-optic interferometric sensor is presented for vibrations measurements and analysis. In this approach, it is shown applied to the vibrations of electrical structures within power transformers. A main feature of the sensor is that an unambiguous optical phase measurement is performed using the direct detection of the interferometer output, without external modulation, for a more compact and stable implementation. High resolution of the interferometric measurement is obtained with this technique (<1 nm). The optical-fiber transducer is also specifically designed for magnifying the localized vibrations in order to modulate deeply the interferometric signal. Other advantages of the implementation for measurements within transformers are also highlighted.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Kang, and D. Birtwhistle, "Condition monitoring of power transformer on-load tap-changers II. Detection of ageing from vibration signatures", IEE Proc. Gen. Trans. and Distrib. 148,307-311 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Bartoletti, M. Desiderio, D. Di-Carlo, G. Fazio, F. Muzi, G. Sacerdoti, and F. Salvatori, "Vibro-acoustic techniques to diagnose power transformers", IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 19, 221-229 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Suzuki, T. Okada, O. Sasaki, and T. Maruyama, "Real-time vibration measurement using a feedback type of laser diode interferometer with an optical fiber", Opt. Eng. 36, 2496-2502 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S.T. Vohra, B. Danver, A.B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, "High performance fiber optic accelerometers", Electron. Lett. 33, 155-157 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R.D. Pechstedt, and D.A. Jackson, "Performance analysis of a fiber optic accelerometer based on a compliant cylinder design", Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 207-214 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. H. Chen, G. L. Ding, D. L. Zhang, Y. M. Cui, and S. Q. Li, "Michelson fiber optic accelerometer." Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3123-3126 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. A. Bucaro, and N. Lagakos, "Lightweight fiber optic microphones and accelerometers", Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2816-2821 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. M. López-Higuera, M. A. Morante, and A. Cobo, "Simple low-frequency optical fiber accelerometer with large rotating machine monitoring applications", IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1120-30 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Malki, P. Lecoy, J. Marty, C. Renouf, and P. Ferdinand, "Optical fiber accelerometer based on a silicon micromachined cantilever", Appl. Opt. 34, 8014-8018 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. K. Kirkendall and A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing", Journal Of Physics D-Applied Physics 37, 197-216 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J.A. García-Souto, and H. Lamela, "Comparative analysis of optical-fibre interferometric sensors versus accelerometers: application to vibrations inside high-power transformers", Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics 4, 318-326 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Lamela, J. A. García-Souto, and J. Sanz "Measurements of mechanical vibrations at magnetic cores of power transformers with fiber-optic interferometric intrinsic sensor", IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 788-797 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2004

C. Bartoletti, M. Desiderio, D. Di-Carlo, G. Fazio, F. Muzi, G. Sacerdoti, and F. Salvatori, "Vibro-acoustic techniques to diagnose power transformers", IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 19, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Kirkendall and A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing", Journal Of Physics D-Applied Physics 37, 197-216 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

J.A. García-Souto, and H. Lamela, "Comparative analysis of optical-fibre interferometric sensors versus accelerometers: application to vibrations inside high-power transformers", Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics 4, 318-326 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. Kang, and D. Birtwhistle, "Condition monitoring of power transformer on-load tap-changers II. Detection of ageing from vibration signatures", IEE Proc. Gen. Trans. and Distrib. 148,307-311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bucaro, and N. Lagakos, "Lightweight fiber optic microphones and accelerometers", Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2816-2821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Lamela, J. A. García-Souto, and J. Sanz "Measurements of mechanical vibrations at magnetic cores of power transformers with fiber-optic interferometric intrinsic sensor", IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 788-797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. H. Chen, G. L. Ding, D. L. Zhang, Y. M. Cui, and S. Q. Li, "Michelson fiber optic accelerometer." Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3123-3126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. M. López-Higuera, M. A. Morante, and A. Cobo, "Simple low-frequency optical fiber accelerometer with large rotating machine monitoring applications", IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1120-30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki, T. Okada, O. Sasaki, and T. Maruyama, "Real-time vibration measurement using a feedback type of laser diode interferometer with an optical fiber", Opt. Eng. 36, 2496-2502 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S.T. Vohra, B. Danver, A.B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, "High performance fiber optic accelerometers", Electron. Lett. 33, 155-157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

R.D. Pechstedt, and D.A. Jackson, "Performance analysis of a fiber optic accelerometer based on a compliant cylinder design", Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 207-214 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Malki, P. Lecoy, J. Marty, C. Renouf, and P. Ferdinand, "Optical fiber accelerometer based on a silicon micromachined cantilever", Appl. Opt. 34, 8014-8018 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartoletti, C.

C. Bartoletti, M. Desiderio, D. Di-Carlo, G. Fazio, F. Muzi, G. Sacerdoti, and F. Salvatori, "Vibro-acoustic techniques to diagnose power transformers", IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 19, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Birtwhistle, D.

P. Kang, and D. Birtwhistle, "Condition monitoring of power transformer on-load tap-changers II. Detection of ageing from vibration signatures", IEE Proc. Gen. Trans. and Distrib. 148,307-311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bucaro, J. A.

J. A. Bucaro, and N. Lagakos, "Lightweight fiber optic microphones and accelerometers", Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2816-2821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Chen, G. L. Ding, D. L. Zhang, Y. M. Cui, and S. Q. Li, "Michelson fiber optic accelerometer." Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3123-3126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cobo, A.

J. M. López-Higuera, M. A. Morante, and A. Cobo, "Simple low-frequency optical fiber accelerometer with large rotating machine monitoring applications", IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1120-30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y. M.

C. H. Chen, G. L. Ding, D. L. Zhang, Y. M. Cui, and S. Q. Li, "Michelson fiber optic accelerometer." Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3123-3126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dandridge, A.

C. K. Kirkendall and A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing", Journal Of Physics D-Applied Physics 37, 197-216 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.T. Vohra, B. Danver, A.B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, "High performance fiber optic accelerometers", Electron. Lett. 33, 155-157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Danver, B.

S.T. Vohra, B. Danver, A.B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, "High performance fiber optic accelerometers", Electron. Lett. 33, 155-157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Desiderio, M.

C. Bartoletti, M. Desiderio, D. Di-Carlo, G. Fazio, F. Muzi, G. Sacerdoti, and F. Salvatori, "Vibro-acoustic techniques to diagnose power transformers", IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 19, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Di-Carlo, D.

C. Bartoletti, M. Desiderio, D. Di-Carlo, G. Fazio, F. Muzi, G. Sacerdoti, and F. Salvatori, "Vibro-acoustic techniques to diagnose power transformers", IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 19, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ding, G. L.

C. H. Chen, G. L. Ding, D. L. Zhang, Y. M. Cui, and S. Q. Li, "Michelson fiber optic accelerometer." Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3123-3126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fazio, G.

C. Bartoletti, M. Desiderio, D. Di-Carlo, G. Fazio, F. Muzi, G. Sacerdoti, and F. Salvatori, "Vibro-acoustic techniques to diagnose power transformers", IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 19, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferdinand, P.

García-Souto, J. A.

H. Lamela, J. A. García-Souto, and J. Sanz "Measurements of mechanical vibrations at magnetic cores of power transformers with fiber-optic interferometric intrinsic sensor", IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 788-797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

García-Souto, J.A.

J.A. García-Souto, and H. Lamela, "Comparative analysis of optical-fibre interferometric sensors versus accelerometers: application to vibrations inside high-power transformers", Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics 4, 318-326 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D.A.

R.D. Pechstedt, and D.A. Jackson, "Performance analysis of a fiber optic accelerometer based on a compliant cylinder design", Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 207-214 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kang, P.

P. Kang, and D. Birtwhistle, "Condition monitoring of power transformer on-load tap-changers II. Detection of ageing from vibration signatures", IEE Proc. Gen. Trans. and Distrib. 148,307-311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kirkendall, C. K.

C. K. Kirkendall and A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing", Journal Of Physics D-Applied Physics 37, 197-216 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lagakos, N.

J. A. Bucaro, and N. Lagakos, "Lightweight fiber optic microphones and accelerometers", Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2816-2821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lamela, H.

J.A. García-Souto, and H. Lamela, "Comparative analysis of optical-fibre interferometric sensors versus accelerometers: application to vibrations inside high-power transformers", Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics 4, 318-326 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Lamela, J. A. García-Souto, and J. Sanz "Measurements of mechanical vibrations at magnetic cores of power transformers with fiber-optic interferometric intrinsic sensor", IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 788-797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lecoy, P.

Li, S. Q.

C. H. Chen, G. L. Ding, D. L. Zhang, Y. M. Cui, and S. Q. Li, "Michelson fiber optic accelerometer." Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3123-3126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

López-Higuera, J. M.

J. M. López-Higuera, M. A. Morante, and A. Cobo, "Simple low-frequency optical fiber accelerometer with large rotating machine monitoring applications", IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1120-30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Malki, A.

Marty, J.

Maruyama, T.

T. Suzuki, T. Okada, O. Sasaki, and T. Maruyama, "Real-time vibration measurement using a feedback type of laser diode interferometer with an optical fiber", Opt. Eng. 36, 2496-2502 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morante, M. A.

J. M. López-Higuera, M. A. Morante, and A. Cobo, "Simple low-frequency optical fiber accelerometer with large rotating machine monitoring applications", IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1120-30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Muzi, F.

C. Bartoletti, M. Desiderio, D. Di-Carlo, G. Fazio, F. Muzi, G. Sacerdoti, and F. Salvatori, "Vibro-acoustic techniques to diagnose power transformers", IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 19, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okada, T.

T. Suzuki, T. Okada, O. Sasaki, and T. Maruyama, "Real-time vibration measurement using a feedback type of laser diode interferometer with an optical fiber", Opt. Eng. 36, 2496-2502 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pechstedt, R.D.

R.D. Pechstedt, and D.A. Jackson, "Performance analysis of a fiber optic accelerometer based on a compliant cylinder design", Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 207-214 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Renouf, C.

Sacerdoti, G.

C. Bartoletti, M. Desiderio, D. Di-Carlo, G. Fazio, F. Muzi, G. Sacerdoti, and F. Salvatori, "Vibro-acoustic techniques to diagnose power transformers", IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 19, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salvatori, F.

C. Bartoletti, M. Desiderio, D. Di-Carlo, G. Fazio, F. Muzi, G. Sacerdoti, and F. Salvatori, "Vibro-acoustic techniques to diagnose power transformers", IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 19, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sanz, J.

H. Lamela, J. A. García-Souto, and J. Sanz "Measurements of mechanical vibrations at magnetic cores of power transformers with fiber-optic interferometric intrinsic sensor", IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 788-797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, O.

T. Suzuki, T. Okada, O. Sasaki, and T. Maruyama, "Real-time vibration measurement using a feedback type of laser diode interferometer with an optical fiber", Opt. Eng. 36, 2496-2502 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

T. Suzuki, T. Okada, O. Sasaki, and T. Maruyama, "Real-time vibration measurement using a feedback type of laser diode interferometer with an optical fiber", Opt. Eng. 36, 2496-2502 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tveten, A.B.

S.T. Vohra, B. Danver, A.B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, "High performance fiber optic accelerometers", Electron. Lett. 33, 155-157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vohra, S.T.

S.T. Vohra, B. Danver, A.B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, "High performance fiber optic accelerometers", Electron. Lett. 33, 155-157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. L.

C. H. Chen, G. L. Ding, D. L. Zhang, Y. M. Cui, and S. Q. Li, "Michelson fiber optic accelerometer." Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3123-3126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

S.T. Vohra, B. Danver, A.B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, "High performance fiber optic accelerometers", Electron. Lett. 33, 155-157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Gen. Trans. and Distrib.

P. Kang, and D. Birtwhistle, "Condition monitoring of power transformer on-load tap-changers II. Detection of ageing from vibration signatures", IEE Proc. Gen. Trans. and Distrib. 148,307-311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

J. M. López-Higuera, M. A. Morante, and A. Cobo, "Simple low-frequency optical fiber accelerometer with large rotating machine monitoring applications", IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1120-30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

H. Lamela, J. A. García-Souto, and J. Sanz "Measurements of mechanical vibrations at magnetic cores of power transformers with fiber-optic interferometric intrinsic sensor", IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 788-797 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Power Deliv.

C. Bartoletti, M. Desiderio, D. Di-Carlo, G. Fazio, F. Muzi, G. Sacerdoti, and F. Salvatori, "Vibro-acoustic techniques to diagnose power transformers", IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 19, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics

J.A. García-Souto, and H. Lamela, "Comparative analysis of optical-fibre interferometric sensors versus accelerometers: application to vibrations inside high-power transformers", Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics 4, 318-326 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Journal Of Physics D-Applied Physics

C. K. Kirkendall and A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing", Journal Of Physics D-Applied Physics 37, 197-216 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

T. Suzuki, T. Okada, O. Sasaki, and T. Maruyama, "Real-time vibration measurement using a feedback type of laser diode interferometer with an optical fiber", Opt. Eng. 36, 2496-2502 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

R.D. Pechstedt, and D.A. Jackson, "Performance analysis of a fiber optic accelerometer based on a compliant cylinder design", Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 207-214 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, G. L. Ding, D. L. Zhang, Y. M. Cui, and S. Q. Li, "Michelson fiber optic accelerometer." Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3123-3126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bucaro, and N. Lagakos, "Lightweight fiber optic microphones and accelerometers", Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2816-2821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

High-sensitivity intrinsic probe of optical fiber. (a) Probe completely bonded for monitoring dynamic strain. (b) Front view of the coil for M segments; (c) Bottom view of the sensor with M segments.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optoelectronic set-up of the fiber-optic laser interferometer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Synchronism between the forced multi-period interferometric output and the voltage input to the transformer that is used as a reference signal for the optical phase measurement.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calibration of vibrations at different frequencies: (a) Experimental set-up; Results with the fiber-optic interferometer and the accelerometer: (b) 100Hz, (c) 200Hz, (d) 400 Hz. The linearity of the sensor system was evaluated in terms of the induced harmonics when a single frequency input is used (Fig. 5). The power for each frequency different to the excitation was compared with the power at the excited frequency in relative means. They are shown in Fig. 5, where the traces of the calibrations at 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are overstrike (data from Fig. 4 was used). The maximum relative power in a band-width of 10 kHz corresponds to a harmonic of 100 Hz that was proven one order of magnitude better that with the accelerometer for all frequencies [11].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Harmonic decomposition of the output of two sensors with pure tone inputs. Overstrike traces of responses to 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz in relative units to the amplitude of the output at the main frequency: (a) Fiber-optic interferometer (b) Accelerometer.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Fiber-optic vibration probes installed within a medium-power transformer.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Optical phase measurement of the multi-period interferometric output with a reference signal of synchronism.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ ϕ = M L ( 2 π n λ ) ξ η ( Δ L L )
I ( t ) = I o { 1 ± V cos [ ϕ 0 + Δ ϕ ( t ) ] }
ϕ ε = cos 1 [ ( I I o ) I o V ]

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