Abstract

We report sub-400 nm spatial resolution with Gabor holography obtained using a highly coherent table top 46.9 nm laser. The hologram was recorded in high resolution photoresist and subsequently digitized with an atomic force microscope. The final image was numerically reconstructed with a Fresnel propagator. Optimal reconstruction parameters and quantification of spatial resolution were obtained with a wavelet analysis and image correlation.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Gabor, "A new microscopic principle," Nature 161, 777 (1948).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, "Reconstructed wavefronts and communication theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1123 (1962).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, "Demonstration of X-Ray holography with an X-Ray laser," Science 238, 517 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Lindaas, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen and A. Kalinovsky, "X-ray holographic microscopy by means of photoresist recording and atomic force microscope readout," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1788 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, "High resolution imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray holography," Science 256, 1009 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Elsebitt, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro holography," Nature 432, 885 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, D. Alessi, M. Berril, J. J. Rocca, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, V. Shlyaptsev, "High repetition rate collisional soft X-ray lasers based on grazing incidence pumping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 42, 4 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. A. Bartels, P. A. Green, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. B. R. Benware, C. H. Moreno, D. J. Burd, and J. J. Rocca, "Operation and output pulse characteristics of an extremely compact capillary-discharge tabletop soft-x-ray laser," Opt. Lett. 22, 796 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, S. Lindaas, and S. Williams, "Exposure strategies for PMMA in situ x-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1477 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2006

B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, D. Alessi, M. Berril, J. J. Rocca, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, V. Shlyaptsev, "High repetition rate collisional soft X-ray lasers based on grazing incidence pumping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 42, 4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Nuňez, X. Otazu, and M. T. Merino, "A multiresolution-based method for the determination of the relative resolution between images: First application to remote sensing and medical images," Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 15, 225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Elsebitt, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro holography," Nature 432, 885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. A. Bartels, P. A. Green, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376 (2002).
[PubMed]

T. Beetz and C. Jacobsen, "Soft X-ray radiation damage studies in PMMA using a cryo-STXM," J Synchrotron Radiat. 10, 280 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, C. H. Moreno, B. R. Benware and J. J. Rocca, "Measurement of the spatial coherence buildup in a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2799 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. H. Moreno, D. J. Burd, and J. J. Rocca, "Operation and output pulse characteristics of an extremely compact capillary-discharge tabletop soft-x-ray laser," Opt. Lett. 22, 796 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

1995

X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, S. Lindaas, and S. Williams, "Exposure strategies for PMMA in situ x-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1477 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, "High resolution imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray holography," Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, "Demonstration of X-Ray holography with an X-Ray laser," Science 238, 517 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974

S. Aoki and S. Kikuta, "X ray holographic microscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 13, 1385 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969

1962

1952

1950

G. L. Rogers. "Gabor diffraction microscopy. The hologram as a generalized zone-plate," Nature 166, 236 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1948

D. Gabor, "A new microscopic principle," Nature 161, 777 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alessi, D.

B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, D. Alessi, M. Berril, J. J. Rocca, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, V. Shlyaptsev, "High repetition rate collisional soft X-ray lasers based on grazing incidence pumping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 42, 4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, "High resolution imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray holography," Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoki, S.

S. Aoki and S. Kikuta, "X ray holographic microscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 13, 1385 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

R. A. Bartels, P. A. Green, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376 (2002).
[PubMed]

Backus, S.

R. A. Bartels, P. A. Green, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376 (2002).
[PubMed]

Baez, A. V.

Bartels, R. A.

R. A. Bartels, P. A. Green, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376 (2002).
[PubMed]

Beetz, T.

T. Beetz and C. Jacobsen, "Soft X-ray radiation damage studies in PMMA using a cryo-STXM," J Synchrotron Radiat. 10, 280 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Benware, B. R.

Berril, M.

B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, D. Alessi, M. Berril, J. J. Rocca, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, V. Shlyaptsev, "High repetition rate collisional soft X-ray lasers based on grazing incidence pumping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 42, 4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S. B.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, "Demonstration of X-Ray holography with an X-Ray laser," Science 238, 517 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burd, D. J.

Campbell, E. M.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, "Demonstration of X-Ray holography with an X-Ray laser," Science 238, 517 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chilla, J. L. A.

M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, C. H. Moreno, B. R. Benware and J. J. Rocca, "Measurement of the spatial coherence buildup in a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2799 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

R. A. Bartels, P. A. Green, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376 (2002).
[PubMed]

Dunn, J.

B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, D. Alessi, M. Berril, J. J. Rocca, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, V. Shlyaptsev, "High repetition rate collisional soft X-ray lasers based on grazing incidence pumping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 42, 4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eberhardt, W.

S. Elsebitt, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro holography," Nature 432, 885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elsebitt, S.

S. Elsebitt, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro holography," Nature 432, 885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, "A new microscopic principle," Nature 161, 777 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giles, J. W.

Green, P. A.

R. A. Bartels, P. A. Green, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376 (2002).
[PubMed]

Hellwig, O.

S. Elsebitt, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro holography," Nature 432, 885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Howells, M.

Howells, M. R.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, "High resolution imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray holography," Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, C.

R. A. Bartels, P. A. Green, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376 (2002).
[PubMed]

T. Beetz and C. Jacobsen, "Soft X-ray radiation damage studies in PMMA using a cryo-STXM," J Synchrotron Radiat. 10, 280 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Lindaas, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen and A. Kalinovsky, "X-ray holographic microscopy by means of photoresist recording and atomic force microscope readout," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1788 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, S. Lindaas, and S. Williams, "Exposure strategies for PMMA in situ x-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1477 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, "High resolution imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray holography," Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalinovsky, A.

Kapteyn, H.

R. A. Bartels, P. A. Green, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376 (2002).
[PubMed]

Keenan, R.

B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, D. Alessi, M. Berril, J. J. Rocca, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, V. Shlyaptsev, "High repetition rate collisional soft X-ray lasers based on grazing incidence pumping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 42, 4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kern, D. P.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, "High resolution imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray holography," Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kikuta, S.

S. Aoki and S. Kikuta, "X ray holographic microscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 13, 1385 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kirz, J.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, "High resolution imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray holography," Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larotonda, M. A.

B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, D. Alessi, M. Berril, J. J. Rocca, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, V. Shlyaptsev, "High repetition rate collisional soft X-ray lasers based on grazing incidence pumping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 42, 4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leith, E. N.

Lindaas, S.

S. Lindaas, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen and A. Kalinovsky, "X-ray holographic microscopy by means of photoresist recording and atomic force microscope readout," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1788 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, S. Lindaas, and S. Williams, "Exposure strategies for PMMA in situ x-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1477 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lorgen, M.

S. Elsebitt, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro holography," Nature 432, 885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luther, B. M.

B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, D. Alessi, M. Berril, J. J. Rocca, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, V. Shlyaptsev, "High repetition rate collisional soft X-ray lasers based on grazing incidence pumping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 42, 4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Macchietto, C. D.

Marconi, M. C.

M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, C. H. Moreno, B. R. Benware and J. J. Rocca, "Measurement of the spatial coherence buildup in a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2799 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, D. L.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, "Demonstration of X-Ray holography with an X-Ray laser," Science 238, 517 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNulty, I.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, "High resolution imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray holography," Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merino, M. T.

J. Nuňez, X. Otazu, and M. T. Merino, "A multiresolution-based method for the determination of the relative resolution between images: First application to remote sensing and medical images," Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 15, 225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, C. H.

M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, C. H. Moreno, B. R. Benware and J. J. Rocca, "Measurement of the spatial coherence buildup in a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2799 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. H. Moreno, D. J. Burd, and J. J. Rocca, "Operation and output pulse characteristics of an extremely compact capillary-discharge tabletop soft-x-ray laser," Opt. Lett. 22, 796 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M.

R. A. Bartels, P. A. Green, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen. "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376 (2002).
[PubMed]

Nilson, D. G.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, "Demonstration of X-Ray holography with an X-Ray laser," Science 238, 517 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nunez, J.

J. Nuňez, X. Otazu, and M. T. Merino, "A multiresolution-based method for the determination of the relative resolution between images: First application to remote sensing and medical images," Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 15, 225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Otazu, X.

J. Nuňez, X. Otazu, and M. T. Merino, "A multiresolution-based method for the determination of the relative resolution between images: First application to remote sensing and medical images," Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 15, 225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J.

B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, D. Alessi, M. Berril, J. J. Rocca, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, V. Shlyaptsev, "High repetition rate collisional soft X-ray lasers based on grazing incidence pumping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 42, 4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware and J. J. Rocca, "Generation of millijoule-level soft-X ray laser pulses at a 4-Hz repetition rate in a highly saturated tabletop capillary discharge amplifier," Opt. Lett. 24, 1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. H. Moreno, D. J. Burd, and J. J. Rocca, "Operation and output pulse characteristics of an extremely compact capillary-discharge tabletop soft-x-ray laser," Opt. Lett. 22, 796 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, C. H. Moreno, B. R. Benware and J. J. Rocca, "Measurement of the spatial coherence buildup in a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2799 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, G. L.

G. L. Rogers. "Gabor diffraction microscopy. The hologram as a generalized zone-plate," Nature 166, 236 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Schlotter, W. F.

S. Elsebitt, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro holography," Nature 432, 885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shlyaptsev, V.

B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, D. Alessi, M. Berril, J. J. Rocca, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, V. Shlyaptsev, "High repetition rate collisional soft X-ray lasers based on grazing incidence pumping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 42, 4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stohr, J.

S. Elsebitt, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro holography," Nature 432, 885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stone, G. F.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, "Demonstration of X-Ray holography with an X-Ray laser," Science 238, 517 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trebes, J. E.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, "Demonstration of X-Ray holography with an X-Ray laser," Science 238, 517 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Upatnieks, J.

Wang, Y.

B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, D. Alessi, M. Berril, J. J. Rocca, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, V. Shlyaptsev, "High repetition rate collisional soft X-ray lasers based on grazing incidence pumping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 42, 4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Whelan, D. A.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, "Demonstration of X-Ray holography with an X-Ray laser," Science 238, 517 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, S.

X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, S. Lindaas, and S. Williams, "Exposure strategies for PMMA in situ x-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1477 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, S. Lindaas, and S. Williams, "Exposure strategies for PMMA in situ x-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1477 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron

B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, D. Alessi, M. Berril, J. J. Rocca, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, V. Shlyaptsev, "High repetition rate collisional soft X-ray lasers based on grazing incidence pumping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 42, 4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol.

J. Nuňez, X. Otazu, and M. T. Merino, "A multiresolution-based method for the determination of the relative resolution between images: First application to remote sensing and medical images," Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 15, 225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J Synchrotron Radiat.

T. Beetz and C. Jacobsen, "Soft X-ray radiation damage studies in PMMA using a cryo-STXM," J Synchrotron Radiat. 10, 280 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

X. Zhang, C. Jacobsen, S. Lindaas, and S. Williams, "Exposure strategies for PMMA in situ x-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 1477 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

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<other>. AFM cantilever from MicroMasch with the following physical characteristics: cantilever length 230 μm, width 40 μm, thickness t = 7 μm, full tip cone angle 30°, tip height h = 20 - 25 µm, typical tip curvature radius of uncoated probe < 10 nm.</other>

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scheme of the experimental set up.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Hologram read with an atomic force microscope. The image is composed by 9 sub scans to cover a total area 270×290 µm2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Numerical reconstruction of the hologram obtained with the Fresnel propagator. The inset shows details of the cantilever tip profile.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Coefficient obtained from the correlation between different images reconstructed with different object-hologram distances and different wavelet components as a function of the wavelet scale. Triangles: zp =4 mm; circles: zp =4.02 mm; stars: zp =4.05mm; squares: zp =4.06 mm; diamonds: zp =4.08mm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Maximum correlation coefficient for images reconstructed with different object-hologram distances. The best resolution is obtained for zp =4.04 mm.

Equations (3)

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NA = [ l c z p ] 1 2
Δ = 0.61 λ [ z p l c ] 1 2 = 0.61 [ z p Δ λ ] 1 2 .
1 f = 1 z p 1 ( z s + z p )

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