Abstract

By extending GaAs dielectric posts with a large second-order nonlinear susceptibility through the holes of a subwavelength metallic hole array coupled to the metal surface-plasma wave, strong second harmonic (SH) signal is observed. The SH signal is strengthened as a result of the enhanced electromagnetic fields inside the hole apertures.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391,667-669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. J. Lezec and T. Thio, "Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 12,3629-3651 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-16-3629.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Degiron and T. W. Ebbesen, "The role of localized surface plasmon modes in the enhanced transmission of periodic subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S90-S96 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-Assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys, Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033902 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. Fan, S. Zhang, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced mid-infrared transmission through nanoscale metallic coaxial-aperture arrays," Opt. Express 13, 4406-4413 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4406.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, T. Ishi and K. Ohashi, "Enhanced nonlinear optical conversion from a periodically nanostructured metal film," Opt. Lett. 38, 423-425 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Airola, Y. Liu and S. Blair, "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S118-S123 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. R. J. Brueck, "Optical and Interferometric Lithography - Nanotechnology Enablers," Proc. IEEE 93, 1704-1721 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Commun. 209,17-22 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2006

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Degiron and T. W. Ebbesen, "The role of localized surface plasmon modes in the enhanced transmission of periodic subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S90-S96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-Assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys, Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Fan, S. Zhang, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced mid-infrared transmission through nanoscale metallic coaxial-aperture arrays," Opt. Express 13, 4406-4413 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4406.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Airola, Y. Liu and S. Blair, "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S118-S123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. R. J. Brueck, "Optical and Interferometric Lithography - Nanotechnology Enablers," Proc. IEEE 93, 1704-1721 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec and T. Thio, "Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 12,3629-3651 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-16-3629.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, T. Ishi and K. Ohashi, "Enhanced nonlinear optical conversion from a periodically nanostructured metal film," Opt. Lett. 38, 423-425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Commun. 209,17-22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391,667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

’t Hooft, G. W.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-Assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys, Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Abdenour, A.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Airola, M.

M. Airola, Y. Liu and S. Blair, "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S118-S123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alkemade, P. F. A.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-Assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys, Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F. I.

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Commun. 209,17-22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blair, S.

M. Airola, Y. Liu and S. Blair, "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S118-S123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blok, H.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-Assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys, Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. R. J. Brueck, "Optical and Interferometric Lithography - Nanotechnology Enablers," Proc. IEEE 93, 1704-1721 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Fan, S. Zhang, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced mid-infrared transmission through nanoscale metallic coaxial-aperture arrays," Opt. Express 13, 4406-4413 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4406.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degiron, A.

A. Degiron and T. W. Ebbesen, "The role of localized surface plasmon modes in the enhanced transmission of periodic subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S90-S96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dintinger, J.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubois, G.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-Assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys, Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

A. Degiron and T. W. Ebbesen, "The role of localized surface plasmon modes in the enhanced transmission of periodic subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S90-S96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391,667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eliel, E. R.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-Assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys, Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, W.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Fan, S. Zhang, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced mid-infrared transmission through nanoscale metallic coaxial-aperture arrays," Opt. Express 13, 4406-4413 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4406.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gbur, G.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-Assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys, Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391,667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ishi, T.

A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, T. Ishi and K. Ohashi, "Enhanced nonlinear optical conversion from a periodically nanostructured metal film," Opt. Lett. 38, 423-425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krishna, S.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmin, N.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-Assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys, Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lenstra, D.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-Assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys, Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

Linke, R. A.

A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, T. Ishi and K. Ohashi, "Enhanced nonlinear optical conversion from a periodically nanostructured metal film," Opt. Lett. 38, 423-425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

M. Airola, Y. Liu and S. Blair, "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S118-S123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Fan, S. Zhang, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced mid-infrared transmission through nanoscale metallic coaxial-aperture arrays," Opt. Express 13, 4406-4413 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4406.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minhas, B.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, W. A.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, T. Ishi and K. Ohashi, "Enhanced nonlinear optical conversion from a periodically nanostructured metal film," Opt. Lett. 38, 423-425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, K.

A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, T. Ishi and K. Ohashi, "Enhanced nonlinear optical conversion from a periodically nanostructured metal film," Opt. Lett. 38, 423-425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N.-C.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schouten, H. F.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-Assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys, Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

Van Labeke, D.

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Commun. 209,17-22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Visser, T. D.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-Assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys, Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391,667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Fan, S. Zhang, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced mid-infrared transmission through nanoscale metallic coaxial-aperture arrays," Opt. Express 13, 4406-4413 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4406.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

A. Degiron and T. W. Ebbesen, "The role of localized surface plasmon modes in the enhanced transmission of periodic subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S90-S96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Airola, Y. Liu and S. Blair, "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S118-S123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391,667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Commun. 209,17-22 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, T. Ishi and K. Ohashi, "Enhanced nonlinear optical conversion from a periodically nanostructured metal film," Opt. Lett. 38, 423-425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys, Rev. Lett.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra and E. R. Eliel, "Plasmon-Assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited," Phys, Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE

S. R. J. Brueck, "Optical and Interferometric Lithography - Nanotechnology Enablers," Proc. IEEE 93, 1704-1721 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

FTIR linear transmission spectrum of the hole array sample. 8% transmission observed at 3180 nm corresponding to (1,0) Au/GaAs SP peak. SEM picture of metallic hole-array sample with GaAs posts and a schematic drawing of cross-section view were shown as insets.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SH intensity versus fundamental intensity for z-cut LiNbO3 and hole array filled with GaAs at fundamental wavelength of 3180 nm. The curves labeled “corrected” are adjusted for Fresnel reflectivities and the GaAs open area. The red dots curve, which will be discussed later, is the SH intensity versus fundamental intensity for metallic air hole array on GaAs at fundamental wavelength of 3060 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Wavelength dependence of the SHG for metallic hole array filled with GaAs.

Fig.4. .
Fig.4. .

FTIR linear transmission spectra of metallic hole array samples with air holes on GaAs and Si substrates. SEM pictures of metallic hole array samples with air holes on GaAs (left) and Si (right) substrates.

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