Abstract

The laser diffractometer is an effective instrument for calibrating pitch standard of a grating structure. A conventional diffractometer based on the Littrow configuration cannot measure a grating whose pitch is less than half of the laser wavelength when the diffractometer is operated in the atmosphere. This study proposes an immersion diffractometer to raise the refractive index of the environment. Thus the new approach can overcome the limit of one-half wavelength. A 288 nm grating was measured using an immersion diffractometer with a 633 nm laser and using a conventional diffractometer with a 543 nm laser to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed technology. The difference between the pitches obtained by these two methods is around 0.05 nm.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Tortonese, J. Prochazka, P. Konicek, J. Schneir, and I. R. Smith, "100 nm pitch standard characterization for metrology applications," Proc. SPIE 4689, 558-564 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. CCL-S1: Comparison of one-dimensional grating, http://kcdb.bipm.org/AppendixB/default.asp.
  3. G. Dai, L. Koenders, F. Pohlenz, T. Dziomba and H.-U. Danzebrink, "Accurate and traceable calibration of one-dimensional gratings," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1241-1249 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. I. Korotkov, S. A. Pulkin, A. L. Vitushkin, and L. F. Vitushkin, "Laser interferometric diffractometry for measurements of diffraction grating spacing," Appl. Opt. 35, 4782-4786 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. H. Yoo, C. I. Eom, M. S. Chung, and H. J. Kong, "Diffractometric methods for absolute measurements of diffraction-grating spacings," Opt. Lett. 24, 107-109 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Switkes and M. Rothschild, "Immersion lithography at 157 nm," J. Vac. Sci. Technol B 19, 2353-2356 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. Dai, L. Koenders, F. Pohlenz, T. Dziomba and H.-U. Danzebrink, "Accurate and traceable calibration of one-dimensional gratings," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1241-1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Tortonese, J. Prochazka, P. Konicek, J. Schneir, and I. R. Smith, "100 nm pitch standard characterization for metrology applications," Proc. SPIE 4689, 558-564 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Switkes and M. Rothschild, "Immersion lithography at 157 nm," J. Vac. Sci. Technol B 19, 2353-2356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

Chung, M. S.

Dai, G.

G. Dai, L. Koenders, F. Pohlenz, T. Dziomba and H.-U. Danzebrink, "Accurate and traceable calibration of one-dimensional gratings," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1241-1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Danzebrink, H.-U.

G. Dai, L. Koenders, F. Pohlenz, T. Dziomba and H.-U. Danzebrink, "Accurate and traceable calibration of one-dimensional gratings," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1241-1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dziomba, T.

G. Dai, L. Koenders, F. Pohlenz, T. Dziomba and H.-U. Danzebrink, "Accurate and traceable calibration of one-dimensional gratings," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1241-1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eom, C. I.

Koenders, L.

G. Dai, L. Koenders, F. Pohlenz, T. Dziomba and H.-U. Danzebrink, "Accurate and traceable calibration of one-dimensional gratings," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1241-1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kong, H. J.

Konicek, P.

M. Tortonese, J. Prochazka, P. Konicek, J. Schneir, and I. R. Smith, "100 nm pitch standard characterization for metrology applications," Proc. SPIE 4689, 558-564 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Korotkov, V. I.

Pohlenz, F.

G. Dai, L. Koenders, F. Pohlenz, T. Dziomba and H.-U. Danzebrink, "Accurate and traceable calibration of one-dimensional gratings," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1241-1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prochazka, J.

M. Tortonese, J. Prochazka, P. Konicek, J. Schneir, and I. R. Smith, "100 nm pitch standard characterization for metrology applications," Proc. SPIE 4689, 558-564 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pulkin, S. A.

Rothschild, M.

M. Switkes and M. Rothschild, "Immersion lithography at 157 nm," J. Vac. Sci. Technol B 19, 2353-2356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schneir, J.

M. Tortonese, J. Prochazka, P. Konicek, J. Schneir, and I. R. Smith, "100 nm pitch standard characterization for metrology applications," Proc. SPIE 4689, 558-564 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, I. R.

M. Tortonese, J. Prochazka, P. Konicek, J. Schneir, and I. R. Smith, "100 nm pitch standard characterization for metrology applications," Proc. SPIE 4689, 558-564 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Switkes, M.

M. Switkes and M. Rothschild, "Immersion lithography at 157 nm," J. Vac. Sci. Technol B 19, 2353-2356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tortonese, M.

M. Tortonese, J. Prochazka, P. Konicek, J. Schneir, and I. R. Smith, "100 nm pitch standard characterization for metrology applications," Proc. SPIE 4689, 558-564 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vitushkin, A. L.

Vitushkin, L. F.

Yoo, T. H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol B (1)

M. Switkes and M. Rothschild, "Immersion lithography at 157 nm," J. Vac. Sci. Technol B 19, 2353-2356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. Dai, L. Koenders, F. Pohlenz, T. Dziomba and H.-U. Danzebrink, "Accurate and traceable calibration of one-dimensional gratings," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1241-1249 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Tortonese, J. Prochazka, P. Konicek, J. Schneir, and I. R. Smith, "100 nm pitch standard characterization for metrology applications," Proc. SPIE 4689, 558-564 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

CCL-S1: Comparison of one-dimensional grating, http://kcdb.bipm.org/AppendixB/default.asp.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Conventional laser diffractometer

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Immersion grating and light paths for (a) γ<ϕ (b) γ>ϕ

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Relationships between the ratio p/λv and angle γ corresponding to a grating immersed in oil and air

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Different ϕ changes the slope of the p/λv versus γ curve of an immersion diffractometer

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Immersion diffractometer

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Adjustments for (a) γ<ϕ (b) γ>ϕ

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Results of 288 nm grating measured under different conditions

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p = λ v 2 n a sin γ
p = λ v 2 n o sin θ o
n o sin θ o = n p sin θ p
θ p = ϕ β for γ < ϕ
θ p = ϕ + β for γ < ϕ
n p sin β = n a sin α
α = ϕ γ for γ < ϕ
α = γ ϕ for γ > ϕ
p = λ v × { 2 n p sin [ ϕ sin 1 ( n a n p 1 sin { ϕ γ } ) ] } 1 for γ < ϕ
p = λ v × { 2 n p sin [ ϕ + sin 1 ( n a n p 1 sin { γ ϕ } ) ] } 1 for γ > ϕ

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