Abstract

We apply an adaptive feedback loop to control a ultra-violet (UV) femtosecond pulse shaping apparatus. The adaptive feedback control is implemented by a continuous parameter genetic algorithm. We use the adaptive shaper to compensate for the pulse chirp. The genetic algorithm produces a pulse with a width of 115 fs, identical to that of the transform-limited pulse. We then apply the adaptive shaper to the Stokes pulse in a femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) experiment on dipicolinic acid solution. The algorithm maximizes the first CARS beat signal at the probe pulse delay of 650 fs. We confirm that a transform-limited Stokes pulse achieves the best detection sensitivity.

©2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (5)

N. A. Naz, H. S. S. Hung, M. V. O’Connor, D. C. Hanna, and D. P. Shepherd, “Adaptively shaped mid-infrared pulses from a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Express 13, 8400–8405 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-21-8400.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. I. Prokhorenko, A. M. Nagy, and R. J. D. Miller, “Coherent control of the population transfer in complex solvated molecules at weak excitation. An experimental study,” J. Chem. Phys. 122, 184502 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Cardoza, M. Baertschy, and T. Weinacht, “Understanding learning control of molecular fragmentation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 411, 311–315 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Roth, M. Mehendale, A. Bartelt, and H. Rabitz, “Acousto-optical shaping of ultraviolet femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 441–444 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, “Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 14976–14981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, “FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 10994–11001 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418, 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum control of coherent anti-Stokes Raman processes,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 043408 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. Morita, M. Yamashita, A. Suguro, and H. Shigekawa, “Femtosecond-time-resolved highly selective molecular-vibration excitation using a novel vibrationally synchronized pumping technique with frequency difference resonance,” Opt. Commun. 197, 73–81 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929–1960 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. Kiefer, “Foreword to the special issue on femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 3–6 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Feedback-controlled optimization of amplified femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 281–284 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Zeek, K. Maginnis, S. Backus, U. Russek, M. Murnane, G. Mourou, H. Kapteyn, and G. Vdovin, “Pulse compression by use of deformable mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 24, 493–495 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (4)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

R. S. Judson and H. Rabitz, “Teaching Lasers to Control Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500–1503 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1980 (1)

Akimov, D. A.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, “Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 14976–14981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avitzour, Y.

A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, Y. Avitzour, R. Murawski, and M. Scully, “Sensitive femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy discrimination between dipicolinic acid and dinicotinic acid,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Backus, S.

Baertschy, M.

D. Cardoza, M. Baertschy, and T. Weinacht, “Understanding learning control of molecular fragmentation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 411, 311–315 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bartelt, A.

M. Roth, M. Mehendale, A. Bartelt, and H. Rabitz, “Acousto-optical shaping of ultraviolet femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 441–444 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baumert, T.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 779–782 (1997).
[Crossref]

Beach, N. M.

Beaurepaire, E.

Brixner, T.

T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Feedback-controlled optimization of amplified femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 281–284 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 779–782 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cardoza, D.

D. Cardoza, M. Baertschy, and T. Weinacht, “Understanding learning control of molecular fragmentation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 411, 311–315 (2005).
[Crossref]

Debarre, D.

Dogariu, A.

A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, Y. Avitzour, R. Murawski, and M. Scully, “Sensitive femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy discrimination between dipicolinic acid and dinicotinic acid,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Dudovich, N.

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum control of coherent anti-Stokes Raman processes,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 043408 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418, 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dugan, M. A.

M. A. Dugan, J. X. Tull, and W. S. Warren, “High-resolution acousto-optic shaping of unamplified and amplified femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2348–2358 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. X. Tull, M. A. Dugan, and W. S. Warren, “High Resolution, Ultrafast Laser Pulse Shaping and its Applications,” in Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance, vol. 20 (Academic Press, New York, 1997).

Eckbreth, A. C.

Efimov, A.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

Fulmer, E. C.

Gerber, G.

T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Feedback-controlled optimization of amplified femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 281–284 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 779–782 (1997).
[Crossref]

Goswami, D.

Graefe, S.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, “Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 14976–14981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hall, R. J.

Hanna, D. C.

Haupt, R. L.

R. L. Haupt, Practical genetic algorithms (Wiley, New York, 1998), Chap. 3.

Hillegas, C. W.

Huang, Y.

A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, Y. Avitzour, R. Murawski, and M. Scully, “Sensitive femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy discrimination between dipicolinic acid and dinicotinic acid,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Hung, H. S. S.

Joffre, M.

Judson, R. S.

R. S. Judson and H. Rabitz, “Teaching Lasers to Control Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500–1503 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalugin, N. G.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, “Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 14976–14981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H.

Kattawar, G. W.

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, “FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 10994–11001 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiefer, W.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, “Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 14976–14981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Kiefer, “Foreword to the special issue on femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 3–6 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kolomenskii, A. A.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, “Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 14976–14981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krause, J. L.

Leaird, D. E.

Lucht, R. P.

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, “FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 10994–11001 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maginnis, K.

Martin, J. L.

Mehendale, M.

M. Roth, M. Mehendale, A. Bartelt, and H. Rabitz, “Acousto-optical shaping of ultraviolet femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 441–444 (2005).
[Crossref]

Meshulach, D.

Miller, R. J. D.

V. I. Prokhorenko, A. M. Nagy, and R. J. D. Miller, “Coherent control of the population transfer in complex solvated molecules at weak excitation. An experimental study,” J. Chem. Phys. 122, 184502 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moores, M. D.

Morita, R.

R. Morita, M. Yamashita, A. Suguro, and H. Shigekawa, “Femtosecond-time-resolved highly selective molecular-vibration excitation using a novel vibrationally synchronized pumping technique with frequency difference resonance,” Opt. Commun. 197, 73–81 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mourou, G.

Murawski, R.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, “Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 14976–14981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, Y. Avitzour, R. Murawski, and M. Scully, “Sensitive femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy discrimination between dipicolinic acid and dinicotinic acid,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Murnane, M.

Nagy, A. M.

V. I. Prokhorenko, A. M. Nagy, and R. J. D. Miller, “Coherent control of the population transfer in complex solvated molecules at weak excitation. An experimental study,” J. Chem. Phys. 122, 184502 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naz, N. A.

O’Connor, M. V.

Ogilvie, J. P.

Opatrny, T.

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, “FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 10994–11001 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oron, D.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418, 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum control of coherent anti-Stokes Raman processes,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 043408 (2002).
[Crossref]

Patel, J. S.

Paulus, G. G.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, “Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 14976–14981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pestov, D.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, “Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 14976–14981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pilloff, H.

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, “FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 10994–11001 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prokhorenko, V. I.

V. I. Prokhorenko, A. M. Nagy, and R. J. D. Miller, “Coherent control of the population transfer in complex solvated molecules at weak excitation. An experimental study,” J. Chem. Phys. 122, 184502 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rabitz, H.

M. Roth, M. Mehendale, A. Bartelt, and H. Rabitz, “Acousto-optical shaping of ultraviolet femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 441–444 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. S. Judson and H. Rabitz, “Teaching Lasers to Control Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500–1503 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rebane, A.

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, “FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 10994–11001 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reitze, D. H.

Rostovtsev, Y. V.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, “Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 14976–14981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roth, M.

M. Roth, M. Mehendale, A. Bartelt, and H. Rabitz, “Acousto-optical shaping of ultraviolet femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 441–444 (2005).
[Crossref]

Russek, U.

Sariyanni, Z. E.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, “Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 14976–14981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sautenkov, V. A.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, “Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 14976–14981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuessler, H.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, “Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 14976–14981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scully, M.

A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, Y. Avitzour, R. Murawski, and M. Scully, “Sensitive femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy discrimination between dipicolinic acid and dinicotinic acid,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, “Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 14976–14981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, “FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 10994–11001 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seyfried, V.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 779–782 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shepherd, D. P.

Shigekawa, H.

R. Morita, M. Yamashita, A. Suguro, and H. Shigekawa, “Femtosecond-time-resolved highly selective molecular-vibration excitation using a novel vibrationally synchronized pumping technique with frequency difference resonance,” Opt. Commun. 197, 73–81 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shim, S. H.

Shirley, J. A.

Siebert, T.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, “Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 14976–14981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum control of coherent anti-Stokes Raman processes,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 043408 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418, 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, “Adaptive femtosecond pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1793–1795 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sokolov, A. V.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, “Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 14976–14981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, “FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 10994–11001 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solinas, X.

Strasfeld, D. B.

Strehle, M.

T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Feedback-controlled optimization of amplified femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 281–284 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 779–782 (1997).
[Crossref]

Strickland, D.

Suguro, A.

R. Morita, M. Yamashita, A. Suguro, and H. Shigekawa, “Femtosecond-time-resolved highly selective molecular-vibration excitation using a novel vibrationally synchronized pumping technique with frequency difference resonance,” Opt. Commun. 197, 73–81 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sweetser, J. N.

Trebino, R.

J. N. Sweetser, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Transient-grating frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 22, 519–521 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Trebino, Frequency-resolved optical gating: the measurement of ultrashort laser pulses (Kluwer Academic, Boston, 2000), Chap. 6.

Tull, J. X.

Vdovin, G.

Warren, W. S.

Weinacht, T.

D. Cardoza, M. Baertschy, and T. Weinacht, “Understanding learning control of molecular fragmentation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 411, 311–315 (2005).
[Crossref]

Weiner, A. M.

Welch, G. R.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, “Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 14976–14981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wullert, J. R.

Yamashita, M.

R. Morita, M. Yamashita, A. Suguro, and H. Shigekawa, “Femtosecond-time-resolved highly selective molecular-vibration excitation using a novel vibrationally synchronized pumping technique with frequency difference resonance,” Opt. Commun. 197, 73–81 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yelin, D.

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum control of coherent anti-Stokes Raman processes,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 043408 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Yelin, D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, “Adaptive femtosecond pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1793–1795 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zanni, M. T.

Zeek, E.

Zhi, M. C.

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, “Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 14976–14981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zubairy, M. S.

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, “FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 10994–11001 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

M. Roth, M. Mehendale, A. Bartelt, and H. Rabitz, “Acousto-optical shaping of ultraviolet femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 441–444 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Feedback-controlled optimization of amplified femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 281–284 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 779–782 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Cardoza, M. Baertschy, and T. Weinacht, “Understanding learning control of molecular fragmentation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 411, 311–315 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

V. I. Prokhorenko, A. M. Nagy, and R. J. D. Miller, “Coherent control of the population transfer in complex solvated molecules at weak excitation. An experimental study,” J. Chem. Phys. 122, 184502 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

W. Kiefer, “Foreword to the special issue on femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 3–6 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418, 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Morita, M. Yamashita, A. Suguro, and H. Shigekawa, “Femtosecond-time-resolved highly selective molecular-vibration excitation using a novel vibrationally synchronized pumping technique with frequency difference resonance,” Opt. Commun. 197, 73–81 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, “Quantum control of coherent anti-Stokes Raman processes,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 043408 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. S. Judson and H. Rabitz, “Teaching Lasers to Control Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500–1503 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (2)

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, “FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 10994–11001 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Pestov, M. C. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, “Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 14976–14981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929–1960 (2000).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

R. Trebino, Frequency-resolved optical gating: the measurement of ultrashort laser pulses (Kluwer Academic, Boston, 2000), Chap. 6.

A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, Y. Avitzour, R. Murawski, and M. Scully, “Sensitive femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy discrimination between dipicolinic acid and dinicotinic acid,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

R. L. Haupt, Practical genetic algorithms (Wiley, New York, 1998), Chap. 3.

J. X. Tull, M. A. Dugan, and W. S. Warren, “High Resolution, Ultrafast Laser Pulse Shaping and its Applications,” in Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance, vol. 20 (Academic Press, New York, 1997).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experiment. AOM: acousto-optic modulator; AWG: arbitrary waveform generator; BK7: BK7 glass slide; BS: beamsplitter; CH: chopper; FM: flipping mirror; G: grating; L: lens; MS: moving stage; PH: pinhole; SM: spherical focusing mirror.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The maximum and the average feedback signals achieved in each generation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of pulses after and before chirp compensation. (a) Temporal intensities of the pulse after (solid line) and before (dashed line) chirp compensation. (b) Spectrum (solid line) and spectral phases of the pulse after (thick dashed line) and before (thin dashed line) chirp compensation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Schematic diagram of the femtosecond CARS experiment employing the adaptive pulse shaper. (b) CARS experiment on 300 mM dipicolinic acid solution using a Stokes pulse with the optimized spectral phase (solid line), as compared to the same experiment using a transform limited Stokes pulse (dashed line). DPA: dipicolinic acid solution; NOPA: noncollinear OPA; OPA: optical parametric amplifier; PMT: photomultiplier tube; SHG: second harmonic generation.

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