Abstract

Aperiodic multilayers have been designed for various applications, using numeric algorithms and analytical solutions, for many years with varying levels of success. This work developed a more realistic model for simulating aperiodic Mo/Si multilayers to be used in these algorithms by including the formation of MoSi2. Using a genetic computer code we were able to optimize a 45° multilayer for a large bandpass reflection multilayer that gave good agreement with the model.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. Z. Wang and A. G. Michette, "Broadband multilayer mirrors for optimum use of soft x-ray source output," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 2,452-457 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, "Spectral reflectance tuning of EUV mirrors for metrology applications," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R.L. Engelstad ed., Proc. SPIE 5037,286-293 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Bajt, D. Stearns, and P. Kearney, "Investigation of the amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Mo/Si multilayers," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1017-1025 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. S. Rosen, D. G. Stearns, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, S. P. Vernon, and Y. Cheng. "Silicide layer growth rates in Mo/Si multilayers," Appl. Opt. 32, 6975-6980 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Similar to work done by: P. D. Binda, and F. E. Zocchi, "Genetic algorithm optimization of X-ray multilayer coatings," in Advances in Computational Methods for X-Ray and Neutron Optics, M. Sanchez del Rio, ed., Proc. SPIE 5536, 97-108 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Liao and R. Luus, "Comparison of the Luus-Jaakola optimization procedure and the genetic algorithm," Eng. Optimiz. 37, 381-398 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. V. Kozhevnikov, I. N. Bukreeva, and E. Ziegler, "Design of X-ray supermirrors," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 424-443 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Spiller, "Interference in thin films: theory," in Soft X-ray Optics (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1994), pp. 101-107.
  9. E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, "Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 363 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

B. Liao and R. Luus, "Comparison of the Luus-Jaakola optimization procedure and the genetic algorithm," Eng. Optimiz. 37, 381-398 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, "Spectral reflectance tuning of EUV mirrors for metrology applications," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R.L. Engelstad ed., Proc. SPIE 5037,286-293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

S. Bajt, D. Stearns, and P. Kearney, "Investigation of the amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Mo/Si multilayers," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1017-1025 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Kozhevnikov, I. N. Bukreeva, and E. Ziegler, "Design of X-ray supermirrors," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 424-443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, "Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 363 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Z. Wang and A. G. Michette, "Broadband multilayer mirrors for optimum use of soft x-ray source output," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 2,452-457 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Bajt, S.

S. Bajt, D. Stearns, and P. Kearney, "Investigation of the amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Mo/Si multilayers," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1017-1025 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bukreeva, I. N.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, I. N. Bukreeva, and E. Ziegler, "Design of X-ray supermirrors," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 424-443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

Feigl, T.

S. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, "Spectral reflectance tuning of EUV mirrors for metrology applications," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R.L. Engelstad ed., Proc. SPIE 5037,286-293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, "Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 363 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

S. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, "Spectral reflectance tuning of EUV mirrors for metrology applications," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R.L. Engelstad ed., Proc. SPIE 5037,286-293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kassner, M. E.

Kaufmann, B. B.

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, "Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 363 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kearney, P.

S. Bajt, D. Stearns, and P. Kearney, "Investigation of the amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Mo/Si multilayers," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1017-1025 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kozhevnikov, I. V.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, I. N. Bukreeva, and E. Ziegler, "Design of X-ray supermirrors," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 424-443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlmann, T.

S. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, "Spectral reflectance tuning of EUV mirrors for metrology applications," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R.L. Engelstad ed., Proc. SPIE 5037,286-293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liao, B.

B. Liao and R. Luus, "Comparison of the Luus-Jaakola optimization procedure and the genetic algorithm," Eng. Optimiz. 37, 381-398 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Luus, R.

B. Liao and R. Luus, "Comparison of the Luus-Jaakola optimization procedure and the genetic algorithm," Eng. Optimiz. 37, 381-398 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Michette, A. G.

Z. Wang and A. G. Michette, "Broadband multilayer mirrors for optimum use of soft x-ray source output," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 2,452-457 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mrowka, S.

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, "Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 363 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, R. S.

Stearns, D.

S. Bajt, D. Stearns, and P. Kearney, "Investigation of the amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Mo/Si multilayers," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1017-1025 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

Vernon, S. P.

Viliardos, M. A.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang and A. G. Michette, "Broadband multilayer mirrors for optimum use of soft x-ray source output," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 2,452-457 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yulin, S.

S. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, "Spectral reflectance tuning of EUV mirrors for metrology applications," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R.L. Engelstad ed., Proc. SPIE 5037,286-293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, E.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, I. N. Bukreeva, and E. Ziegler, "Design of X-ray supermirrors," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 424-443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Eng. Optimiz. (1)

B. Liao and R. Luus, "Comparison of the Luus-Jaakola optimization procedure and the genetic algorithm," Eng. Optimiz. 37, 381-398 (2005)
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Bajt, D. Stearns, and P. Kearney, "Investigation of the amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Mo/Si multilayers," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1017-1025 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

Z. Wang and A. G. Michette, "Broadband multilayer mirrors for optimum use of soft x-ray source output," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 2,452-457 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

I. V. Kozhevnikov, I. N. Bukreeva, and E. Ziegler, "Design of X-ray supermirrors," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460, 424-443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, "Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz ed., Proc. SPIE 4343, 363 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, "Spectral reflectance tuning of EUV mirrors for metrology applications," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R.L. Engelstad ed., Proc. SPIE 5037,286-293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Similar to work done by: P. D. Binda, and F. E. Zocchi, "Genetic algorithm optimization of X-ray multilayer coatings," in Advances in Computational Methods for X-Ray and Neutron Optics, M. Sanchez del Rio, ed., Proc. SPIE 5536, 97-108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Spiller, "Interference in thin films: theory," in Soft X-ray Optics (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1994), pp. 101-107.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simulation of the programmed Mo and Si thickness (Left); modeling the contraction caused by MoSi2 formation (Center); actual TEM cross-section of the fabricated multilayer (Right). This demonstrates that including the silicide formation is required to match the simulation to the actual sputtered sample.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

This graph shows an optimization for a 45-degree Mo/Si mirror that did not include MoSi2 formation (dashed black curve) and the same multilayer stack with silicide formation (solid red curve). We deposited this mirror and measured it (blue curve). Notice the good agreement to the model that included silicide.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

This graph shows the reflectivity for the mirror and the model with MoSi2 is considered. The mirror is a 45 degree mirror with a 3 nm bandwidth. A cross-section TEM image of this mirror is shown in Fig. 1.

Equations (1)

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M = ( R m R c ) 2 d λ

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