Abstract

In a Space quantum-cryptography experiment a satellite pointing system is needed to send single photons emitted by the source on the satellite to the polarization analysis apparatus on Earth. In this paper a simulation is presented regarding how the satellite pointing systems affect the polarization state of the single photons, to help designing a proper compensation system.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. T. Buttler, R. J. Hughes, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, and C. M. Simmons, Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 1 Km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3283–3286 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Holder, H. Weinfurter, P. Gormar, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, “A step toward global quantum key distribution,” Nature 419, 450 (2002)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  6. Cheng-Zhi Peng, Tao Yang, Xiao-Hui Bao, Xian-Min Jun-Zhang, Fa-Jong Jin, Bin Feng, Jian Yang, Juan Yang, Qian Yin, Nan Zhang, Bao-Li Li, Jian-Wei Tian, and Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 Km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
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    [CrossRef]
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2005 (3)

Cheng-Zhi Peng, Tao Yang, Xiao-Hui Bao, Xian-Min Jun-Zhang, Fa-Jong Jin, Bin Feng, Jian Yang, Juan Yang, Qian Yin, Nan Zhang, Bao-Li Li, Jian-Wei Tian, and Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 Km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao Er-Iong, Han Zheng-fu, Gong Shun-sheng, Zhang Tao, Diao Da-sheng, and Guo Guang-can, “Background noise of satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 7, 215 (2005)
[CrossRef]

K. J. Resch et al., “Distributing entanglement and single photons through an intra-city, free-space quantum channel,” Opt. Express 13, 202–209 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Sehat, et al., “Quantum polarization properties of two-mode energy eigenstates,” PRA 71, 033818 (2004)

2003 (2)

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. R. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1541 (2003)
[CrossRef]

M. Aspelmeyer et al., “Long distance free-space distribution of quantum entanglement,” Science 301, 621 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and J. C. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 Km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4: 43.1–43.14 (2002)
[CrossRef]

C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Holder, H. Weinfurter, P. Gormar, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, “A step toward global quantum key distribution,” Nature 419, 450 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, and P. Knight, “Ground to satellite secure key exchange using quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 4, 82.1–82.21 (2002)
[CrossRef]

J. E. Nordholt, R. J. Hughes, J. R. Morgan, C. G. Peterson, and C. C. Wipf, “Present and future quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 116–126 (2002)
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

W. Tittel and G. Weihs, Photonic entanglement for fundamental tests and quantum communications,” Quantum Information and Computation,  vol. 1, No. 2, 3–56 (2001)

1998 (1)

W. T. Buttler, R. J. Hughes, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, and C. M. Simmons, Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 1 Km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3283–3286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1968 (1)

Aspelmeyer, M.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. R. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1541 (2003)
[CrossRef]

M. Aspelmeyer et al., “Long distance free-space distribution of quantum entanglement,” Science 301, 621 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Villoresi, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Space-to-ground quantum-communication using an optical ground station: a feasibility study,” Proc. SPIE: Quantum Communications and Quantum Imaging, II conference in Denver (2004)

M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, W. R. Leeb, G. Baister, T. Dreischer, T. Jennewein, G. Neckamm, J.M. Perdigues, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Satellite-based quantum communication terminal employing state-of-the-art technology, JON 4, No. 9, 549–560, (2005)

Baister, G.

M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, W. R. Leeb, G. Baister, T. Dreischer, T. Jennewein, G. Neckamm, J.M. Perdigues, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Satellite-based quantum communication terminal employing state-of-the-art technology, JON 4, No. 9, 549–560, (2005)

Bao, Xiao-Hui

Cheng-Zhi Peng, Tao Yang, Xiao-Hui Bao, Xian-Min Jun-Zhang, Fa-Jong Jin, Bin Feng, Jian Yang, Juan Yang, Qian Yin, Nan Zhang, Bao-Li Li, Jian-Wei Tian, and Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 Km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbieri, C.

P. Villoresi, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Space-to-ground quantum-communication using an optical ground station: a feasibility study,” Proc. SPIE: Quantum Communications and Quantum Imaging, II conference in Denver (2004)

Bianco, G.

P. Villoresi, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Space-to-ground quantum-communication using an optical ground station: a feasibility study,” Proc. SPIE: Quantum Communications and Quantum Imaging, II conference in Denver (2004)

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, sixth ed. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, England, 1993)

Buttler, W. T.

W. T. Buttler, R. J. Hughes, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, and C. M. Simmons, Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 1 Km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3283–3286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Da-sheng, Diao

Miao Er-Iong, Han Zheng-fu, Gong Shun-sheng, Zhang Tao, Diao Da-sheng, and Guo Guang-can, “Background noise of satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 7, 215 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Derkacs, D.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and J. C. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 Km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4: 43.1–43.14 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Dreischer, T.

M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, W. R. Leeb, G. Baister, T. Dreischer, T. Jennewein, G. Neckamm, J.M. Perdigues, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Satellite-based quantum communication terminal employing state-of-the-art technology, JON 4, No. 9, 549–560, (2005)

Er-Iong, Miao

Miao Er-Iong, Han Zheng-fu, Gong Shun-sheng, Zhang Tao, Diao Da-sheng, and Guo Guang-can, “Background noise of satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 7, 215 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Feng, Bin

Cheng-Zhi Peng, Tao Yang, Xiao-Hui Bao, Xian-Min Jun-Zhang, Fa-Jong Jin, Bin Feng, Jian Yang, Juan Yang, Qian Yin, Nan Zhang, Bao-Li Li, Jian-Wei Tian, and Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 Km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forsythe, W. E.

W. E. Forsythe, Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th Revised Edition, Knovel.

Gorman, P. M.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, and P. Knight, “Ground to satellite secure key exchange using quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 4, 82.1–82.21 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Gormar, P.

C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Holder, H. Weinfurter, P. Gormar, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, “A step toward global quantum key distribution,” Nature 419, 450 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guang-can, Guo

Miao Er-Iong, Han Zheng-fu, Gong Shun-sheng, Zhang Tao, Diao Da-sheng, and Guo Guang-can, “Background noise of satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 7, 215 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Hoehn, D. H.

Holder, M.

C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Holder, H. Weinfurter, P. Gormar, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, “A step toward global quantum key distribution,” Nature 419, 450 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, R. J.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and J. C. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 Km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4: 43.1–43.14 (2002)
[CrossRef]

J. E. Nordholt, R. J. Hughes, J. R. Morgan, C. G. Peterson, and C. C. Wipf, “Present and future quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 116–126 (2002)
[CrossRef]

W. T. Buttler, R. J. Hughes, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, and C. M. Simmons, Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 1 Km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3283–3286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jennewein, T.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. R. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1541 (2003)
[CrossRef]

P. Villoresi, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Space-to-ground quantum-communication using an optical ground station: a feasibility study,” Proc. SPIE: Quantum Communications and Quantum Imaging, II conference in Denver (2004)

M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, W. R. Leeb, G. Baister, T. Dreischer, T. Jennewein, G. Neckamm, J.M. Perdigues, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Satellite-based quantum communication terminal employing state-of-the-art technology, JON 4, No. 9, 549–560, (2005)

Jin, Fa-Jong

Cheng-Zhi Peng, Tao Yang, Xiao-Hui Bao, Xian-Min Jun-Zhang, Fa-Jong Jin, Bin Feng, Jian Yang, Juan Yang, Qian Yin, Nan Zhang, Bao-Li Li, Jian-Wei Tian, and Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 Km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jorna, S.

Jun-Zhang, Xian-Min

Cheng-Zhi Peng, Tao Yang, Xiao-Hui Bao, Xian-Min Jun-Zhang, Fa-Jong Jin, Bin Feng, Jian Yang, Juan Yang, Qian Yin, Nan Zhang, Bao-Li Li, Jian-Wei Tian, and Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 Km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, P.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, and P. Knight, “Ground to satellite secure key exchange using quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 4, 82.1–82.21 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Kurtsiefer, C.

C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Holder, H. Weinfurter, P. Gormar, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, “A step toward global quantum key distribution,” Nature 419, 450 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwiat, P. G.

W. T. Buttler, R. J. Hughes, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, and C. M. Simmons, Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 1 Km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3283–3286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lamoreaux, S. K.

W. T. Buttler, R. J. Hughes, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, and C. M. Simmons, Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 1 Km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3283–3286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leeb, W. R.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. R. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1541 (2003)
[CrossRef]

M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, W. R. Leeb, G. Baister, T. Dreischer, T. Jennewein, G. Neckamm, J.M. Perdigues, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Satellite-based quantum communication terminal employing state-of-the-art technology, JON 4, No. 9, 549–560, (2005)

Li, Bao-Li

Cheng-Zhi Peng, Tao Yang, Xiao-Hui Bao, Xian-Min Jun-Zhang, Fa-Jong Jin, Bin Feng, Jian Yang, Juan Yang, Qian Yin, Nan Zhang, Bao-Li Li, Jian-Wei Tian, and Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 Km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, J. R.

J. E. Nordholt, R. J. Hughes, J. R. Morgan, C. G. Peterson, and C. C. Wipf, “Present and future quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 116–126 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Neckamm, G.

M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, W. R. Leeb, G. Baister, T. Dreischer, T. Jennewein, G. Neckamm, J.M. Perdigues, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Satellite-based quantum communication terminal employing state-of-the-art technology, JON 4, No. 9, 549–560, (2005)

Nordholt, J. E.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and J. C. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 Km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4: 43.1–43.14 (2002)
[CrossRef]

J. E. Nordholt, R. J. Hughes, J. R. Morgan, C. G. Peterson, and C. C. Wipf, “Present and future quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 116–126 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Pan,

Cheng-Zhi Peng, Tao Yang, Xiao-Hui Bao, Xian-Min Jun-Zhang, Fa-Jong Jin, Bin Feng, Jian Yang, Juan Yang, Qian Yin, Nan Zhang, Bao-Li Li, Jian-Wei Tian, and Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 Km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, Cheng-Zhi

Cheng-Zhi Peng, Tao Yang, Xiao-Hui Bao, Xian-Min Jun-Zhang, Fa-Jong Jin, Bin Feng, Jian Yang, Juan Yang, Qian Yin, Nan Zhang, Bao-Li Li, Jian-Wei Tian, and Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 Km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perdigues, J.M.

M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, W. R. Leeb, G. Baister, T. Dreischer, T. Jennewein, G. Neckamm, J.M. Perdigues, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Satellite-based quantum communication terminal employing state-of-the-art technology, JON 4, No. 9, 549–560, (2005)

Pernechele, C.

P. Villoresi, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Space-to-ground quantum-communication using an optical ground station: a feasibility study,” Proc. SPIE: Quantum Communications and Quantum Imaging, II conference in Denver (2004)

Peterson, C. G.

J. E. Nordholt, R. J. Hughes, J. R. Morgan, C. G. Peterson, and C. C. Wipf, “Present and future quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 116–126 (2002)
[CrossRef]

W. T. Buttler, R. J. Hughes, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, and C. M. Simmons, Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 1 Km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3283–3286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, J. C.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and J. C. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 Km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4: 43.1–43.14 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Pfennigbauer, M.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. R. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1541 (2003)
[CrossRef]

M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, W. R. Leeb, G. Baister, T. Dreischer, T. Jennewein, G. Neckamm, J.M. Perdigues, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Satellite-based quantum communication terminal employing state-of-the-art technology, JON 4, No. 9, 549–560, (2005)

Rarity, J. G.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, and P. Knight, “Ground to satellite secure key exchange using quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 4, 82.1–82.21 (2002)
[CrossRef]

C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Holder, H. Weinfurter, P. Gormar, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, “A step toward global quantum key distribution,” Nature 419, 450 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Resch, K. J.

Sehat, A.

A. Sehat, et al., “Quantum polarization properties of two-mode energy eigenstates,” PRA 71, 033818 (2004)

Shun-sheng, Gong

Miao Er-Iong, Han Zheng-fu, Gong Shun-sheng, Zhang Tao, Diao Da-sheng, and Guo Guang-can, “Background noise of satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 7, 215 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Simmons, C. M.

W. T. Buttler, R. J. Hughes, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, and C. M. Simmons, Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 1 Km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3283–3286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tamburini, F.

P. Villoresi, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Space-to-ground quantum-communication using an optical ground station: a feasibility study,” Proc. SPIE: Quantum Communications and Quantum Imaging, II conference in Denver (2004)

Tao, Zhang

Miao Er-Iong, Han Zheng-fu, Gong Shun-sheng, Zhang Tao, Diao Da-sheng, and Guo Guang-can, “Background noise of satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 7, 215 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Tapster, P. R.

C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Holder, H. Weinfurter, P. Gormar, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, “A step toward global quantum key distribution,” Nature 419, 450 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, and P. Knight, “Ground to satellite secure key exchange using quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 4, 82.1–82.21 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Tian, Jian-Wei

Cheng-Zhi Peng, Tao Yang, Xiao-Hui Bao, Xian-Min Jun-Zhang, Fa-Jong Jin, Bin Feng, Jian Yang, Juan Yang, Qian Yin, Nan Zhang, Bao-Li Li, Jian-Wei Tian, and Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 Km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, W.

W. Tittel and G. Weihs, Photonic entanglement for fundamental tests and quantum communications,” Quantum Information and Computation,  vol. 1, No. 2, 3–56 (2001)

Ursin, R.

R. Ursin et al., “Free-space distribution of entanglement and single photons over 144 Km,” quant-ph/0607182

P. Villoresi, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Space-to-ground quantum-communication using an optical ground station: a feasibility study,” Proc. SPIE: Quantum Communications and Quantum Imaging, II conference in Denver (2004)

Villoresi, P.

P. Villoresi, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Space-to-ground quantum-communication using an optical ground station: a feasibility study,” Proc. SPIE: Quantum Communications and Quantum Imaging, II conference in Denver (2004)

Weihs, G.

W. Tittel and G. Weihs, Photonic entanglement for fundamental tests and quantum communications,” Quantum Information and Computation,  vol. 1, No. 2, 3–56 (2001)

Weinfurter, H.

C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Holder, H. Weinfurter, P. Gormar, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, “A step toward global quantum key distribution,” Nature 419, 450 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, W. R. Leeb, G. Baister, T. Dreischer, T. Jennewein, G. Neckamm, J.M. Perdigues, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Satellite-based quantum communication terminal employing state-of-the-art technology, JON 4, No. 9, 549–560, (2005)

Wipf, C. C.

J. E. Nordholt, R. J. Hughes, J. R. Morgan, C. G. Peterson, and C. C. Wipf, “Present and future quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 116–126 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, sixth ed. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, England, 1993)

Yang, Jian

Cheng-Zhi Peng, Tao Yang, Xiao-Hui Bao, Xian-Min Jun-Zhang, Fa-Jong Jin, Bin Feng, Jian Yang, Juan Yang, Qian Yin, Nan Zhang, Bao-Li Li, Jian-Wei Tian, and Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 Km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Juan

Cheng-Zhi Peng, Tao Yang, Xiao-Hui Bao, Xian-Min Jun-Zhang, Fa-Jong Jin, Bin Feng, Jian Yang, Juan Yang, Qian Yin, Nan Zhang, Bao-Li Li, Jian-Wei Tian, and Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 Km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Tao

Cheng-Zhi Peng, Tao Yang, Xiao-Hui Bao, Xian-Min Jun-Zhang, Fa-Jong Jin, Bin Feng, Jian Yang, Juan Yang, Qian Yin, Nan Zhang, Bao-Li Li, Jian-Wei Tian, and Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 Km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, Qian

Cheng-Zhi Peng, Tao Yang, Xiao-Hui Bao, Xian-Min Jun-Zhang, Fa-Jong Jin, Bin Feng, Jian Yang, Juan Yang, Qian Yin, Nan Zhang, Bao-Li Li, Jian-Wei Tian, and Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 Km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Holder, H. Weinfurter, P. Gormar, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, “A step toward global quantum key distribution,” Nature 419, 450 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. R. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1541 (2003)
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M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, W. R. Leeb, G. Baister, T. Dreischer, T. Jennewein, G. Neckamm, J.M. Perdigues, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Satellite-based quantum communication terminal employing state-of-the-art technology, JON 4, No. 9, 549–560, (2005)

Zhang, Nan

Cheng-Zhi Peng, Tao Yang, Xiao-Hui Bao, Xian-Min Jun-Zhang, Fa-Jong Jin, Bin Feng, Jian Yang, Juan Yang, Qian Yin, Nan Zhang, Bao-Li Li, Jian-Wei Tian, and Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 Km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
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M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. R. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1541 (2003)
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Proc. SPIE (1)

J. E. Nordholt, R. J. Hughes, J. R. Morgan, C. G. Peterson, and C. C. Wipf, “Present and future quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 116–126 (2002)
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M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, W. R. Leeb, G. Baister, T. Dreischer, T. Jennewein, G. Neckamm, J.M. Perdigues, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Satellite-based quantum communication terminal employing state-of-the-art technology, JON 4, No. 9, 549–560, (2005)

R. Ursin et al., “Free-space distribution of entanglement and single photons over 144 Km,” quant-ph/0607182

P. Villoresi, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Space-to-ground quantum-communication using an optical ground station: a feasibility study,” Proc. SPIE: Quantum Communications and Quantum Imaging, II conference in Denver (2004)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fixed reference frame: the origin is set in the Earth center, the z direction is orthogonal to the equatorial plane and the y direction is on the intersection between the equatorial and the orbital planes

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Satellite visibility: the satellite is visible from the ground station only if the angle ϕ between v, vector pointing from the ground station to the satellite, and M, normal to the Earth surface in the ground station position, is such that 0<ϕ<π/2

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Procedure to determine whether the rotation of the s-polarization direction is clockwise or counterclockwise

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Different passages of the satellite above the ground station (represented by the GS in the centre of the XY plane). The satellite comes along different trajectories and so the pointing mirrors must be tilted in order to send the photons to the ground station, whatever the position of the satellite is. This makes the reference frame of the satellite rotate in respect to the reference frame on the ground station, and changes the angle of incidence on the mirrors, resulting on a modification of the polarization states of the emitted photons.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Poincaré spheres showing the received polarization states for two different satellite passages on the sky and four different photon wavelengths. The source on the satellite emits a horizontally-polarized photon, whose polarization state, due to rotation of the reference frames determined by the satellite motion and to reflection on mirrors, is in general different from the emitted one and changes in time. Moreover, the polarization states of photons of different wavelengths change in different ways, because of the different responses of mirrors. Elliptical polarization states can be due to complex refractive indices of the mirrors. In particular this result also indicates that it is difficult to use a reference laser at a different wavelength for polarization compensation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Poincaré sphere and its projections on the (S 1, S 2), (S 2, S 3) and (S 1, S 3) planes for 3000 satellite passages on the sky, starting from a horizontally polarized photon emitted by the source on the satellite. Strinkingly, the detected polarization state can be anywhere on the Poicaré sphere, with a higher probability to be on a strip near the equatorial plane.

Equations (26)

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N orb = [ cos ξ 0 sin ξ 0 1 0 sin ξ 0 cos ξ ] [ 0 0 1 ] = [ sin ξ 0 cos ξ ]
x = R o ( cos ξ cos ω t , sin ω t , sin ξ cos ω t )
M = R e ( cos β cos α , cos β sin α ,sin β )
α 1 = M α = ( sin α , cos α , 0 )
α 2 = M β = ( sin β cos α , sin β sin α , cos β )
α 3 = M M = ( cos β cos α , cos β sin α , sin β )
L 1 = ( cos ξ sin ω t , cos ω t , sin ξ sin ω t )
s 0 = ( sin ξ , 0 , cos ξ )
L 2 = M x r
θ 1 = 1 2 arccos ( ( L 1 ) · L 2 )
[ r p ( λ , θ 1 ) 0 0 r s ( λ , θ 1 ) ]
s 1 = L 1 × L 2 L 1 × L 2
σ 01 = s 0 × s 1 · L 1 s 0 × s 1 · L 1
β 01 = σ 01 arccos ( s 0 · s 1 )
[ cos β 01 sin β 01 sin β 01 cos β 01 ]
L 3 = ( cos χ ) α 1 + ( sin χ ) α 2
s 2 = L 2 × L 3 L 2 × L 3
[ cos β 12 sin β 12 sin β 12 cos β 12 ] β 12 = σ 12 arccos s 1 · s 2
s 3 = α 1 × α 2 α 1 × α 2
β 23 = σ 23 arccos s 2 · s 3
[ cos β 23 sin β 23 sin β 23 cos β 23 ]
[ E p E s ] = [ cos β 23 sin β 23 sin β 23 cos β 23 ] [ r p ( λ , θ 2 ) 0 0 r s ( λ , θ 2 ) ] [ cos β 12 sin β 12 sin β 12 cos β 12 ]
[ r p ( λ , θ 1 ) 0 0 r s ( λ , θ 1 ) ] [ cos β 01 sin β 01 sin β 01 cos β 01 ]
1 E p 2 + E s 2 [ E p E s ]
r s ( λ , θ i ) = n o ( λ ) cos θ i n ( λ ) cos θ t n o ( λ ) cos θ i + n ( λ ) cos θ t r p ( λ , θ i ) = n o ( λ ) cos θ t n ( λ ) cos θ i n o ( λ ) cos θ t + n ( λ ) cos θ i
χ = V B d = 0.001 r a d

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