Abstract

We present a study on the far-field patterns of light transmitted through sub-wavelength metallic hole-arrays. Spectral imaging measurements are used here on hole arrays for the first time. It provides both spatial and spectral information of the transmission in far-field. The visibility of the images, measured in two illumination modes: Köhler and collimated, is calculated for different planes in and out of focus. The transmission under collimated illumination reveals that 75% of the beam if non-divergent. The results are in agreement with the low divergence measured by Lezec [Science 297, 820 (2002)].

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through hole arrays in Cr films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743-1748 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2005

D. Amarie, N. D. Rawlinson, W. L. Schaich, B. Dragnea, and S. C. Jacobson, "Three-dimensional mapping of the light intensity transmitted through nanoapertures," Nano Lett. 5, 1227-1230 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra," Opt. Commun. 225, 331-336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Darmanyan, and A. V. Zayats, "Light tunneling via resonant surface plasmon polariton states and the enhanced transmission of periodically nanostructured metal films: An analytical study," Phys. Rev. B 67, 035424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

E. Popov, M. Neviere, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, "Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays," Phys. Rev. B 62, 16100-16108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, "Crucial role of metal surface in enhanced transmission through subwavelength apertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569-1571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. Thio, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beyond the Bethe limit: Tunable enhanced light transmission through a single sub-wavelength aperture," Adv. Mater. 11, 860-862 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through hole arrays in Cr films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743-1748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Amarie, D.

D. Amarie, N. D. Rawlinson, W. L. Schaich, B. Dragnea, and S. C. Jacobson, "Three-dimensional mapping of the light intensity transmitted through nanoapertures," Nano Lett. 5, 1227-1230 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darmanyan, S. A.

S. A. Darmanyan, and A. V. Zayats, "Light tunneling via resonant surface plasmon polariton states and the enhanced transmission of periodically nanostructured metal films: An analytical study," Phys. Rev. B 67, 035424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Degiron, A.

A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Analysis of the transmission process through single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations," Opt. Express 12, 3694-3700 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dragnea, B.

D. Amarie, N. D. Rawlinson, W. L. Schaich, B. Dragnea, and S. C. Jacobson, "Three-dimensional mapping of the light intensity transmitted through nanoapertures," Nano Lett. 5, 1227-1230 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Analysis of the transmission process through single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations," Opt. Express 12, 3694-3700 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, "Crucial role of metal surface in enhanced transmission through subwavelength apertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569-1571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through hole arrays in Cr films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743-1748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. Thio, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beyond the Bethe limit: Tunable enhanced light transmission through a single sub-wavelength aperture," Adv. Mater. 11, 860-862 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Enoch, S.

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Popov, M. Neviere, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, "Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays," Phys. Rev. B 62, 16100-16108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, "Plasmonic nanolithography," Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Optical transmission through circular hole arrays in optically thick metal films," Opt. Express 12, 3619-3628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra," Opt. Commun. 225, 331-336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through hole arrays in Cr films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743-1748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grupp, D. E.

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, "Crucial role of metal surface in enhanced transmission through subwavelength apertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569-1571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. Thio, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beyond the Bethe limit: Tunable enhanced light transmission through a single sub-wavelength aperture," Adv. Mater. 11, 860-862 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, S. C.

D. Amarie, N. D. Rawlinson, W. L. Schaich, B. Dragnea, and S. C. Jacobson, "Three-dimensional mapping of the light intensity transmitted through nanoapertures," Nano Lett. 5, 1227-1230 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein Koerkamp, K. J.

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L.

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, and T. Thio, "Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 12, 3629-3651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, "Crucial role of metal surface in enhanced transmission through subwavelength apertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569-1571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through hole arrays in Cr films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743-1748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. Thio, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beyond the Bethe limit: Tunable enhanced light transmission through a single sub-wavelength aperture," Adv. Mater. 11, 860-862 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, "Plasmonic nanolithography," Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Optical transmission through circular hole arrays in optically thick metal films," Opt. Express 12, 3619-3628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neviere, M.

E. Popov, M. Neviere, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, "Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays," Phys. Rev. B 62, 16100-16108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pellerin, K. M.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, "Crucial role of metal surface in enhanced transmission through subwavelength apertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569-1571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, E.

E. Popov, M. Neviere, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, "Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays," Phys. Rev. B 62, 16100-16108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rawlinson, N. D.

D. Amarie, N. D. Rawlinson, W. L. Schaich, B. Dragnea, and S. C. Jacobson, "Three-dimensional mapping of the light intensity transmitted through nanoapertures," Nano Lett. 5, 1227-1230 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinisch, R.

E. Popov, M. Neviere, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, "Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays," Phys. Rev. B 62, 16100-16108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schaich, W. L.

D. Amarie, N. D. Rawlinson, W. L. Schaich, B. Dragnea, and S. C. Jacobson, "Three-dimensional mapping of the light intensity transmitted through nanoapertures," Nano Lett. 5, 1227-1230 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segerink, F. B.

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srituravanich, W.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, "Plasmonic nanolithography," Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, "Plasmonic nanolithography," Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

H. J. Lezec, and T. Thio, "Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 12, 3629-3651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, "Crucial role of metal surface in enhanced transmission through subwavelength apertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569-1571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through hole arrays in Cr films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743-1748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. Thio, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beyond the Bethe limit: Tunable enhanced light transmission through a single sub-wavelength aperture," Adv. Mater. 11, 860-862 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M. P.

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra," Opt. Commun. 225, 331-336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woerdman, J. P.

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra," Opt. Commun. 225, 331-336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through hole arrays in Cr films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1743-1748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

S. A. Darmanyan, and A. V. Zayats, "Light tunneling via resonant surface plasmon polariton states and the enhanced transmission of periodically nanostructured metal films: An analytical study," Phys. Rev. B 67, 035424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, "Plasmonic nanolithography," Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. Thio, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beyond the Bethe limit: Tunable enhanced light transmission through a single sub-wavelength aperture," Adv. Mater. 11, 860-862 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. E. Grupp, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, and T. Thio, "Crucial role of metal surface in enhanced transmission through subwavelength apertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1569-1571 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nano Lett.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, "Plasmonic nanolithography," Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Amarie, N. D. Rawlinson, W. L. Schaich, B. Dragnea, and S. C. Jacobson, "Three-dimensional mapping of the light intensity transmitted through nanoapertures," Nano Lett. 5, 1227-1230 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra," Opt. Commun. 225, 331-336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

S. A. Darmanyan, and A. V. Zayats, "Light tunneling via resonant surface plasmon polariton states and the enhanced transmission of periodically nanostructured metal films: An analytical study," Phys. Rev. B 67, 035424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Popov, M. Neviere, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, "Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays," Phys. Rev. B 62, 16100-16108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. W. Docter, I. T. Young, V. G. Kutchoukov, A. Bossche, P. F. A. Alkemade, and Y. Garini, "A novel concept for a mid-field microscope," in Plasmonics in Biology and Medicine II, J. R. Lakowicz, and Z. K. Gryczynski, eds., Proc. SPIE 5703, 118-126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Garini, N. Katzir, D. Cabib, R. A. Buckwald, D. G. Soenksen, and Z. Malik, "Spectral Bio-Imaging," in Fluorescence imaging spectroscopy and microscopy, X. F. Wang, and B. Herman, eds. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1996), pp. 87-124.

M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999).
[PubMed]

I. T. Young, "Calibration: Sampling Density and Spatial Resolution," in Current Protocols in Cytometry, J. P. Robinson, Z. Darzynkiewicz, P. N. Dean, L. G. Dressler, P. S. Rabinovich, C. S. Stewart, H. J. Tanke, and L. L. Wheeless, eds., (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1997), pp. 2.6.1-2.6.14.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The experimental set-up. The lower part of the figure shows a conventional wide-field microscope illumination and collection by an objective lens. By closing the condenser aperture the illumination mode is changed from Köhler illumination (orange) to collimated illumination (purple). Instead of a regular CCD camera or spectrum analyzer, a Sagnac imaging interferometer is mounted (SpectraCube, Applied Spectral Imaging) allowing one to obtain spectral and spatial information at the same time. The hole-array is mounted on a (x,y,z) stage, ϕ is the angle between array and optical axis and θ is the angle between illumination and optical axis.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission spectra of the hole-array for collimated (left axis) and Köhler (right axis) illumination. See text for details.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Images for (a) Köhler and (b) collimated illumination, numerical aperture NA=0.75 for the microscope objective lens. Each pixel in (a, b) is defined by I(x,y,z=z 0)θ525nm591nm I(x,y,z=z 0,λ). The magnitudes of their corresponding Fourier transforms are given in (c, d).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The visibility calculated for images with intensity integrated around the 554 nm peak by using the Fourier transformed images shown in Fig. 3.

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