Abstract

The optical coupling between two size-mismatched spheres was studied by using one sphere as a local source of light with whispering gallery modes (WGMs) and detecting the intensity of the light scattered by a second sphere playing the part of a receiver of electromagnetic energy. We developed techniques to control inter-cavity gap sizes between microspheres with ~30nm accuracy. We demonstrate high efficiencies (up to 0.2–0.3) of coupling between two separated cavities with strongly detuned eigenstates. At small separations (<1 µm) between the spheres, the mechanism of coupling is interpreted in terms of the Fano resonance between discrete level (true WGMs excited in a source sphere) and a continuum of “quasi”-WGMs with distorted shape which can be induced in the receiving sphere. At larger separations the spectra detected from the receiving sphere originate from scattering of the radiative modes.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006

2005

Y. Hara, T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, "Heavy photon states in photonic chains of resonantly coupled cavities with supermonodispersive microspheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Möller, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, "Coupled-resonator optical waveguides doped with nanocrystals," Opt. Lett. 30, 2116-2118 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Khurgin, "Expanding the bandwidth of slow-light photonic devices based on coupled resonators," Opt. Lett. 30, 513-515 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, "Optical modes in 2-D Imperfect Square and Triangular Microcavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 857-862 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, Z. Wang, M. Han, S. Fan and R. Dutton, "Mode-locking of monolithic laser diodes incorporating coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 4539-4553 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

B. M. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, "Photonic molecules doped with semiconductor nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. B 70, 115323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Deng, W. Cai, and V. N. Astratov, "Numerical study of light propagation via whispering gallery modes in microcylinder coupled resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 6468-6480 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Heebner, P. Chak, S. Pereira, J. E. Sipe, and R. W. Boyd, "Distributed and localized feedback in microresonator sequences for linear and nonlinear optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1818-1832 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Interference effects in lossy resonator chains," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515-2522 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, "Optical coupling and transport phenomena in chains of spherical dielectric microresonators with size disorder," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508-5510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, "Photonic nanojet enhancement of backscattering of light by nanoparticles: a potential novel visible-light ultramicroscopy technique," Opt. Express 12,1214-1220 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

1999

A. Yariv, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Scherer, "Coupled-resonator optical waveguide: a proposal and analysis," Opt. Lett. 24, 711-713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, "Tight-binding photonic molecule modes of resonant bispheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623-4626 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. G. DeVoe and R. G. Brewer, "Observation of superradiant and subradiant spontaneous emission of two trapped ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2049-2052 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Absil, P. P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Artemyev, M. V.

B. M. Möller, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, "Coupled-resonator optical waveguides doped with nanocrystals," Opt. Lett. 30, 2116-2118 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, "Photonic molecules doped with semiconductor nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. B 70, 115323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ashili, S. P.

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, "Optical coupling and transport phenomena in chains of spherical dielectric microresonators with size disorder," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508-5510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Astratov, V. N.

A. V. Kanaev, V. N. Astratov, and W. Cai, "Optical coupling at a distance between detuned spherical cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, "Optical coupling and transport phenomena in chains of spherical dielectric microresonators with size disorder," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508-5510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Deng, W. Cai, and V. N. Astratov, "Numerical study of light propagation via whispering gallery modes in microcylinder coupled resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 6468-6480 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

Benson, T. M.

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, "Optical modes in 2-D Imperfect Square and Triangular Microcavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 857-862 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boland, J. J.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boriskina, S. V.

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, "Optical modes in 2-D Imperfect Square and Triangular Microcavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 857-862 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Bradley, A. L.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, R. G.

R. G. DeVoe and R. G. Brewer, "Observation of superradiant and subradiant spontaneous emission of two trapped ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2049-2052 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Chak, P.

Chang, H.

Chen, Z.

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Connolly, T. M.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deng, S.

DeRose, G. A.

DeVoe, R. G.

R. G. DeVoe and R. G. Brewer, "Observation of superradiant and subradiant spontaneous emission of two trapped ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2049-2052 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donegan, J. F.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, R.

Eggleton, B. J.

Fan, S.

Forchel, A.

S. Mahnkopf, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and R. März, "Tunable distributed feedback laser with photonic crystal mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2942-2944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franchak, J. P.

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, "Optical coupling and transport phenomena in chains of spherical dielectric microresonators with size disorder," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508-5510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, K. A.

Gaponik, N.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gerlach, M.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, M.

Hara, Y.

Y. Hara, T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, "Heavy photon states in photonic chains of resonantly coupled cavities with supermonodispersive microspheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heebner, J. E.

Hryniewicz, J. V.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Interference effects in lossy resonator chains," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515-2522 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jimba, Y.

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, "Tight-binding photonic molecule modes of resonant bispheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623-4626 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, F. G.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kamp, M.

S. Mahnkopf, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and R. März, "Tunable distributed feedback laser with photonic crystal mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2942-2944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kanaev, A. V.

A. V. Kanaev, V. N. Astratov, and W. Cai, "Optical coupling at a distance between detuned spherical cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

King, O.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

Y. Hara, T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, "Heavy photon states in photonic chains of resonantly coupled cavities with supermonodispersive microspheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, "Tight-binding photonic molecule modes of resonant bispheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623-4626 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Mahnkopf, S.

S. Mahnkopf, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and R. März, "Tunable distributed feedback laser with photonic crystal mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2942-2944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Interference effects in lossy resonator chains," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515-2522 (2004).
[CrossRef]

März, R.

S. Mahnkopf, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and R. März, "Tunable distributed feedback laser with photonic crystal mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2942-2944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Interference effects in lossy resonator chains," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515-2522 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, H.

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, "Tight-binding photonic molecule modes of resonant bispheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623-4626 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Möller, B. M.

B. M. Möller, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, "Coupled-resonator optical waveguides doped with nanocrystals," Opt. Lett. 30, 2116-2118 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Möller, U. Woggon, M. V. Artemyev, and R. Wannemacher, "Photonic molecules doped with semiconductor nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. B 70, 115323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mukaiyama, T.

Y. Hara, T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, "Heavy photon states in photonic chains of resonantly coupled cavities with supermonodispersive microspheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, "Tight-binding photonic molecule modes of resonant bispheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623-4626 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nosich, A. I.

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, "Optical modes in 2-D Imperfect Square and Triangular Microcavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 857-862 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q. H.

Pereira, S.

Poon, J. K. S.

Rakovich, Y. P.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rogach, A.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Interference effects in lossy resonator chains," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515-2522 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Seiferth, F.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sewell, P.

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, "Optical modes in 2-D Imperfect Square and Triangular Microcavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 857-862 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

Smith, D. D.

Strekalov, D.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Interference effects in lossy resonator chains," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2515-2522 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sumetsky, M.

Taflove, A.

Takeda, K.

Y. Hara, T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, "Heavy photon states in photonic chains of resonantly coupled cavities with supermonodispersive microspheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203905 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, "Tight-binding photonic molecule modes of resonant bispheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623-4626 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trakalo, M.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van, V.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Optical image of a bisphere formed by 5 µm dye-doped source (S) sphere and 8 µm undoped receiving (R) sphere. (b) Schematic sketch illustrating use of a stretchable substrate for controlling gaps d between the spheres. Additional markers (spheres) for calibrating strain are indicated. (c) Experimental setup for spatially resolved spectroscopic measurements.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectra of 5 µm dye-doped source (S) sphere (red), and spectra of 8 µm undoped receiving (R) sphere (black) for different distances d between cavities: (a) and (b) touching case, (c) 0.17 µm, (d) 0.29 µm, (e) 0.46 µm, (f) 0.69 µm, (g) 1.32 µm, (h) 2.18 µm, and (i) 3.2 µm. The shift of peaks (γ) associated with change of the average index experienced by WGMs is indicated. The amplitudes of peaks in scattering spectra of R sphere (IR ) and in FL spectra of S sphere (IS ) are indicated. In the inset the SEM image demonstrates a slight embedding (~0.5 µm) of spheres into elastomeric PDMS slab.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The efficiency of coupling between 5 µm dye-doped source (S) sphere and 8 µm undoped receiving (R) sphere as a function of distance d. The coupling efficiency was estimated as: η=A×(IR /IS ), where A — geometrical factor related to finite size of the hole in the spatial filter, IR — amplitude of the peak in scattering spectrum of R sphere, IS — amplitude of the corresponding peak in the lasing spectrum of isolated S sphere. Red and blue curves represent peaks around 518 nm and 526 nm in Fig. 3, correspondingly.

Equations (1)

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d = ( Δ L L ) ( D S + D R ) 2 ,

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