Abstract

We have written a sampled Bragg grating into a highly photosensitive chalcogenide (As2S3) rib-waveguide using a scanning Sagnac interferometer. The grating exhibits evenly spaced rejection peaks over a 40 nm bandwidth. We estimate the induced refractive index change of the waveguide to be over 0.03 by matching the measured spectrum to numerical solutions of the coupled mode equations while accounting for an induced chirp. The sampled Bragg grating presented is comparable in strength and bandwidth to the best sampled Bragg gratings obtained to date in silica optical fibre.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. R. Hilton, "Nonoxide Chalcogenide Glass as Infrared Optical Materials," Appl. Opt. 5, 1877-1882 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Ruan, W. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, "Fabrication and characterization of low loss rib chalcogenide waveguides made by dry etching," Opt. Express 12, 5140-5145 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. T. Li, Y. L. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, A. Rode, and R. Boswell, "Dry-etch of As2S3 thin films for optical waveguide fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 1626-1632 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Hô, M. C. Phillips, H. Qiao, P. J. Allen, K. Krishnaswami, B. J. Riley, T. L. Myres, and N. C. AnheierJr., "Single-mode low-loss chalcogenide glass waveguides for the mid-infrared," Opt. Lett. 31, 1860-1862 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Grillet, C. Smith, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, E. Magi, D. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Efficient coupling to chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguides via silica optical fiber nanowires," Opt. Express 14, 1070-1078 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Lenz, J. Zimmermann, T. Katsufuji, M. E. Lines, H. Y. Hwang, S. Spälter, R. E. Slusher, S.-W, Cheong, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Larger Kerr effect in bulk Se-based chalcogenide glasses," Opt. Lett. 25, 254-256 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Asobe, H. Kobayashi, H. Itoh, and T. Kanamori, "Laser-diode-driven ultrafast all-optical switching by using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 1056-1058 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, I. C. M. Littler, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Integrated all-optical pulse regenerator in chalcogenide waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 2900-2902 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Tanaka, and Y. Ohtsuka, "Measurements of photoinduced transformations in amorphous As2S3 films by optical waveguiding," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 6132-6135 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Shokooh-Saremi, V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "High-performance Bragg gratings in chalcogenide rib-waveguides written with a modified Sagnac Interferometer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1323-1331 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, and D. C. Johnson, "Photosensitivity in Optical Fibers," Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 125-157 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Meneghini and A. Villeneuve, "As2S3 photosensitivity by two-photon absorption: holographic gratings and self-written channel waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2946-2950 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, "Photoinduced Self-Developing Relief Gratings in Thin Film Chalcogenide As2S3 Glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1343-1347 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Tanaka, N. Toyosawa, and H. Hisakuni, "Photoinduced Bragg gratings in As2S3 optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 20, 1976-1978 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, "Fabrication of Bragg grating in chalcogenide glass fibre using the transverse holographic method," Electron. Lett. 32, 1611-1613 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Saliminia, K. Le Foulgoc, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and K. Richardson, "Photoinduced Bragg Reflectors in As-S-Se/As-S Based Chalcogenide Glass Multilayer Channel Waveguides," Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 151-158 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. N. Kumta, and S. H. Risbud, "Review: Rare-earth chalcogenides-an emerging class of optical materials," J. Materials Science 29, 1135-1158 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. D. Jackson, and G. Anzueto-Sánchez, "Chalcogenide glass Raman fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg gratings (Academic Press, San Diego, 1999), Section 4.2
  22. M. Ibsen, K. Durkin, J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, "Sinc-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for identical multiple wavelength operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 842-844 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. A. Vlasov, and S. J. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Express 12, 1622-1631 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. V. Ta'eed, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, "Higher order mode conversion via focused ion beam milled Bragg gratings in Silicon-on-Insulator waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 5274-5284 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. Ibsen, J. Hübner, J. E. Pedersen, R. Kromann, L.-U. A. Anderson, and M. Kristensen, "30 dB sampled gratings in germanosilicate planar waveguides," Electron. Lett. 32, 2233-2235 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Hübner, D. Zauner, and M. Kristensen, "Strong sampled Bragg gratings for WDM applications," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 552-554 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. F. Ouelllette, P. A. Krug, T. Stephens, G. Dhosi, B. J. Eggleton, "Broadband and WDM dispersion compensation using chirped sampled fibre Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett 31, 899-901 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  28. N. Hô, J. M. Laniel, R. Vallée, and A. Villeneuve, "Photosensitivity of As2S3 chalcogenide thin films at 1.5 μm," Opt. Lett. 28, 965-967 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, W. Li, A. Rode, V. Kolev, and S. Madden, "Large phase shifts in As2S3 waveguides for all-optical processing devices," Opt. Lett. 19, 2605-2607 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. Petov, and P. J. S. Ewen, "Photoinduced changes in the linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249, 150-159 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Popescu, "Disordered chalcogenide optoelectronics materials: phenomena and applications," J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 2189-2210 (2005).
  32. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  33. I. Riant, and B. Poumellec, "Thermal decay of gratings written in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibres," Electron. Lett. 34, 1603-1604 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (4)

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, W. Li, A. Rode, V. Kolev, and S. Madden, "Large phase shifts in As2S3 waveguides for all-optical processing devices," Opt. Lett. 19, 2605-2607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Popescu, "Disordered chalcogenide optoelectronics materials: phenomena and applications," J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 2189-2210 (2005).

W. T. Li, Y. L. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, A. Rode, and R. Boswell, "Dry-etch of As2S3 thin films for optical waveguide fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 1626-1632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, I. C. M. Littler, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Integrated all-optical pulse regenerator in chalcogenide waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 2900-2902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

A. Saliminia, K. Le Foulgoc, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and K. Richardson, "Photoinduced Bragg Reflectors in As-S-Se/As-S Based Chalcogenide Glass Multilayer Channel Waveguides," Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 151-158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

K. Petov, and P. J. S. Ewen, "Photoinduced changes in the linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249, 150-159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

I. Riant, and B. Poumellec, "Thermal decay of gratings written in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibres," Electron. Lett. 34, 1603-1604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Hübner, D. Zauner, and M. Kristensen, "Strong sampled Bragg gratings for WDM applications," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 552-554 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Ibsen, K. Durkin, J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, "Sinc-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for identical multiple wavelength operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 842-844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Meneghini and A. Villeneuve, "As2S3 photosensitivity by two-photon absorption: holographic gratings and self-written channel waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2946-2950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, "Photoinduced Self-Developing Relief Gratings in Thin Film Chalcogenide As2S3 Glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1343-1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. Ibsen, J. Hübner, J. E. Pedersen, R. Kromann, L.-U. A. Anderson, and M. Kristensen, "30 dB sampled gratings in germanosilicate planar waveguides," Electron. Lett. 32, 2233-2235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, "Fabrication of Bragg grating in chalcogenide glass fibre using the transverse holographic method," Electron. Lett. 32, 1611-1613 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

F. Ouelllette, P. A. Krug, T. Stephens, G. Dhosi, B. J. Eggleton, "Broadband and WDM dispersion compensation using chirped sampled fibre Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett 31, 899-901 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, N. Toyosawa, and H. Hisakuni, "Photoinduced Bragg gratings in As2S3 optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 20, 1976-1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Kumta, and S. H. Risbud, "Review: Rare-earth chalcogenides-an emerging class of optical materials," J. Materials Science 29, 1135-1158 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, and D. C. Johnson, "Photosensitivity in Optical Fibers," Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 125-157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, H. Kobayashi, H. Itoh, and T. Kanamori, "Laser-diode-driven ultrafast all-optical switching by using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 1056-1058 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

K. Tanaka, and Y. Ohtsuka, "Measurements of photoinduced transformations in amorphous As2S3 films by optical waveguiding," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 6132-6135 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

Allen, P. J.

Anderson, L.-U. A.

M. Ibsen, J. Hübner, J. E. Pedersen, R. Kromann, L.-U. A. Anderson, and M. Kristensen, "30 dB sampled gratings in germanosilicate planar waveguides," Electron. Lett. 32, 2233-2235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anheier, N. C.

Anzueto-Sánchez, G.

S. D. Jackson, and G. Anzueto-Sánchez, "Chalcogenide glass Raman fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, "Fabrication of Bragg grating in chalcogenide glass fibre using the transverse holographic method," Electron. Lett. 32, 1611-1613 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, H. Kobayashi, H. Itoh, and T. Kanamori, "Laser-diode-driven ultrafast all-optical switching by using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 1056-1058 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkins, R. M.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baker, N. J.

Bilodeau, F.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, and D. C. Johnson, "Photosensitivity in Optical Fibers," Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 125-157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boswell, R.

W. T. Li, Y. L. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, A. Rode, and R. Boswell, "Dry-etch of As2S3 thin films for optical waveguide fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 1626-1632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cole, J.

M. Ibsen, K. Durkin, J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, "Sinc-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for identical multiple wavelength operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 842-844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dhosi, G.

F. Ouelllette, P. A. Krug, T. Stephens, G. Dhosi, B. J. Eggleton, "Broadband and WDM dispersion compensation using chirped sampled fibre Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett 31, 899-901 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, "Photoinduced Self-Developing Relief Gratings in Thin Film Chalcogenide As2S3 Glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1343-1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Durkin, K.

M. Ibsen, K. Durkin, J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, "Sinc-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for identical multiple wavelength operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 842-844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B.

Eggleton, B. J.

Ewen, P. J. S.

K. Petov, and P. J. S. Ewen, "Photoinduced changes in the linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249, 150-159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, D.

Fu, L.

Galstian, T.

A. Saliminia, K. Le Foulgoc, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and K. Richardson, "Photoinduced Bragg Reflectors in As-S-Se/As-S Based Chalcogenide Glass Multilayer Channel Waveguides," Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 151-158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Galstyan, T. V.

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, "Photoinduced Self-Developing Relief Gratings in Thin Film Chalcogenide As2S3 Glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1343-1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, and D. C. Johnson, "Photosensitivity in Optical Fibers," Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 125-157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hilton, A. R.

Hisakuni, H.

Hô, N.

Hübner, J.

J. Hübner, D. Zauner, and M. Kristensen, "Strong sampled Bragg gratings for WDM applications," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 552-554 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Ibsen, J. Hübner, J. E. Pedersen, R. Kromann, L.-U. A. Anderson, and M. Kristensen, "30 dB sampled gratings in germanosilicate planar waveguides," Electron. Lett. 32, 2233-2235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H. Y.

Ibsen, M.

M. Ibsen, K. Durkin, J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, "Sinc-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for identical multiple wavelength operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 842-844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Ibsen, J. Hübner, J. E. Pedersen, R. Kromann, L.-U. A. Anderson, and M. Kristensen, "30 dB sampled gratings in germanosilicate planar waveguides," Electron. Lett. 32, 2233-2235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, H.

Jackson, S. D.

S. D. Jackson, and G. Anzueto-Sánchez, "Chalcogenide glass Raman fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Jarvis, R.

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, and D. C. Johnson, "Photosensitivity in Optical Fibers," Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 125-157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, "Fabrication of Bragg grating in chalcogenide glass fibre using the transverse holographic method," Electron. Lett. 32, 1611-1613 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, T.

Katsufuji, T.

Kobayashi, H.

Kolev, V.

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, W. Li, A. Rode, V. Kolev, and S. Madden, "Large phase shifts in As2S3 waveguides for all-optical processing devices," Opt. Lett. 19, 2605-2607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krishnaswami, K.

Kristensen, M.

J. Hübner, D. Zauner, and M. Kristensen, "Strong sampled Bragg gratings for WDM applications," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 552-554 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Ibsen, J. Hübner, J. E. Pedersen, R. Kromann, L.-U. A. Anderson, and M. Kristensen, "30 dB sampled gratings in germanosilicate planar waveguides," Electron. Lett. 32, 2233-2235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kromann, R.

M. Ibsen, J. Hübner, J. E. Pedersen, R. Kromann, L.-U. A. Anderson, and M. Kristensen, "30 dB sampled gratings in germanosilicate planar waveguides," Electron. Lett. 32, 2233-2235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krug, P. A.

F. Ouelllette, P. A. Krug, T. Stephens, G. Dhosi, B. J. Eggleton, "Broadband and WDM dispersion compensation using chirped sampled fibre Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett 31, 899-901 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kumta, P. N.

P. N. Kumta, and S. H. Risbud, "Review: Rare-earth chalcogenides-an emerging class of optical materials," J. Materials Science 29, 1135-1158 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

M. Ibsen, K. Durkin, J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, "Sinc-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for identical multiple wavelength operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 842-844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laniel, J. M.

Le Foulgoc, K.

A. Saliminia, K. Le Foulgoc, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and K. Richardson, "Photoinduced Bragg Reflectors in As-S-Se/As-S Based Chalcogenide Glass Multilayer Channel Waveguides," Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 151-158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, G.

Li, W.

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, W. Li, A. Rode, V. Kolev, and S. Madden, "Large phase shifts in As2S3 waveguides for all-optical processing devices," Opt. Lett. 19, 2605-2607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ruan, W. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, "Fabrication and characterization of low loss rib chalcogenide waveguides made by dry etching," Opt. Express 12, 5140-5145 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, W. T.

W. T. Li, Y. L. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, A. Rode, and R. Boswell, "Dry-etch of As2S3 thin films for optical waveguide fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 1626-1632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lines, M. E.

Littler, I. C. M.

Lopez, C.

Luther-Davies, B.

M. Shokooh-Saremi, V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "High-performance Bragg gratings in chalcogenide rib-waveguides written with a modified Sagnac Interferometer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1323-1331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Grillet, C. Smith, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, E. Magi, D. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Efficient coupling to chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguides via silica optical fiber nanowires," Opt. Express 14, 1070-1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Li, Y. L. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, A. Rode, and R. Boswell, "Dry-etch of As2S3 thin films for optical waveguide fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 1626-1632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, I. C. M. Littler, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Integrated all-optical pulse regenerator in chalcogenide waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 2900-2902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, W. Li, A. Rode, V. Kolev, and S. Madden, "Large phase shifts in As2S3 waveguides for all-optical processing devices," Opt. Lett. 19, 2605-2607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Ta'eed, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, "Higher order mode conversion via focused ion beam milled Bragg gratings in Silicon-on-Insulator waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 5274-5284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ruan, W. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, "Fabrication and characterization of low loss rib chalcogenide waveguides made by dry etching," Opt. Express 12, 5140-5145 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madden, S.

Madsen, N.

Magi, E.

Malo, B.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, and D. C. Johnson, "Photosensitivity in Optical Fibers," Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 125-157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Meneghini, C.

Mizrahi, V.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D.

Moss, D. J.

Myres, T. L.

Ohara, T.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, "Fabrication of Bragg grating in chalcogenide glass fibre using the transverse holographic method," Electron. Lett. 32, 1611-1613 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, Y.

K. Tanaka, and Y. Ohtsuka, "Measurements of photoinduced transformations in amorphous As2S3 films by optical waveguiding," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 6132-6135 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ouellette, F.

B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ouelllette, F.

F. Ouelllette, P. A. Krug, T. Stephens, G. Dhosi, B. J. Eggleton, "Broadband and WDM dispersion compensation using chirped sampled fibre Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett 31, 899-901 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, J. E.

M. Ibsen, J. Hübner, J. E. Pedersen, R. Kromann, L.-U. A. Anderson, and M. Kristensen, "30 dB sampled gratings in germanosilicate planar waveguides," Electron. Lett. 32, 2233-2235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Petov, K.

K. Petov, and P. J. S. Ewen, "Photoinduced changes in the linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249, 150-159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, M. C.

Poladian, L.

B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Popescu, M.

M. Popescu, "Disordered chalcogenide optoelectronics materials: phenomena and applications," J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 2189-2210 (2005).

Poumellec, B.

I. Riant, and B. Poumellec, "Thermal decay of gratings written in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibres," Electron. Lett. 34, 1603-1604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, H.

Reed, W. A.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Riant, I.

I. Riant, and B. Poumellec, "Thermal decay of gratings written in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibres," Electron. Lett. 34, 1603-1604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Saliminia, K. Le Foulgoc, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and K. Richardson, "Photoinduced Bragg Reflectors in As-S-Se/As-S Based Chalcogenide Glass Multilayer Channel Waveguides," Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 151-158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, "Photoinduced Self-Developing Relief Gratings in Thin Film Chalcogenide As2S3 Glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1343-1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

Riley, B. J.

Risbud, S. H.

P. N. Kumta, and S. H. Risbud, "Review: Rare-earth chalcogenides-an emerging class of optical materials," J. Materials Science 29, 1135-1158 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rivero, C.

Rochette, M.

Rode, A.

W. T. Li, Y. L. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, A. Rode, and R. Boswell, "Dry-etch of As2S3 thin films for optical waveguide fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 1626-1632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, W. Li, A. Rode, V. Kolev, and S. Madden, "Large phase shifts in As2S3 waveguides for all-optical processing devices," Opt. Lett. 19, 2605-2607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ruan, W. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, "Fabrication and characterization of low loss rib chalcogenide waveguides made by dry etching," Opt. Express 12, 5140-5145 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruan, Y.

Ruan, Y. L.

W. T. Li, Y. L. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, A. Rode, and R. Boswell, "Dry-etch of As2S3 thin films for optical waveguide fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 1626-1632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saliminia, A.

A. Saliminia, K. Le Foulgoc, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and K. Richardson, "Photoinduced Bragg Reflectors in As-S-Se/As-S Based Chalcogenide Glass Multilayer Channel Waveguides," Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 151-158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Samoc, M.

Schulte, A.

Shokooh-Saremi, M.

Slusher, R. E.

Smith, C.

Spälter, S.

Stephens, T.

F. Ouelllette, P. A. Krug, T. Stephens, G. Dhosi, B. J. Eggleton, "Broadband and WDM dispersion compensation using chirped sampled fibre Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett 31, 899-901 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ta’eed, V. G.

Ta'eed, V.

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, N. Toyosawa, and H. Hisakuni, "Photoinduced Bragg gratings in As2S3 optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 20, 1976-1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tanaka, and Y. Ohtsuka, "Measurements of photoinduced transformations in amorphous As2S3 films by optical waveguiding," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 6132-6135 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Toyosawa, N.

Vallée, R.

Viens, J.-F.

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, "Photoinduced Self-Developing Relief Gratings in Thin Film Chalcogenide As2S3 Glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1343-1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

N. Hô, J. M. Laniel, R. Vallée, and A. Villeneuve, "Photosensitivity of As2S3 chalcogenide thin films at 1.5 μm," Opt. Lett. 28, 965-967 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Saliminia, K. Le Foulgoc, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and K. Richardson, "Photoinduced Bragg Reflectors in As-S-Se/As-S Based Chalcogenide Glass Multilayer Channel Waveguides," Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 151-158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Meneghini and A. Villeneuve, "As2S3 photosensitivity by two-photon absorption: holographic gratings and self-written channel waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2946-2950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, "Photoinduced Self-Developing Relief Gratings in Thin Film Chalcogenide As2S3 Glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1343-1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Xu, D.

Yokohama, I.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, "Fabrication of Bragg grating in chalcogenide glass fibre using the transverse holographic method," Electron. Lett. 32, 1611-1613 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zauner, D.

J. Hübner, D. Zauner, and M. Kristensen, "Strong sampled Bragg gratings for WDM applications," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 552-554 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, J.

Zoubir, A.

Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, and D. C. Johnson, "Photosensitivity in Optical Fibers," Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 125-157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. D. Jackson, and G. Anzueto-Sánchez, "Chalcogenide glass Raman fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett (1)

F. Ouelllette, P. A. Krug, T. Stephens, G. Dhosi, B. J. Eggleton, "Broadband and WDM dispersion compensation using chirped sampled fibre Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett 31, 899-901 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (5)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. Riant, and B. Poumellec, "Thermal decay of gratings written in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibres," Electron. Lett. 34, 1603-1604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Ibsen, J. Hübner, J. E. Pedersen, R. Kromann, L.-U. A. Anderson, and M. Kristensen, "30 dB sampled gratings in germanosilicate planar waveguides," Electron. Lett. 32, 2233-2235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, "Fabrication of Bragg grating in chalcogenide glass fibre using the transverse holographic method," Electron. Lett. 32, 1611-1613 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

A. Saliminia, K. Le Foulgoc, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and K. Richardson, "Photoinduced Bragg Reflectors in As-S-Se/As-S Based Chalcogenide Glass Multilayer Channel Waveguides," Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 151-158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Ibsen, K. Durkin, J. Cole, and R. I. Laming, "Sinc-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for identical multiple wavelength operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 842-844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Hübner, D. Zauner, and M. Kristensen, "Strong sampled Bragg gratings for WDM applications," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 552-554 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Tanaka, and Y. Ohtsuka, "Measurements of photoinduced transformations in amorphous As2S3 films by optical waveguiding," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 6132-6135 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, "Photoinduced Self-Developing Relief Gratings in Thin Film Chalcogenide As2S3 Glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1343-1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Materials Science (1)

P. N. Kumta, and S. H. Risbud, "Review: Rare-earth chalcogenides-an emerging class of optical materials," J. Materials Science 29, 1135-1158 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

K. Petov, and P. J. S. Ewen, "Photoinduced changes in the linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249, 150-159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. (1)

M. Popescu, "Disordered chalcogenide optoelectronics materials: phenomena and applications," J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 2189-2210 (2005).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

W. T. Li, Y. L. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, A. Rode, and R. Boswell, "Dry-etch of As2S3 thin films for optical waveguide fabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 1626-1632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (8)

N. Hô, J. M. Laniel, R. Vallée, and A. Villeneuve, "Photosensitivity of As2S3 chalcogenide thin films at 1.5 μm," Opt. Lett. 28, 965-967 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, W. Li, A. Rode, V. Kolev, and S. Madden, "Large phase shifts in As2S3 waveguides for all-optical processing devices," Opt. Lett. 19, 2605-2607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Lenz, J. Zimmermann, T. Katsufuji, M. E. Lines, H. Y. Hwang, S. Spälter, R. E. Slusher, S.-W, Cheong, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Larger Kerr effect in bulk Se-based chalcogenide glasses," Opt. Lett. 25, 254-256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, H. Kobayashi, H. Itoh, and T. Kanamori, "Laser-diode-driven ultrafast all-optical switching by using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 1056-1058 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Ta’eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, I. C. M. Littler, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Integrated all-optical pulse regenerator in chalcogenide waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 2900-2902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hô, M. C. Phillips, H. Qiao, P. J. Allen, K. Krishnaswami, B. J. Riley, T. L. Myres, and N. C. AnheierJr., "Single-mode low-loss chalcogenide glass waveguides for the mid-infrared," Opt. Lett. 31, 1860-1862 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tanaka, N. Toyosawa, and H. Hisakuni, "Photoinduced Bragg gratings in As2S3 optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 20, 1976-1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg gratings (Academic Press, San Diego, 1999), Section 4.2

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig.1. .
Fig.1. .

a) Schematic of a SBG outlining: Bragg period Λ, overall length L, sampled period P, “on” length Po, background index, ndc, nominal material index no, and index modulation Δn. (b)–(d) show the calculated spectral response for P=500 µm, L=17 mm, Δn=5×10-4 and duty cycles of 50%, 20% and 5%, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) SEM image of a rib-waveguide prior to the IPG application. (b) schematic of a rib-waveguide structure. c) enlarged image from (a) showing minimal sidewall roughness.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Scanning Sagnac interferometric grating writing system showing modulating shadow mask for sampled Bragg grating fabrication. The irradiating beams move in the opposite direction to the translation stage as shown by the solid and dashed lines; (b) waveguide characterization system for measuring throughput of chalcogenide waveguide

Fig 4.
Fig 4.

(a) Measured spectrum from an SBG, and (b) the calculated spectrum using P=500 µm, duty cycle=5% and Δn=0.002. Inset: an enlargement of one rejection peak showing (i) the measured spectrum, and the calculated effect of tilting the mask by (ii) 0° with Δn=0.002, (iii) 0.075° with Δn=0.01, and (iv) 0.125° with Δn=0.016.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic demonstrating the interference walk-off caused by a misalignment of the shadow mask. Top: two incident beams (green and red) are modulated through a shadow mask, tilted towards the green beam by 1°. Below; the corresponding DC refractive index within the waveguide caused by the green (dashed) and red (dot-dashed) incident beams. The regions where two beams interfere to form the SBG is represented by the solid black line.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ λ s λ B 2 2 n d c P ,

Metrics