Abstract

A low-coherence interferometer for optical information hiding that ensures security of an optical image by hiding the image behind a light-scattering medium is demonstrated. The interferometer has a distinctive feature in that modulation of the optical-path difference between the object and reference arms is performed with a manual operation. The main advantage of the operation method is the absence of expensive optomechanical parts in the interferometer.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Refregier and B. Javidi, "Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding," Opt. Lett. 20, 767-769 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, "Random phase encoding for optical security," Opt. Eng. 35, 2464-2469 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Towghi, B. Javidi, and Z. Luo, "Fully phase encrypted image processor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1915-1927 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, and Y. Sakai, "Image encipherment based on optical parallel processing using spatial light modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1133-1135 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Zhang and M. A. Karim, "High-security optical integrated stream ciphers," Opt. Eng. 38, 20-24 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. C. Mogensen and J. Glückstad, "Phase-only optical encryption," Opt. Lett. 25, 566-568 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Javidi, G. Zhang, and J. Li, "Encrypted optical memory using double phase encoding," Appl. Opt. 36, 1054-1058 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Javidi and T. Nomura, "Securing information by use of digital holography," Opt. Lett. 25, 28-30 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Nomura, S. Mikan, Y. Morimoto, and B. Javidi, "Secure optical data storage with random phase key codes by use of a configuration of a joint transform correlator," Appl. Opt. 42, 1508-1514 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Unnikrishnan, J. Joseph, and K. Singh, "Optical encryption system that uses phase conjugation in a photorefractive crystal," Appl. Opt. 37, 8181-8186 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. Matoba and B. Javidi, "Encrypted optical storage with wavelength-key and random phase codes," Appl. Opt. 38,6785-6790 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Yamamoto, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, "Securing information display by use of visual cryptograph," Opt. Lett. 28, 1564-1566 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Yamamoto, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, "Secure information display with limited viewing zone by use of multi-color visual cryptography," Opt. Express 12, 1258 - 1270 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Rosen and B. Javidi, "Hidden images in halftone pictures," Appl. Phys. 40, 3346-3353 (2001).
  15. Y. Hayasaki, Y. Matsuba, A. Nagaoka, H. Yamamoto, and N. Nishida, "Hiding an image with a light scattering medium and use of a contrast-discrimination method for readout," Appl. Opt. 43,1552-1558 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Tamano, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, "Phase-shifting digital holography with a low-coherence light source for reconstruction of a digital relief object hidden behind a light-scattering medium," Appl. Opt. 45, 953-959 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. C. Youngquist, S. Carr, and D. N. E. Davies, "Optical coherence-domain reflectometry: a new optical evaluation technique," Opt. Lett. 12, 158-160 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. Takada, I. Yokoyama, K. Chiba, and J. Noda, "New measurement system for fault location in optical waveguide devices based on an interferometric technique," Appl. Opt. 26, 1063-1606 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. K. Hitzenberger, "Measurement of corneal thickness by low-coherence interferometry," Appl. Opt. 31, 6637-6642 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Pan, R. Bringruber, J. Rosperich, and R. Engelhardt, "Low-coherence optical tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis," Appl. Opt. 34, 6564-6574 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Rosen and D. Abookasis, "Seeing through biological tissues using the fly eye principle," Opt. Express 11, 3605-3611 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (3)

2001 (1)

J. Rosen and B. Javidi, "Hidden images in halftone pictures," Appl. Phys. 40, 3346-3353 (2001).

2000 (2)

1999 (3)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, "Random phase encoding for optical security," Opt. Eng. 35, 2464-2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, and Y. Sakai, "Image encipherment based on optical parallel processing using spatial light modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1133-1135 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

K. Takada, I. Yokoyama, K. Chiba, and J. Noda, "New measurement system for fault location in optical waveguide devices based on an interferometric technique," Appl. Opt. 26, 1063-1606 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Youngquist, S. Carr, and D. N. E. Davies, "Optical coherence-domain reflectometry: a new optical evaluation technique," Opt. Lett. 12, 158-160 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abookasis, D.

Bringruber, R.

Carr, S.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatwin, C.

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, "Random phase encoding for optical security," Opt. Eng. 35, 2464-2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chiba, K.

K. Takada, I. Yokoyama, K. Chiba, and J. Noda, "New measurement system for fault location in optical waveguide devices based on an interferometric technique," Appl. Opt. 26, 1063-1606 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Davies, D. N. E.

Engelhardt, R.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukushima, S.

S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, and Y. Sakai, "Image encipherment based on optical parallel processing using spatial light modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1133-1135 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Glückstad, J.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayasaki, Y.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Javidi, B.

Joseph, J.

Karim, M. A.

S. Zhang and M. A. Karim, "High-security optical integrated stream ciphers," Opt. Eng. 38, 20-24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, T.

S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, and Y. Sakai, "Image encipherment based on optical parallel processing using spatial light modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1133-1135 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Z.

Matoba, O.

Matsuba, Y.

Mikan, S.

Mogensen, P. C.

Morimoto, Y.

Nagaoka, A.

Nishida, N.

Noda, J.

K. Takada, I. Yokoyama, K. Chiba, and J. Noda, "New measurement system for fault location in optical waveguide devices based on an interferometric technique," Appl. Opt. 26, 1063-1606 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, T.

Pan, Y.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Refregier, P.

Rosen, J.

J. Rosen and D. Abookasis, "Seeing through biological tissues using the fly eye principle," Opt. Express 11, 3605-3611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rosen and B. Javidi, "Hidden images in halftone pictures," Appl. Phys. 40, 3346-3353 (2001).

Rosperich, J.

Sakai, Y.

S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, and Y. Sakai, "Image encipherment based on optical parallel processing using spatial light modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1133-1135 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, K.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, K.

K. Takada, I. Yokoyama, K. Chiba, and J. Noda, "New measurement system for fault location in optical waveguide devices based on an interferometric technique," Appl. Opt. 26, 1063-1606 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tamano, S.

Towghi, N.

Unnikrishnan, G.

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, "Random phase encoding for optical security," Opt. Eng. 35, 2464-2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Watson, I. A.

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, "Random phase encoding for optical security," Opt. Eng. 35, 2464-2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, H.

Yokoyama, I.

K. Takada, I. Yokoyama, K. Chiba, and J. Noda, "New measurement system for fault location in optical waveguide devices based on an interferometric technique," Appl. Opt. 26, 1063-1606 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Youngquist, R. C.

Zhang, G.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang and M. A. Karim, "High-security optical integrated stream ciphers," Opt. Eng. 38, 20-24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (9)

K. Takada, I. Yokoyama, K. Chiba, and J. Noda, "New measurement system for fault location in optical waveguide devices based on an interferometric technique," Appl. Opt. 26, 1063-1606 (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, G. Zhang, and J. Li, "Encrypted optical memory using double phase encoding," Appl. Opt. 36, 1054-1058 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Unnikrishnan, J. Joseph, and K. Singh, "Optical encryption system that uses phase conjugation in a photorefractive crystal," Appl. Opt. 37, 8181-8186 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pan, R. Bringruber, J. Rosperich, and R. Engelhardt, "Low-coherence optical tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis," Appl. Opt. 34, 6564-6574 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Matoba and B. Javidi, "Encrypted optical storage with wavelength-key and random phase codes," Appl. Opt. 38,6785-6790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Nomura, S. Mikan, Y. Morimoto, and B. Javidi, "Secure optical data storage with random phase key codes by use of a configuration of a joint transform correlator," Appl. Opt. 42, 1508-1514 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, "Measurement of corneal thickness by low-coherence interferometry," Appl. Opt. 31, 6637-6642 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hayasaki, Y. Matsuba, A. Nagaoka, H. Yamamoto, and N. Nishida, "Hiding an image with a light scattering medium and use of a contrast-discrimination method for readout," Appl. Opt. 43,1552-1558 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tamano, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, "Phase-shifting digital holography with a low-coherence light source for reconstruction of a digital relief object hidden behind a light-scattering medium," Appl. Opt. 45, 953-959 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Rosen and B. Javidi, "Hidden images in halftone pictures," Appl. Phys. 40, 3346-3353 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, and Y. Sakai, "Image encipherment based on optical parallel processing using spatial light modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1133-1135 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (2)

S. Zhang and M. A. Karim, "High-security optical integrated stream ciphers," Opt. Eng. 38, 20-24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, "Random phase encoding for optical security," Opt. Eng. 35, 2464-2469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Manually operated low-coherence interferometer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photograph of low-coherence interferometer

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Binary image observed with the CCD image sensor, (b) the binary image hidden behind the light-scattering medium, (c) the low-coherence interference image, and (d) the output binary image reconstructed by the contrast discrimination method.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Temporal variation of interference signal obtained with a photo-detector on the output image plane when pushing the optical system with the hand.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Temporal variation of interference signals detected by CCD image sensor.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Contrast versus optical density of the light-scattering medium.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( x , y , Δ L ) = I s ( x , y ) + I r + 2 [ I s ( x , y ) I r ] 1 2 V tc ( Δ L ) cos ( k Δ L ) ,
V ( x , y ) = [ I max ( x , y ) I min ( x , y ) ] [ I max ( x , y ) + I min ( x , y ) ]
= 2 [ I s ( x , y ) I r ] 1 2 V tc ( 0 ) ( I s ( x , y ) + I r )
= 2 [ r ( x , y ) p ] 1 2 V tc ( 0 ) ∣/ [ r ( x , y ) p + 1 ]
V h = 2 [ p r h ( 1 δ ) ] 1 2 V tc ( 0 ) [ p r h ( 1 δ ) + 1 ] ,
V 1 = 2 [ p r 1 ( 1 δ ) ] 1 2 V tc ( 0 ) [ p r 1 ( 1 δ ) + 1 ] ,
V th = 2 [ 2 p r h r 1 ( r h + r 1 ) ] 1 2 V tc ( 0 ) [ 2 p r h r 1 + r h + r 1 ] .

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