Abstract

We present a novel ultrafast multipass laser amplifier design optimized for sub-millijoule output energy and capable of being operated at repetition rates exceeding 40 kHz. This ti:sapphire based system makes use of a grism based stretcher, a cryogenically cooled ti:sapphire crystal and an astigmatically compensated multipass amplifier design that allows for pumping with significantly lower pump pulse energies than has been demonstrated to date. We also make use of the downchirped pulse amplification scheme to minimize loss in the pulse compression process. Preliminary experiments demonstrate an output pulse energy of 290 µJ at 10 kHz and 270 µJ at 15 kHz with a pulse duration of 36 fs.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, "Extreme Nonlinear Optics: Coherent X-Rays from Lasers," Physics Today, March Issue, 39-44 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Jimenez, D. A. Case, and F. E. Romesberg, "Flexibility of an Antibody Binding Site Measured with Photon Echo Spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 1090-1103 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Lei, M. Bauer, K. Read, R. Tobey, Y. Liu, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Hot-electron-driven charge transfer processes on O2/Pt(111) surface probed by ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet pulses," Phys. Rev. B 66,245420 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Nolte, C. Momma, H. Jacobs, A. Tunnermann, B. N. Chichkov, B. Wellegehausen, and H. Welling, "Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14,2716-2722 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. G. R. Geddes, C. Toth, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding," Nature 431,538-541 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Strickland and G. Mourou, "Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses, " Opt. Commun. 56,219-221 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. B. Norris, "Femtosecond pulse amplification at 250 kHz with a Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier and application to continuum generation," Opt. Lett. 17,1009-1011 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Backus, C. G. DurfeeIII, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High power ultrafast lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69,1207-1223 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Backus, R. Bartels, S. Thompson, R. Dollinger, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "High-efficiency, single-stage 7-kHz high-average-power ultrafast laser system," Opt. Lett. 26,465-467 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Backus, C. G. DurfeeIII, G. A. Mourou, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "0.2-TW laser system at 1 kHz," Opt. Lett. 22,1256-1258 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. M. Gaudiosi, A. L. Lytle, P. Kohl, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, "11-W average power Ti:sapphire amplifier system using downchirped pulse amplification," Opt. Lett. 29,2665-2667 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K.-H. Hong, S. Kostritsa, T. J. Yu, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, Y.-C. Noh, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "100-kHz high-power femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser based on downchirped regenerative amplification," Opt. Express 14, 970-978 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Galvanauskas, G. C. Cho, A. Hariharan, M. E. Fermann, and D. Harter, "Generation of high-energy femtosecond pulses in multimode-core Yb-fiber chirped-pulse amplification systems," Opt. Lett. 26, 935-937 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Takayanagi, N. Nishizawa, H. Nagai, M. Yoshida, and T. Goto, "Generation of high-power femtosecond pulse and octave-spanning ultrabroad supercontinuum using all-fiber system," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 17, 37-39 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Zhavoronkov and G. Korn, "Regenerative amplification of femtosecond laser pulses in Ti:sapphire at multikilohertz repetition rates," Opt. Lett. 29,198-200 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Squier, G. Korn, G. Mourou, G. Vaillancourt, and M. Bouvier, "Amplification of femtosecond pulses at 10-kHz repetition rates in Ti:Al2O3," Opt. Lett. 18,625-627 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. F. Salin, C. Le Blanc, J. Squier, and C. Barty, "Thermal eigenmode amplifiers for diffraction-limited amplification of ultrashort pulses," Opt. Lett. 23,718-720 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. G. Holland, "Thermal Conductivity of Several Optical Maser Materials," J. Appl. Phys. 33, 2910-2911 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. C. DeFranzo and B. G. Pazol, "Index of refraction measurement on sapphire at low temperatures and visible wavelengths," Appl. Opt. 32, 2224-2234 (1993)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. Huber, F. Adler, A. Leitenstorfer, M. Beutter, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, "12-fs pulses from a continuous-wave-pumped 200-nJ Ti:sapphire amplifier at a variable repetition rate as high as 4 MHz," Opt. Lett. 28,2118-2120 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. E. A. Gibson, D. M. Gaudiosi, H. C. Kapteyn, R. Jimenez, S. Kane, R. Huff, C. Durfee, and J. Squier, "Efficient reflection grisms for pulse compression and dispersion compensation for femtosecond pulses," submitted to Opt. Lett.
  22. S. Backus, J. Peatross, C. P. Huang, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Ti:sapphire amplifier producing millijoule-level, 21-fs pulses at 1 kHz," Opt. Lett. 20,2000-2002 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, "Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346-2349 (1963).
    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

J. Takayanagi, N. Nishizawa, H. Nagai, M. Yoshida, and T. Goto, "Generation of high-power femtosecond pulse and octave-spanning ultrabroad supercontinuum using all-fiber system," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 17, 37-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

2002

R. Jimenez, D. A. Case, and F. E. Romesberg, "Flexibility of an Antibody Binding Site Measured with Photon Echo Spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 1090-1103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

1998

F. Salin, C. Le Blanc, J. Squier, and C. Barty, "Thermal eigenmode amplifiers for diffraction-limited amplification of ultrashort pulses," Opt. Lett. 23,718-720 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Backus, C. G. DurfeeIII, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High power ultrafast lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69,1207-1223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

1993

1992

1985

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, "Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses, " Opt. Commun. 56,219-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1963

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, "Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346-2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962

M. G. Holland, "Thermal Conductivity of Several Optical Maser Materials," J. Appl. Phys. 33, 2910-2911 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Adler, F.

Backus, S.

Bartels, R.

Barty, C.

Baum, P.

Beutter, M.

Bouvier, M.

Bruhwiler, D.

C. G. R. Geddes, C. Toth, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding," Nature 431,538-541 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cary, J.

C. G. R. Geddes, C. Toth, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding," Nature 431,538-541 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Case, D. A.

R. Jimenez, D. A. Case, and F. E. Romesberg, "Flexibility of an Antibody Binding Site Measured with Photon Echo Spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 1090-1103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

Cho, G. C.

Choi, I. W.

DeFranzo, A. C.

Dollinger, R.

Durfee, C. G.

S. Backus, C. G. DurfeeIII, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High power ultrafast lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69,1207-1223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Backus, C. G. DurfeeIII, G. A. Mourou, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "0.2-TW laser system at 1 kHz," Opt. Lett. 22,1256-1258 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esarey, E.

C. G. R. Geddes, C. Toth, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding," Nature 431,538-541 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fermann, M. E.

Frantz, L. M.

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, "Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346-2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Galvanauskas, A.

Gaudiosi, D. M.

Geddes, C. G. R.

C. G. R. Geddes, C. Toth, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding," Nature 431,538-541 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goto, T.

J. Takayanagi, N. Nishizawa, H. Nagai, M. Yoshida, and T. Goto, "Generation of high-power femtosecond pulse and octave-spanning ultrabroad supercontinuum using all-fiber system," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 17, 37-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hariharan, A.

Harter, D.

Holland, M. G.

M. G. Holland, "Thermal Conductivity of Several Optical Maser Materials," J. Appl. Phys. 33, 2910-2911 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Hong, K.-H.

Huang, C. P.

Huber, R.

Jacobs, H.

Jimenez, R.

R. Jimenez, D. A. Case, and F. E. Romesberg, "Flexibility of an Antibody Binding Site Measured with Photon Echo Spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 1090-1103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Ko, D.-K.

Kohl, P.

Korn, G.

Kostritsa, S.

Le Blanc, C.

Lee, J.

Leemans, W. P.

C. G. R. Geddes, C. Toth, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding," Nature 431,538-541 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitenstorfer, A.

Lytle, A. L.

Momma, C.

Mourou, G.

Mourou, G. A.

Murnane, M. M.

Nagai, H.

J. Takayanagi, N. Nishizawa, H. Nagai, M. Yoshida, and T. Goto, "Generation of high-power femtosecond pulse and octave-spanning ultrabroad supercontinuum using all-fiber system," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 17, 37-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nieter, C.

C. G. R. Geddes, C. Toth, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding," Nature 431,538-541 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishizawa, N.

J. Takayanagi, N. Nishizawa, H. Nagai, M. Yoshida, and T. Goto, "Generation of high-power femtosecond pulse and octave-spanning ultrabroad supercontinuum using all-fiber system," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 17, 37-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nodvik, J. S.

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, "Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346-2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Noh, Y.-C.

Nolte, S.

Norris, T. B.

Pazol, B. G.

Peatross, J.

Riedle, E.

Romesberg, F. E.

R. Jimenez, D. A. Case, and F. E. Romesberg, "Flexibility of an Antibody Binding Site Measured with Photon Echo Spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 1090-1103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

Schroeder, C. B.

C. G. R. Geddes, C. Toth, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding," Nature 431,538-541 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J.

Strickland, D.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, "Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses, " Opt. Commun. 56,219-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sung, J. H.

Takayanagi, J.

J. Takayanagi, N. Nishizawa, H. Nagai, M. Yoshida, and T. Goto, "Generation of high-power femtosecond pulse and octave-spanning ultrabroad supercontinuum using all-fiber system," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 17, 37-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, S.

Toth, C.

C. G. R. Geddes, C. Toth, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding," Nature 431,538-541 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tunnermann, A.

Vaillancourt, G.

van Tilborg, J.

C. G. R. Geddes, C. Toth, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding," Nature 431,538-541 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wellegehausen, B.

Welling, H.

Yoshida, M.

J. Takayanagi, N. Nishizawa, H. Nagai, M. Yoshida, and T. Goto, "Generation of high-power femtosecond pulse and octave-spanning ultrabroad supercontinuum using all-fiber system," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 17, 37-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T. J.

Zhavoronkov, N.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett.

J. Takayanagi, N. Nishizawa, H. Nagai, M. Yoshida, and T. Goto, "Generation of high-power femtosecond pulse and octave-spanning ultrabroad supercontinuum using all-fiber system," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 17, 37-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. G. Holland, "Thermal Conductivity of Several Optical Maser Materials," J. Appl. Phys. 33, 2910-2911 (1962).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, "Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346-2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. B

R. Jimenez, D. A. Case, and F. E. Romesberg, "Flexibility of an Antibody Binding Site Measured with Photon Echo Spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 1090-1103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature

C. G. R. Geddes, C. Toth, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding," Nature 431,538-541 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, "Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses, " Opt. Commun. 56,219-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

S. Backus, C. G. DurfeeIII, G. A. Mourou, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "0.2-TW laser system at 1 kHz," Opt. Lett. 22,1256-1258 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Salin, C. Le Blanc, J. Squier, and C. Barty, "Thermal eigenmode amplifiers for diffraction-limited amplification of ultrashort pulses," Opt. Lett. 23,718-720 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Squier, G. Korn, G. Mourou, G. Vaillancourt, and M. Bouvier, "Amplification of femtosecond pulses at 10-kHz repetition rates in Ti:Al2O3," Opt. Lett. 18,625-627 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Backus, R. Bartels, S. Thompson, R. Dollinger, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "High-efficiency, single-stage 7-kHz high-average-power ultrafast laser system," Opt. Lett. 26,465-467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Galvanauskas, G. C. Cho, A. Hariharan, M. E. Fermann, and D. Harter, "Generation of high-energy femtosecond pulses in multimode-core Yb-fiber chirped-pulse amplification systems," Opt. Lett. 26, 935-937 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, F. Adler, A. Leitenstorfer, M. Beutter, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, "12-fs pulses from a continuous-wave-pumped 200-nJ Ti:sapphire amplifier at a variable repetition rate as high as 4 MHz," Opt. Lett. 28,2118-2120 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Zhavoronkov and G. Korn, "Regenerative amplification of femtosecond laser pulses in Ti:sapphire at multikilohertz repetition rates," Opt. Lett. 29,198-200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Gaudiosi, A. L. Lytle, P. Kohl, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, "11-W average power Ti:sapphire amplifier system using downchirped pulse amplification," Opt. Lett. 29,2665-2667 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Norris, "Femtosecond pulse amplification at 250 kHz with a Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier and application to continuum generation," Opt. Lett. 17,1009-1011 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Backus, J. Peatross, C. P. Huang, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Ti:sapphire amplifier producing millijoule-level, 21-fs pulses at 1 kHz," Opt. Lett. 20,2000-2002 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

S. Backus, C. G. DurfeeIII, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "High power ultrafast lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69,1207-1223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. Lei, M. Bauer, K. Read, R. Tobey, Y. Liu, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Hot-electron-driven charge transfer processes on O2/Pt(111) surface probed by ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet pulses," Phys. Rev. B 66,245420 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Gibson, D. M. Gaudiosi, H. C. Kapteyn, R. Jimenez, S. Kane, R. Huff, C. Durfee, and J. Squier, "Efficient reflection grisms for pulse compression and dispersion compensation for femtosecond pulses," submitted to Opt. Lett.

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, "Extreme Nonlinear Optics: Coherent X-Rays from Lasers," Physics Today, March Issue, 39-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Focal length of the thermal lens induced in a Ti:sapphire crystal at 77 K (solid) and 50 K (dashed). The fluence is kept constant at 3 J cm-2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the DPA amplifier system.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

M2 measurement of the amplified beam with (a) old ring design and (b) new ring design. The output of the new design has an M2 of 1.18 and 1.26 in the x- and y-directions, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic diagram of astigmatism-minimized amplifier ring. Only three passes are shown, but up to 10 passes can be employed with minimal astigmatism.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Power before compression as a function of seed pulse length for (a) 10 kHz repetition rate and (b) 15 kHz repetition rate. Data was taken while only adjusting grism separation (squares) and while adjusting both grism separation and timing between pump and seed pulses (circles). Simulation results are shown as solid line in (a) and in (a) inset, which extrapolates the model to estimate the pulse duration required for efficient energy extraction from ti:sapphire.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Temporal profile and phase of amplified pulse as measured with frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG).

Equations (1)

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f = 2 k π r 2 ( dn dT ) E ν = 2 k ( dn dT ) F ν

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