Abstract

The authors report on the design, fabrication and operation of heterogeneous and compact “2.5 D” Photonic Crystal microlaser with a single plane of InAs quantum dots as gain medium. The high quality factor photonic structures are tailored for vertical emission. The devices consist of a top two-dimensional InP Photonic Crystal Slab, a SiO2 bonding layer, and a bottom high index contrast Si/SiO2 Bragg mirror deposited on a Si wafer. Despite the fact that no more than about 5% of the quantum dots distribution effectively contribute to the modal gain, room-temperature lasing operation, around 1.5µm, was achieved by photopumping. A low effective threshold, on the order of 350µW, and a spontaneous emission factor, over 0.13, could be deduced from experiments.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. Ch. Seassal, C. Monat, J. Mouette, E. Touraille, B. Ben Bakir, H.T. Hattori, J.L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "InP Bonded Membrane Photonics Components and Circuits: Toward 2.5 Dimensional Micro-Nano-Photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,395-407 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, C. Platz, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, N. Bertru, C. Labbé, R. Piron, E. Homeyer, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, "High-gain and low-threshold InAs quantum-dot lasers on InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,243107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Saito, K. Nishi, A. Kamei, and S. Sugou, "Low Chirp Observed in Directly Modulated Quantum Dot Lasers," IEEE photonic Technol. Lett. 12,1298-1300 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B. 72,193303 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425,944-947 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Room temperature continuous-wave lasing in photonic crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 14,6308-6315 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Yoshie, O.B. Shchekin, H. Chen, D.G. Deppe, and A. Scherer, "Quantum dot photonic crystal laser," Electron. Lett. 38,967-968 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Ben Bakir, Ch. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, "Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,081113 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Gendry, C. Monat, J. Brault, P. Regreny, G. Hollinger, B. Salem, G. Guillot, T. Benyattou, C. Bru-chevallier, G. Bremond, and O. Marty, "From large to low height dispersion for self-organized InAs quantum sticks emitting at 1.55mm on InP (001)," J. Appl. Phys. 95,4761-4766 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Björk, A. Karlsson, and Y. Yamamoto, "Definition of a laser threshold," Phys. Rev. A 50,1675-1680 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Baba, "Photonic Crystals and Microdisk Cavities Based on GaInAsP-InP System," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3,808-830 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, G. Björk, "A Microcavity laser with enhanced spontaneous emission," Phys. Rev. A 44,657-668 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Baba and D. Sano, "Low-Threshold Lasing and Purcell Effect in Microdisk Lasers at Room Temperature," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9,1340-1346 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, New York: Wiley (1995)
  15. P. Pottier, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, JL Leclercq, P. Viktorovitch; D. Cassagne, C. Jouanin, "Triangular and hexagonal high Q-factor 2-D photonic bandgap cavities on III-V suspended membranes," J. Lightwave Technol. 17,2058-2062 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, R. Raj, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, "Tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal resonance via optical carrier injection," Opt. Lett. 30,64-66 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Fujuta, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, "Large Spontaneous Emission Factor of 0.1 in Microdisk Injection Laser," IEEE photonic Technol. Lett. 13,403-405 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Y. Ryu, N. Notomi, E. Kuramoti, and T. Segawa, "Large spontaneous emission factor (>0.1) in the photonic crystal monopole laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1067-1069 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

B. Ben Bakir, Ch. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, "Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,081113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Room temperature continuous-wave lasing in photonic crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 14,6308-6315 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, R. Raj, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, "Tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal resonance via optical carrier injection," Opt. Lett. 30,64-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B. 72,193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Seassal, C. Monat, J. Mouette, E. Touraille, B. Ben Bakir, H.T. Hattori, J.L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "InP Bonded Membrane Photonics Components and Circuits: Toward 2.5 Dimensional Micro-Nano-Photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,395-407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, C. Platz, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, N. Bertru, C. Labbé, R. Piron, E. Homeyer, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, "High-gain and low-threshold InAs quantum-dot lasers on InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,243107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Gendry, C. Monat, J. Brault, P. Regreny, G. Hollinger, B. Salem, G. Guillot, T. Benyattou, C. Bru-chevallier, G. Bremond, and O. Marty, "From large to low height dispersion for self-organized InAs quantum sticks emitting at 1.55mm on InP (001)," J. Appl. Phys. 95,4761-4766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, N. Notomi, E. Kuramoti, and T. Segawa, "Large spontaneous emission factor (>0.1) in the photonic crystal monopole laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1067-1069 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425,944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baba and D. Sano, "Low-Threshold Lasing and Purcell Effect in Microdisk Lasers at Room Temperature," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9,1340-1346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Yoshie, O.B. Shchekin, H. Chen, D.G. Deppe, and A. Scherer, "Quantum dot photonic crystal laser," Electron. Lett. 38,967-968 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Fujuta, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, "Large Spontaneous Emission Factor of 0.1 in Microdisk Injection Laser," IEEE photonic Technol. Lett. 13,403-405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Saito, K. Nishi, A. Kamei, and S. Sugou, "Low Chirp Observed in Directly Modulated Quantum Dot Lasers," IEEE photonic Technol. Lett. 12,1298-1300 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

T. Baba, "Photonic Crystals and Microdisk Cavities Based on GaInAsP-InP System," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3,808-830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. Björk, A. Karlsson, and Y. Yamamoto, "Definition of a laser threshold," Phys. Rev. A 50,1675-1680 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, G. Björk, "A Microcavity laser with enhanced spontaneous emission," Phys. Rev. A 44,657-668 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425,944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arakawa, Y.

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425,944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

T. Baba and D. Sano, "Low-Threshold Lasing and Purcell Effect in Microdisk Lasers at Room Temperature," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9,1340-1346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujuta, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, "Large Spontaneous Emission Factor of 0.1 in Microdisk Injection Laser," IEEE photonic Technol. Lett. 13,403-405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, "Photonic Crystals and Microdisk Cavities Based on GaInAsP-InP System," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3,808-830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ben Bakir, B.

B. Ben Bakir, Ch. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, "Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,081113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Seassal, C. Monat, J. Mouette, E. Touraille, B. Ben Bakir, H.T. Hattori, J.L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "InP Bonded Membrane Photonics Components and Circuits: Toward 2.5 Dimensional Micro-Nano-Photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,395-407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benyattou, T.

M. Gendry, C. Monat, J. Brault, P. Regreny, G. Hollinger, B. Salem, G. Guillot, T. Benyattou, C. Bru-chevallier, G. Bremond, and O. Marty, "From large to low height dispersion for self-organized InAs quantum sticks emitting at 1.55mm on InP (001)," J. Appl. Phys. 95,4761-4766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bertru, N.

P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, C. Platz, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, N. Bertru, C. Labbé, R. Piron, E. Homeyer, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, "High-gain and low-threshold InAs quantum-dot lasers on InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,243107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Björk, G.

G. Björk, A. Karlsson, and Y. Yamamoto, "Definition of a laser threshold," Phys. Rev. A 50,1675-1680 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, G. Björk, "A Microcavity laser with enhanced spontaneous emission," Phys. Rev. A 44,657-668 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brault, J.

M. Gendry, C. Monat, J. Brault, P. Regreny, G. Hollinger, B. Salem, G. Guillot, T. Benyattou, C. Bru-chevallier, G. Bremond, and O. Marty, "From large to low height dispersion for self-organized InAs quantum sticks emitting at 1.55mm on InP (001)," J. Appl. Phys. 95,4761-4766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bremond, G.

M. Gendry, C. Monat, J. Brault, P. Regreny, G. Hollinger, B. Salem, G. Guillot, T. Benyattou, C. Bru-chevallier, G. Bremond, and O. Marty, "From large to low height dispersion for self-organized InAs quantum sticks emitting at 1.55mm on InP (001)," J. Appl. Phys. 95,4761-4766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bru-chevallier, C.

M. Gendry, C. Monat, J. Brault, P. Regreny, G. Hollinger, B. Salem, G. Guillot, T. Benyattou, C. Bru-chevallier, G. Bremond, and O. Marty, "From large to low height dispersion for self-organized InAs quantum sticks emitting at 1.55mm on InP (001)," J. Appl. Phys. 95,4761-4766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Caroff, P.

P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, C. Platz, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, N. Bertru, C. Labbé, R. Piron, E. Homeyer, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, "High-gain and low-threshold InAs quantum-dot lasers on InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,243107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cassagne, D.

Chen, H.

T. Yoshie, O.B. Shchekin, H. Chen, D.G. Deppe, and A. Scherer, "Quantum dot photonic crystal laser," Electron. Lett. 38,967-968 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Christenson, C.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B. 72,193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cojocaru, C.

Dehaese, O.

P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, C. Platz, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, N. Bertru, C. Labbé, R. Piron, E. Homeyer, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, "High-gain and low-threshold InAs quantum-dot lasers on InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,243107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deppe, D. G.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B. 72,193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deppe, D.G.

T. Yoshie, O.B. Shchekin, H. Chen, D.G. Deppe, and A. Scherer, "Quantum dot photonic crystal laser," Electron. Lett. 38,967-968 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Di Cioccio, L.

B. Ben Bakir, Ch. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, "Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,081113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

B. Ben Bakir, Ch. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, "Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,081113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Folliot, H.

P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, C. Platz, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, N. Bertru, C. Labbé, R. Piron, E. Homeyer, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, "High-gain and low-threshold InAs quantum-dot lasers on InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,243107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujuta, M.

M. Fujuta, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, "Large Spontaneous Emission Factor of 0.1 in Microdisk Injection Laser," IEEE photonic Technol. Lett. 13,403-405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gendry, M.

M. Gendry, C. Monat, J. Brault, P. Regreny, G. Hollinger, B. Salem, G. Guillot, T. Benyattou, C. Bru-chevallier, G. Bremond, and O. Marty, "From large to low height dispersion for self-organized InAs quantum sticks emitting at 1.55mm on InP (001)," J. Appl. Phys. 95,4761-4766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B. 72,193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guillot, G.

M. Gendry, C. Monat, J. Brault, P. Regreny, G. Hollinger, B. Salem, G. Guillot, T. Benyattou, C. Bru-chevallier, G. Bremond, and O. Marty, "From large to low height dispersion for self-organized InAs quantum sticks emitting at 1.55mm on InP (001)," J. Appl. Phys. 95,4761-4766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, H.T.

Ch. Seassal, C. Monat, J. Mouette, E. Touraille, B. Ben Bakir, H.T. Hattori, J.L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "InP Bonded Membrane Photonics Components and Circuits: Toward 2.5 Dimensional Micro-Nano-Photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,395-407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hendrickson, J.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B. 72,193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hollinger, G.

M. Gendry, C. Monat, J. Brault, P. Regreny, G. Hollinger, B. Salem, G. Guillot, T. Benyattou, C. Bru-chevallier, G. Bremond, and O. Marty, "From large to low height dispersion for self-organized InAs quantum sticks emitting at 1.55mm on InP (001)," J. Appl. Phys. 95,4761-4766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Homeyer, E.

P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, C. Platz, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, N. Bertru, C. Labbé, R. Piron, E. Homeyer, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, "High-gain and low-threshold InAs quantum-dot lasers on InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,243107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, S.

Iwamoto, S.

Jouanin, C.

Kamei, A.

H. Saito, K. Nishi, A. Kamei, and S. Sugou, "Low Chirp Observed in Directly Modulated Quantum Dot Lasers," IEEE photonic Technol. Lett. 12,1298-1300 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, A.

G. Björk, A. Karlsson, and Y. Yamamoto, "Definition of a laser threshold," Phys. Rev. A 50,1675-1680 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khitrova, G.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B. 72,193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, N.

Kuramoti, E.

H. Y. Ryu, N. Notomi, E. Kuramoti, and T. Segawa, "Large spontaneous emission factor (>0.1) in the photonic crystal monopole laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1067-1069 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Labbé, C.

P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, C. Platz, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, N. Bertru, C. Labbé, R. Piron, E. Homeyer, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, "High-gain and low-threshold InAs quantum-dot lasers on InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,243107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lam, D.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B. 72,193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Le Corre, A.

P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, C. Platz, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, N. Bertru, C. Labbé, R. Piron, E. Homeyer, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, "High-gain and low-threshold InAs quantum-dot lasers on InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,243107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leclercq, J.L.

Ch. Seassal, C. Monat, J. Mouette, E. Touraille, B. Ben Bakir, H.T. Hattori, J.L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "InP Bonded Membrane Photonics Components and Circuits: Toward 2.5 Dimensional Micro-Nano-Photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,395-407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leclercq, JL

Letartre, X.

B. Ben Bakir, Ch. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, "Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,081113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Seassal, C. Monat, J. Mouette, E. Touraille, B. Ben Bakir, H.T. Hattori, J.L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "InP Bonded Membrane Photonics Components and Circuits: Toward 2.5 Dimensional Micro-Nano-Photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,395-407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, R. Raj, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, "Tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal resonance via optical carrier injection," Opt. Lett. 30,64-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pottier, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, JL Leclercq, P. Viktorovitch; D. Cassagne, C. Jouanin, "Triangular and hexagonal high Q-factor 2-D photonic bandgap cavities on III-V suspended membranes," J. Lightwave Technol. 17,2058-2062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, A.

Loualiche, S.

P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, C. Platz, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, N. Bertru, C. Labbé, R. Piron, E. Homeyer, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, "High-gain and low-threshold InAs quantum-dot lasers on InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,243107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Machida, S.

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, G. Björk, "A Microcavity laser with enhanced spontaneous emission," Phys. Rev. A 44,657-668 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marty, O.

M. Gendry, C. Monat, J. Brault, P. Regreny, G. Hollinger, B. Salem, G. Guillot, T. Benyattou, C. Bru-chevallier, G. Bremond, and O. Marty, "From large to low height dispersion for self-organized InAs quantum sticks emitting at 1.55mm on InP (001)," J. Appl. Phys. 95,4761-4766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

Ch. Seassal, C. Monat, J. Mouette, E. Touraille, B. Ben Bakir, H.T. Hattori, J.L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "InP Bonded Membrane Photonics Components and Circuits: Toward 2.5 Dimensional Micro-Nano-Photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,395-407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Gendry, C. Monat, J. Brault, P. Regreny, G. Hollinger, B. Salem, G. Guillot, T. Benyattou, C. Bru-chevallier, G. Bremond, and O. Marty, "From large to low height dispersion for self-organized InAs quantum sticks emitting at 1.55mm on InP (001)," J. Appl. Phys. 95,4761-4766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Monnier, P.

Mosor, S.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B. 72,193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mouette, J.

Ch. Seassal, C. Monat, J. Mouette, E. Touraille, B. Ben Bakir, H.T. Hattori, J.L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "InP Bonded Membrane Photonics Components and Circuits: Toward 2.5 Dimensional Micro-Nano-Photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,395-407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakata, Y.

Nishi, K.

H. Saito, K. Nishi, A. Kamei, and S. Sugou, "Low Chirp Observed in Directly Modulated Quantum Dot Lasers," IEEE photonic Technol. Lett. 12,1298-1300 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425,944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nomura, M.

Notomi, N.

H. Y. Ryu, N. Notomi, E. Kuramoti, and T. Segawa, "Large spontaneous emission factor (>0.1) in the photonic crystal monopole laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1067-1069 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paranthoen, C.

P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, C. Platz, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, N. Bertru, C. Labbé, R. Piron, E. Homeyer, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, "High-gain and low-threshold InAs quantum-dot lasers on InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,243107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Piron, R.

P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, C. Platz, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, N. Bertru, C. Labbé, R. Piron, E. Homeyer, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, "High-gain and low-threshold InAs quantum-dot lasers on InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,243107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Platz, C.

P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, C. Platz, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, N. Bertru, C. Labbé, R. Piron, E. Homeyer, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, "High-gain and low-threshold InAs quantum-dot lasers on InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,243107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pottier, P.

Raineri, F.

Raj, R.

Regreny, P.

M. Gendry, C. Monat, J. Brault, P. Regreny, G. Hollinger, B. Salem, G. Guillot, T. Benyattou, C. Bru-chevallier, G. Bremond, and O. Marty, "From large to low height dispersion for self-organized InAs quantum sticks emitting at 1.55mm on InP (001)," J. Appl. Phys. 95,4761-4766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B. C.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B. 72,193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rojo-Romeo, P.

Ch. Seassal, C. Monat, J. Mouette, E. Touraille, B. Ben Bakir, H.T. Hattori, J.L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "InP Bonded Membrane Photonics Components and Circuits: Toward 2.5 Dimensional Micro-Nano-Photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,395-407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H. Y.

H. Y. Ryu, N. Notomi, E. Kuramoti, and T. Segawa, "Large spontaneous emission factor (>0.1) in the photonic crystal monopole laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1067-1069 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saito, H.

H. Saito, K. Nishi, A. Kamei, and S. Sugou, "Low Chirp Observed in Directly Modulated Quantum Dot Lasers," IEEE photonic Technol. Lett. 12,1298-1300 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Salem, B.

M. Gendry, C. Monat, J. Brault, P. Regreny, G. Hollinger, B. Salem, G. Guillot, T. Benyattou, C. Bru-chevallier, G. Bremond, and O. Marty, "From large to low height dispersion for self-organized InAs quantum sticks emitting at 1.55mm on InP (001)," J. Appl. Phys. 95,4761-4766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sano, D.

T. Baba and D. Sano, "Low-Threshold Lasing and Purcell Effect in Microdisk Lasers at Room Temperature," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9,1340-1346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B. 72,193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshie, O.B. Shchekin, H. Chen, D.G. Deppe, and A. Scherer, "Quantum dot photonic crystal laser," Electron. Lett. 38,967-968 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

Seassal, Ch.

B. Ben Bakir, Ch. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, "Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,081113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Seassal, C. Monat, J. Mouette, E. Touraille, B. Ben Bakir, H.T. Hattori, J.L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "InP Bonded Membrane Photonics Components and Circuits: Toward 2.5 Dimensional Micro-Nano-Photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,395-407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Segawa, T.

H. Y. Ryu, N. Notomi, E. Kuramoti, and T. Segawa, "Large spontaneous emission factor (>0.1) in the photonic crystal monopole laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1067-1069 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B. 72,193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O.B.

T. Yoshie, O.B. Shchekin, H. Chen, D.G. Deppe, and A. Scherer, "Quantum dot photonic crystal laser," Electron. Lett. 38,967-968 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Song, B. S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425,944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugou, S.

H. Saito, K. Nishi, A. Kamei, and S. Sugou, "Low Chirp Observed in Directly Modulated Quantum Dot Lasers," IEEE photonic Technol. Lett. 12,1298-1300 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sweet, J.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B. 72,193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Touraille, E.

Ch. Seassal, C. Monat, J. Mouette, E. Touraille, B. Ben Bakir, H.T. Hattori, J.L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "InP Bonded Membrane Photonics Components and Circuits: Toward 2.5 Dimensional Micro-Nano-Photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,395-407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ushigome, R.

M. Fujuta, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, "Large Spontaneous Emission Factor of 0.1 in Microdisk Injection Laser," IEEE photonic Technol. Lett. 13,403-405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Viktorovitch, P.

B. Ben Bakir, Ch. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, "Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,081113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Seassal, C. Monat, J. Mouette, E. Touraille, B. Ben Bakir, H.T. Hattori, J.L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "InP Bonded Membrane Photonics Components and Circuits: Toward 2.5 Dimensional Micro-Nano-Photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,395-407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, R. Raj, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, "Tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal resonance via optical carrier injection," Opt. Lett. 30,64-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pottier, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, JL Leclercq, P. Viktorovitch; D. Cassagne, C. Jouanin, "Triangular and hexagonal high Q-factor 2-D photonic bandgap cavities on III-V suspended membranes," J. Lightwave Technol. 17,2058-2062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

Yamamoto, Y.

G. Björk, A. Karlsson, and Y. Yamamoto, "Definition of a laser threshold," Phys. Rev. A 50,1675-1680 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, G. Björk, "A Microcavity laser with enhanced spontaneous emission," Phys. Rev. A 44,657-668 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshie, T.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B. 72,193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshie, O.B. Shchekin, H. Chen, D.G. Deppe, and A. Scherer, "Quantum dot photonic crystal laser," Electron. Lett. 38,967-968 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zussy, M.

B. Ben Bakir, Ch. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, "Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,081113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

B. Ben Bakir, Ch. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. Di Cioccio, and J. M. Fedeli, "Surface-emitting microlaser combining two-dimensional photonic crystal membrane and vertical Bragg mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,081113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Caroff, C. Paranthoen, C. Platz, O. Dehaese, H. Folliot, N. Bertru, C. Labbé, R. Piron, E. Homeyer, A. Le Corre, and S. Loualiche, "High-gain and low-threshold InAs quantum-dot lasers on InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,243107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, N. Notomi, E. Kuramoti, and T. Segawa, "Large spontaneous emission factor (>0.1) in the photonic crystal monopole laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1067-1069 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Yoshie, O.B. Shchekin, H. Chen, D.G. Deppe, and A. Scherer, "Quantum dot photonic crystal laser," Electron. Lett. 38,967-968 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

Ch. Seassal, C. Monat, J. Mouette, E. Touraille, B. Ben Bakir, H.T. Hattori, J.L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "InP Bonded Membrane Photonics Components and Circuits: Toward 2.5 Dimensional Micro-Nano-Photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11,395-407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba and D. Sano, "Low-Threshold Lasing and Purcell Effect in Microdisk Lasers at Room Temperature," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9,1340-1346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, "Photonic Crystals and Microdisk Cavities Based on GaInAsP-InP System," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3,808-830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE photonic Technol. Lett. (2)

H. Saito, K. Nishi, A. Kamei, and S. Sugou, "Low Chirp Observed in Directly Modulated Quantum Dot Lasers," IEEE photonic Technol. Lett. 12,1298-1300 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujuta, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, "Large Spontaneous Emission Factor of 0.1 in Microdisk Injection Laser," IEEE photonic Technol. Lett. 13,403-405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Gendry, C. Monat, J. Brault, P. Regreny, G. Hollinger, B. Salem, G. Guillot, T. Benyattou, C. Bru-chevallier, G. Bremond, and O. Marty, "From large to low height dispersion for self-organized InAs quantum sticks emitting at 1.55mm on InP (001)," J. Appl. Phys. 95,4761-4766 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nature (1)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425,944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

G. Björk, A. Karlsson, and Y. Yamamoto, "Definition of a laser threshold," Phys. Rev. A 50,1675-1680 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, G. Björk, "A Microcavity laser with enhanced spontaneous emission," Phys. Rev. A 44,657-668 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B. (1)

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, S. Mosor, C. Christenson, D. Lam, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Quantum dot photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities: Quality factors and lasing," Phys. Rev. B. 72,193303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, New York: Wiley (1995)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Generic configuration of the simulated devices. (b) In-plane and (c) cross-sectional view of the electromagnetic energy density pattern calculated using 3D plane wave expansion method. The lattice-constant, the radius and the thickness of the PC membrane are: a=775nm, r=130nm, h=250nm. The thickness of the Si and SiO2 λ/4 layers are 110nm and 255nm, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scanning electron micrograph: (a) cross-sectional view of the unpatterned heterostructure and (c) top view of the graphite lattice PC membrane. Transmission electron micrograph: (b) cross-sectional view of the InAs quantum dots.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Reflectivity of the Bragg mirror, and (b) unpatterned heterostructure emission spectrum compared to (c) the typical emission spectrum corresponding to the laser peak of the resonant mode.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Emission characteristics obtained on structure 1 and (b) structure 2. Output emission power intensity, spontaneous emission (SE) background and measured Q-factors against the incident pump power. The bold dashed-line indicates the maximum resolution of the spectrometer. The dashed circles emphasize the change of behavior around the threshold. Output emission spectra obtained for various pumping powers are displayed in the insets.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Blue-shift of the peak wavelength of the laser mode as a function of the incident pump power

Equations (1)

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β Γ r λ l 4 4 π 2 n InP 3 V mode Δ λ QD

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