Abstract

The birefringence of a number of commercially-available diamond platelets is assessed in the context of their use for intracavity thermal management in lasers. Although diamond is normally thought of as isotropic, significant birefringence is found to be present in some samples, with considerable variation from batch to batch, and in some cases across an individual sample. Nonetheless, low-loss operation is achieved in a laser cavity containing a Brewster element, either by rotating the sample or by using a diamond platelet with low birefringence.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (2)

K. S. Kim, J. R. Yoo, S. H. Cho, S. M. Lee, S. J. Lim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lee, T. Kim, and Y. J. Park, "1060 nm vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 44% at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, and A. Giesen, "Optically Pumped GaSb-Based VECSEL Emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 μm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1070-1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. J. Kemp, G. J. Valentine, J. M. Hopkins, J. E. Hastie, S. A. Smith, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, and D. Burns, "Thermal management in vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Finite-element analysis of a heatspreader approach," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 148-155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Lindberg, M. Strassner, E. Gerster, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, "Thermal management of optically pumped long-wavelength InP-based semiconductor disk lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 1126-1134 (2005).

J. E. Hastie, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, J. Lyytikainen, and M. Pessa, "High power CW red VECSEL with linearly polarised TEM00 output beam," Opt. Express 13, 77-81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tzuk, A. Tal, S. Goldring, Y. Glick, E. Lebiush, G. Kaufman, and R. Lavi, "Diamond cooling of high-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 262-269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, "Vertical-external-cavity semiconductor lasers," J. Phys. D 39,R74-R85 (2004).

2003 (3)

R. L. Fork, W. W. Walker, R. L. Laycock, J. J. A. Green, and S. T. Cole, "Integrated diamond sapphire laser," Opt. Express 11, 2532-2548 (2003).

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode- pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, C. W. Jeon, S. Calvez, D. Burns, M. D. Dawson, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. A. Allerman, "Microchip vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1324-1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

Z. L. Liau, "Semiconductor wafer bonding via liquid capillarity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 651-653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, "Design and characteristics of high-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode- pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 561-573 (1999).

1991 (1)

T. Y. Fan, "Single-Axial Mode, Intracavity Doubled Nd:YAG Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2091-2093 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

A. R. Lang, "Causes of Birefringence in Diamond," Nature 213, 248-251 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Abram, R.

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode- pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, C. W. Jeon, S. Calvez, D. Burns, M. D. Dawson, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. A. Allerman, "Microchip vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1324-1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alford, W. J.

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, C. W. Jeon, S. Calvez, D. Burns, M. D. Dawson, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. A. Allerman, "Microchip vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1324-1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. A. Allerman, "High power and good beam quality at 980 nm from a vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 663-666 (2002).

Allerman, A. A.

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, C. W. Jeon, S. Calvez, D. Burns, M. D. Dawson, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. A. Allerman, "Microchip vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1324-1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. A. Allerman, "High power and good beam quality at 980 nm from a vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 663-666 (2002).

Bengtsson, J.

H. Lindberg, M. Strassner, E. Gerster, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, "Thermal management of optically pumped long-wavelength InP-based semiconductor disk lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 1126-1134 (2005).

Beyertt, S.-S.

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, and A. Giesen, "Optically Pumped GaSb-Based VECSEL Emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 μm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1070-1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brauch, U.

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, and A. Giesen, "Optically Pumped GaSb-Based VECSEL Emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 μm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1070-1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burns, D.

A. J. Kemp, G. J. Valentine, J. M. Hopkins, J. E. Hastie, S. A. Smith, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, and D. Burns, "Thermal management in vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Finite-element analysis of a heatspreader approach," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 148-155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, C. W. Jeon, S. Calvez, D. Burns, M. D. Dawson, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. A. Allerman, "Microchip vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1324-1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode- pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Calvez, S.

A. J. Kemp, G. J. Valentine, J. M. Hopkins, J. E. Hastie, S. A. Smith, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, and D. Burns, "Thermal management in vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Finite-element analysis of a heatspreader approach," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 148-155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, J. Lyytikainen, and M. Pessa, "High power CW red VECSEL with linearly polarised TEM00 output beam," Opt. Express 13, 77-81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode- pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, C. W. Jeon, S. Calvez, D. Burns, M. D. Dawson, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. A. Allerman, "Microchip vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1324-1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

K. S. Kim, J. R. Yoo, S. H. Cho, S. M. Lee, S. J. Lim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lee, T. Kim, and Y. J. Park, "1060 nm vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 44% at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cole, S. T.

Dawson, M. D.

J. E. Hastie, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, J. Lyytikainen, and M. Pessa, "High power CW red VECSEL with linearly polarised TEM00 output beam," Opt. Express 13, 77-81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kemp, G. J. Valentine, J. M. Hopkins, J. E. Hastie, S. A. Smith, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, and D. Burns, "Thermal management in vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Finite-element analysis of a heatspreader approach," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 148-155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, C. W. Jeon, S. Calvez, D. Burns, M. D. Dawson, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. A. Allerman, "Microchip vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1324-1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode- pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, "Single-Axial Mode, Intracavity Doubled Nd:YAG Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2091-2093 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, A. I.

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode- pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, C. W. Jeon, S. Calvez, D. Burns, M. D. Dawson, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. A. Allerman, "Microchip vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1324-1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, H. D.

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, "Vertical-external-cavity semiconductor lasers," J. Phys. D 39,R74-R85 (2004).

Fork, R. L.

Garnache, A.

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, "Vertical-external-cavity semiconductor lasers," J. Phys. D 39,R74-R85 (2004).

Gerster, E.

H. Lindberg, M. Strassner, E. Gerster, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, "Thermal management of optically pumped long-wavelength InP-based semiconductor disk lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 1126-1134 (2005).

Giesen, A.

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, and A. Giesen, "Optically Pumped GaSb-Based VECSEL Emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 μm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1070-1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glick, Y.

Y. Tzuk, A. Tal, S. Goldring, Y. Glick, E. Lebiush, G. Kaufman, and R. Lavi, "Diamond cooling of high-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 262-269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goldring, S.

Y. Tzuk, A. Tal, S. Goldring, Y. Glick, E. Lebiush, G. Kaufman, and R. Lavi, "Diamond cooling of high-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 262-269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Green, J. J. A.

Hakimi, F.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, "Design and characteristics of high-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode- pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 561-573 (1999).

Hastie, J. E.

J. E. Hastie, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, J. Lyytikainen, and M. Pessa, "High power CW red VECSEL with linearly polarised TEM00 output beam," Opt. Express 13, 77-81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kemp, G. J. Valentine, J. M. Hopkins, J. E. Hastie, S. A. Smith, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, and D. Burns, "Thermal management in vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Finite-element analysis of a heatspreader approach," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 148-155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode- pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, C. W. Jeon, S. Calvez, D. Burns, M. D. Dawson, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. A. Allerman, "Microchip vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1324-1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoogland, S. H.

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, "Vertical-external-cavity semiconductor lasers," J. Phys. D 39,R74-R85 (2004).

Hopkins, J. M.

A. J. Kemp, G. J. Valentine, J. M. Hopkins, J. E. Hastie, S. A. Smith, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, and D. Burns, "Thermal management in vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Finite-element analysis of a heatspreader approach," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 148-155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, C. W. Jeon, S. Calvez, D. Burns, M. D. Dawson, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. A. Allerman, "Microchip vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1324-1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode- pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, C. W.

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode- pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, C. W. Jeon, S. Calvez, D. Burns, M. D. Dawson, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. A. Allerman, "Microchip vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1324-1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jouhti, T.

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, G.

Y. Tzuk, A. Tal, S. Goldring, Y. Glick, E. Lebiush, G. Kaufman, and R. Lavi, "Diamond cooling of high-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 262-269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, A. J.

A. J. Kemp, G. J. Valentine, J. M. Hopkins, J. E. Hastie, S. A. Smith, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, and D. Burns, "Thermal management in vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Finite-element analysis of a heatspreader approach," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 148-155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

K. S. Kim, J. R. Yoo, S. H. Cho, S. M. Lee, S. J. Lim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lee, T. Kim, and Y. J. Park, "1060 nm vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 44% at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, J. R. Yoo, S. H. Cho, S. M. Lee, S. J. Lim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lee, T. Kim, and Y. J. Park, "1060 nm vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 44% at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.

K. S. Kim, J. R. Yoo, S. H. Cho, S. M. Lee, S. J. Lim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lee, T. Kim, and Y. J. Park, "1060 nm vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 44% at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koehler, K.

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, and A. Giesen, "Optically Pumped GaSb-Based VECSEL Emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 μm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1070-1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuebler, T.

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, and A. Giesen, "Optically Pumped GaSb-Based VECSEL Emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 μm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1070-1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, "Design and characteristics of high-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode- pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 561-573 (1999).

Laakso, A.

Lang, A. R.

A. R. Lang, "Causes of Birefringence in Diamond," Nature 213, 248-251 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

H. Lindberg, M. Strassner, E. Gerster, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, "Thermal management of optically pumped long-wavelength InP-based semiconductor disk lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 1126-1134 (2005).

Lavi, R.

Y. Tzuk, A. Tal, S. Goldring, Y. Glick, E. Lebiush, G. Kaufman, and R. Lavi, "Diamond cooling of high-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 262-269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laycock, R. L.

Lebiush, E.

Y. Tzuk, A. Tal, S. Goldring, Y. Glick, E. Lebiush, G. Kaufman, and R. Lavi, "Diamond cooling of high-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 262-269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

K. S. Kim, J. R. Yoo, S. H. Cho, S. M. Lee, S. J. Lim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lee, T. Kim, and Y. J. Park, "1060 nm vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 44% at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

K. S. Kim, J. R. Yoo, S. H. Cho, S. M. Lee, S. J. Lim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lee, T. Kim, and Y. J. Park, "1060 nm vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 44% at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leinonen, T.

Liau, Z. L.

Z. L. Liau, "Semiconductor wafer bonding via liquid capillarity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 651-653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. J.

K. S. Kim, J. R. Yoo, S. H. Cho, S. M. Lee, S. J. Lim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lee, T. Kim, and Y. J. Park, "1060 nm vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 44% at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, H.

H. Lindberg, M. Strassner, E. Gerster, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, "Thermal management of optically pumped long-wavelength InP-based semiconductor disk lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 1126-1134 (2005).

Lyytikainen, J.

Manz, C.

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, and A. Giesen, "Optically Pumped GaSb-Based VECSEL Emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 μm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1070-1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mooradian, A.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, "Design and characteristics of high-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode- pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 561-573 (1999).

Park, Y. J.

K. S. Kim, J. R. Yoo, S. H. Cho, S. M. Lee, S. J. Lim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lee, T. Kim, and Y. J. Park, "1060 nm vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 44% at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pessa, M.

J. E. Hastie, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, J. Lyytikainen, and M. Pessa, "High power CW red VECSEL with linearly polarised TEM00 output beam," Opt. Express 13, 77-81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rattunde, M.

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, and A. Giesen, "Optically Pumped GaSb-Based VECSEL Emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 μm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1070-1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, T. D.

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, C. W. Jeon, S. Calvez, D. Burns, M. D. Dawson, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. A. Allerman, "Microchip vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1324-1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. A. Allerman, "High power and good beam quality at 980 nm from a vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 663-666 (2002).

Riis, E.

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, C. W. Jeon, S. Calvez, D. Burns, M. D. Dawson, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. A. Allerman, "Microchip vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1324-1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode- pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, N.

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, and A. Giesen, "Optically Pumped GaSb-Based VECSEL Emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 μm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1070-1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. A.

A. J. Kemp, G. J. Valentine, J. M. Hopkins, J. E. Hastie, S. A. Smith, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, and D. Burns, "Thermal management in vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Finite-element analysis of a heatspreader approach," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 148-155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sprague, R.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, "Design and characteristics of high-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode- pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 561-573 (1999).

Strassner, M.

H. Lindberg, M. Strassner, E. Gerster, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, "Thermal management of optically pumped long-wavelength InP-based semiconductor disk lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 1126-1134 (2005).

Sun, H. D.

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tal, A.

Y. Tzuk, A. Tal, S. Goldring, Y. Glick, E. Lebiush, G. Kaufman, and R. Lavi, "Diamond cooling of high-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 262-269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, "Vertical-external-cavity semiconductor lasers," J. Phys. D 39,R74-R85 (2004).

Tzuk, Y.

Y. Tzuk, A. Tal, S. Goldring, Y. Glick, E. Lebiush, G. Kaufman, and R. Lavi, "Diamond cooling of high-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 262-269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Valentine, G. J.

A. J. Kemp, G. J. Valentine, J. M. Hopkins, J. E. Hastie, S. A. Smith, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, and D. Burns, "Thermal management in vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Finite-element analysis of a heatspreader approach," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 148-155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, J.

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, and A. Giesen, "Optically Pumped GaSb-Based VECSEL Emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 μm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1070-1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walker, W. W.

Wilcox, K. G.

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, "Vertical-external-cavity semiconductor lasers," J. Phys. D 39,R74-R85 (2004).

Wild, C.

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, and A. Giesen, "Optically Pumped GaSb-Based VECSEL Emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 μm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1070-1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, J. R.

K. S. Kim, J. R. Yoo, S. H. Cho, S. M. Lee, S. J. Lim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lee, T. Kim, and Y. J. Park, "1060 nm vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 44% at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. S. Kim, J. R. Yoo, S. H. Cho, S. M. Lee, S. J. Lim, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lee, T. Kim, and Y. J. Park, "1060 nm vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 44% at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, "Semiconductor wafer bonding via liquid capillarity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 651-653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, C. W. Jeon, S. Calvez, D. Burns, M. D. Dawson, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. A. Allerman, "Microchip vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1324-1326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

A. J. Kemp, G. J. Valentine, J. M. Hopkins, J. E. Hastie, S. A. Smith, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, and D. Burns, "Thermal management in vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Finite-element analysis of a heatspreader approach," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 148-155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tzuk, A. Tal, S. Goldring, Y. Glick, E. Lebiush, G. Kaufman, and R. Lavi, "Diamond cooling of high-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 262-269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, "Single-Axial Mode, Intracavity Doubled Nd:YAG Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2091-2093 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, "Design and characteristics of high-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode- pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 561-573 (1999).

H. Lindberg, M. Strassner, E. Gerster, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, "Thermal management of optically pumped long-wavelength InP-based semiconductor disk lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 1126-1134 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode- pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, and A. Giesen, "Optically Pumped GaSb-Based VECSEL Emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 μm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1070-1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, "Vertical-external-cavity semiconductor lasers," J. Phys. D 39,R74-R85 (2004).

Nature (1)

A. R. Lang, "Causes of Birefringence in Diamond," Nature 213, 248-251 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Other (7)

Element 6, "Diamond Types," (Element 6 Ltd., 2006), http://www.e6.com/e6/page.jsp?pageid=400602030.

M. Abramowitz, Reflected Light Microscopy: An Overview (Olympus America Inc., 1990).

G. Turri, Y. Chen, M. Bass, D. Orchard, J. E. Butler, S. Magana, T. Feygelson, D. Thiel, K. Fourspring, S. Hawkins, M. Baronowski, R. V. Dewees, M. D. Seltzer, A. Guenthner, and D. C. Harris, "Optical Properties of Single-Crystal Chemical-Vapour-Deposited Diamond," presented at 11th DoD Electromagnetic Windows Symposium, (San Diego, 2006).

A. Yariv, "Jones Calculus and its Applications to Propagation in Optical Systems with Birefringent Crystals," in Optical Electronics, (Saunders College Publishing, 1991), pp. 16-29.

D. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Properties of Optical Materials (John Wiley and Sons Ltd, London, 1997).

J. E. Hastie, "High power surface emitting semiconductor lasers," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Strathclyde, (2004).

J.-M. Hopkins, A. J. Maclean, D. Burns, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, and J. Wagner, "Tunable, Single-frequency, Diode-pumped 2.3μm VECSEL," presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Long Beach, 2006).

Supplementary Material (1)

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