Abstract

The porous core layer deposited by modified chemical vapour deposition process has been analyzed in terms of thickness, pore size distribution, homogeneity and characteristics of the soot particles to investigate their variation with deposition temperature and input vapour composition. The compositions selected were SiO2, SiO2-GeO2 and SiO2-P2O5. Rare earth ions were incorporated into the deposit by a solution doping technique. The analysis of deposited microstructures was found to provide a quantitative indication about the rare earth incorporation and its variation with respect to process conditions. Thus the characterization provides a method of controlling rare earth doping and ultimate preform/fiber properties.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, M. E. Fermann, and R. I. Laming, "Fabrication of low-loss optical fibers containing rare earth ions," Electron. Lett. 21, 737-738 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, "Solution doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 23, 329-331 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Stone and C. A. Burrus, "Nd3+ doped SiO2 lasers in end pumped fiber geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 388-389 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Matejec, M. Hayer, M. Pospisilova, and I. Kasik, "Preparation of optical cores of silica optical fiber by the sol-gel method," J. Sol-Gel Sci.Technol. 8, 889-893 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Rajala, K. Janka, S. Tammela, P. Stenius, P. Kiiveri, and M. Hotoleanu "Advantages of direct nanoparticle deposition (DND) technology in active fiber production," http://www.lekki.fi/doc/Liekki%20white%20Paper-DNDFiberIntro-May2005.pd
  6. M. Chatterjee, R. Sen, M. Pal, M. Naskar, M. Paul, S. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, D. Ganguli, T. Bandyopadhyay, A. Gedanken, and R. Reisfeld, "Rare-earth doped optical fiber from oxide nanoparticle," Acta.Opt. Sin. 23, 35-36 (2003).
  7. Tingye Li, Optical Fiber Communications, Vol. 1 on Fiber Fabrication (Academic Press, 1985) Chap. 1.
  8. B. J. Ainslie, "A Review of the fabrication and properties of erbium-doped fibers for optical amplifiers," J Lightwave Technol. 9, 220-227 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. J. DiGiovanni, S. Plains, and K. L. Walker, US Patent "System comprising Er-doped optical fiber," No. 5,058,976, filed on August 3, 1990.
  10. D. Tanaka, A. Wada, T. Sakai, T. Nozwa, and R. Yamauchi, US Patent "Solution doping of a silica preform with erbium, aluminium and phosphorus to form an optical fiber" No. 5,474,588, filed on September 16, 1994.
  11. T. Bandyopadhyay, R. Sen, S. Kr. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, and M. Ch. Paul, US Patent "Process for making rare earth doped optical fiber" No. 6,751,990, filed on March 6, 2001.
  12. V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, A. Langrova, J. Kanka, and P. Honzatko, "Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes," Ceram.Silik. 45, 62-69 (2001).
  13. Y. H. Kim, U. C. Paek, and W. T. Han, "Effect of soaking temperature on concentrations of rare-earth ions in optical fiber core in solution doping process," in Rare-earth doped Materials and Devices, V. Shibin Jiang, eds., Proc. SPIE 4282, 123-132 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Potkay, H. R. Clark, I. P. Smith, T. Y. Kometani, and D. L. Wood, "Characterization of soot from multimode vapour phase axial deposition optical fiber preforms," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1338-1347 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. S. Mukhopadhyay and D. Kundu, "Chemical composition analysis of Germanate glass by alkalimetric titration of Germinate Mannitol complex," J. Indian Chemical Soc. 83(3),255-258 (2006).
  16. S. J. Gregg and K. S. W. Sing, Adsorption, Surface Area and Porosity, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1982).
  17. M. Pal, R. Sen, M. C. Paul, S. K. Bhadra, S. Chatterjee, D. Ghosal, and K. Dasgupta "Investigation of the deposition of porous layers by the MCVD method for the preparation of rare-earth doped cores of optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 254, 88-95 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. J. DiGiovanni, J. B. MacChesney, and T. Y. Kometani, "Structure and properties of silica containing aluminum and phosphorus near the AlPO4 join," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 113, 58-64 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. S. Mukhopadhyay and D. Kundu, "Chemical composition analysis of Germanate glass by alkalimetric titration of Germinate Mannitol complex," J. Indian Chemical Soc. 83(3),255-258 (2006).

2005 (1)

M. Pal, R. Sen, M. C. Paul, S. K. Bhadra, S. Chatterjee, D. Ghosal, and K. Dasgupta "Investigation of the deposition of porous layers by the MCVD method for the preparation of rare-earth doped cores of optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 254, 88-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Chatterjee, R. Sen, M. Pal, M. Naskar, M. Paul, S. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, D. Ganguli, T. Bandyopadhyay, A. Gedanken, and R. Reisfeld, "Rare-earth doped optical fiber from oxide nanoparticle," Acta.Opt. Sin. 23, 35-36 (2003).

2001 (1)

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, A. Langrova, J. Kanka, and P. Honzatko, "Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes," Ceram.Silik. 45, 62-69 (2001).

1997 (1)

V. Matejec, M. Hayer, M. Pospisilova, and I. Kasik, "Preparation of optical cores of silica optical fiber by the sol-gel method," J. Sol-Gel Sci.Technol. 8, 889-893 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

B. J. Ainslie, "A Review of the fabrication and properties of erbium-doped fibers for optical amplifiers," J Lightwave Technol. 9, 220-227 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. J. DiGiovanni, J. B. MacChesney, and T. Y. Kometani, "Structure and properties of silica containing aluminum and phosphorus near the AlPO4 join," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 113, 58-64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

E. Potkay, H. R. Clark, I. P. Smith, T. Y. Kometani, and D. L. Wood, "Characterization of soot from multimode vapour phase axial deposition optical fiber preforms," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1338-1347 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, "Solution doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 23, 329-331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, M. E. Fermann, and R. I. Laming, "Fabrication of low-loss optical fibers containing rare earth ions," Electron. Lett. 21, 737-738 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. Stone and C. A. Burrus, "Nd3+ doped SiO2 lasers in end pumped fiber geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 388-389 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

B. J. Ainslie, "A Review of the fabrication and properties of erbium-doped fibers for optical amplifiers," J Lightwave Technol. 9, 220-227 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, T.

M. Chatterjee, R. Sen, M. Pal, M. Naskar, M. Paul, S. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, D. Ganguli, T. Bandyopadhyay, A. Gedanken, and R. Reisfeld, "Rare-earth doped optical fiber from oxide nanoparticle," Acta.Opt. Sin. 23, 35-36 (2003).

Berka, Z.

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, A. Langrova, J. Kanka, and P. Honzatko, "Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes," Ceram.Silik. 45, 62-69 (2001).

Berkova, D.

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, A. Langrova, J. Kanka, and P. Honzatko, "Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes," Ceram.Silik. 45, 62-69 (2001).

Bhadra, S.

M. Chatterjee, R. Sen, M. Pal, M. Naskar, M. Paul, S. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, D. Ganguli, T. Bandyopadhyay, A. Gedanken, and R. Reisfeld, "Rare-earth doped optical fiber from oxide nanoparticle," Acta.Opt. Sin. 23, 35-36 (2003).

Bhadra, S. K.

M. Pal, R. Sen, M. C. Paul, S. K. Bhadra, S. Chatterjee, D. Ghosal, and K. Dasgupta "Investigation of the deposition of porous layers by the MCVD method for the preparation of rare-earth doped cores of optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 254, 88-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

J. Stone and C. A. Burrus, "Nd3+ doped SiO2 lasers in end pumped fiber geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 388-389 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Chatterjee, M.

M. Chatterjee, R. Sen, M. Pal, M. Naskar, M. Paul, S. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, D. Ganguli, T. Bandyopadhyay, A. Gedanken, and R. Reisfeld, "Rare-earth doped optical fiber from oxide nanoparticle," Acta.Opt. Sin. 23, 35-36 (2003).

Chatterjee, S.

M. Pal, R. Sen, M. C. Paul, S. K. Bhadra, S. Chatterjee, D. Ghosal, and K. Dasgupta "Investigation of the deposition of porous layers by the MCVD method for the preparation of rare-earth doped cores of optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 254, 88-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chomat, M.

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, A. Langrova, J. Kanka, and P. Honzatko, "Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes," Ceram.Silik. 45, 62-69 (2001).

Clark, H. R.

E. Potkay, H. R. Clark, I. P. Smith, T. Y. Kometani, and D. L. Wood, "Characterization of soot from multimode vapour phase axial deposition optical fiber preforms," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1338-1347 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dasgupta, K.

M. Pal, R. Sen, M. C. Paul, S. K. Bhadra, S. Chatterjee, D. Ghosal, and K. Dasgupta "Investigation of the deposition of porous layers by the MCVD method for the preparation of rare-earth doped cores of optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 254, 88-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Chatterjee, R. Sen, M. Pal, M. Naskar, M. Paul, S. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, D. Ganguli, T. Bandyopadhyay, A. Gedanken, and R. Reisfeld, "Rare-earth doped optical fiber from oxide nanoparticle," Acta.Opt. Sin. 23, 35-36 (2003).

DiGiovanni, D. J.

D. J. DiGiovanni, J. B. MacChesney, and T. Y. Kometani, "Structure and properties of silica containing aluminum and phosphorus near the AlPO4 join," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 113, 58-64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, M. E. Fermann, and R. I. Laming, "Fabrication of low-loss optical fibers containing rare earth ions," Electron. Lett. 21, 737-738 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ganguli, D.

M. Chatterjee, R. Sen, M. Pal, M. Naskar, M. Paul, S. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, D. Ganguli, T. Bandyopadhyay, A. Gedanken, and R. Reisfeld, "Rare-earth doped optical fiber from oxide nanoparticle," Acta.Opt. Sin. 23, 35-36 (2003).

Gedanken, A.

M. Chatterjee, R. Sen, M. Pal, M. Naskar, M. Paul, S. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, D. Ganguli, T. Bandyopadhyay, A. Gedanken, and R. Reisfeld, "Rare-earth doped optical fiber from oxide nanoparticle," Acta.Opt. Sin. 23, 35-36 (2003).

Ghosal, D.

M. Pal, R. Sen, M. C. Paul, S. K. Bhadra, S. Chatterjee, D. Ghosal, and K. Dasgupta "Investigation of the deposition of porous layers by the MCVD method for the preparation of rare-earth doped cores of optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 254, 88-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hayer, M.

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, A. Langrova, J. Kanka, and P. Honzatko, "Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes," Ceram.Silik. 45, 62-69 (2001).

V. Matejec, M. Hayer, M. Pospisilova, and I. Kasik, "Preparation of optical cores of silica optical fiber by the sol-gel method," J. Sol-Gel Sci.Technol. 8, 889-893 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Honzatko, P.

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, A. Langrova, J. Kanka, and P. Honzatko, "Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes," Ceram.Silik. 45, 62-69 (2001).

Kanka, J.

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, A. Langrova, J. Kanka, and P. Honzatko, "Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes," Ceram.Silik. 45, 62-69 (2001).

Kasik, I.

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, A. Langrova, J. Kanka, and P. Honzatko, "Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes," Ceram.Silik. 45, 62-69 (2001).

V. Matejec, M. Hayer, M. Pospisilova, and I. Kasik, "Preparation of optical cores of silica optical fiber by the sol-gel method," J. Sol-Gel Sci.Technol. 8, 889-893 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kometani, T. Y.

D. J. DiGiovanni, J. B. MacChesney, and T. Y. Kometani, "Structure and properties of silica containing aluminum and phosphorus near the AlPO4 join," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 113, 58-64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Potkay, H. R. Clark, I. P. Smith, T. Y. Kometani, and D. L. Wood, "Characterization of soot from multimode vapour phase axial deposition optical fiber preforms," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1338-1347 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kundu, D.

S. S. Mukhopadhyay and D. Kundu, "Chemical composition analysis of Germanate glass by alkalimetric titration of Germinate Mannitol complex," J. Indian Chemical Soc. 83(3),255-258 (2006).

Laming, R. I.

S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, M. E. Fermann, and R. I. Laming, "Fabrication of low-loss optical fibers containing rare earth ions," Electron. Lett. 21, 737-738 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Langrova, A.

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, A. Langrova, J. Kanka, and P. Honzatko, "Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes," Ceram.Silik. 45, 62-69 (2001).

MacChesney, J. B.

D. J. DiGiovanni, J. B. MacChesney, and T. Y. Kometani, "Structure and properties of silica containing aluminum and phosphorus near the AlPO4 join," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 113, 58-64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Matejec, V.

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, A. Langrova, J. Kanka, and P. Honzatko, "Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes," Ceram.Silik. 45, 62-69 (2001).

V. Matejec, M. Hayer, M. Pospisilova, and I. Kasik, "Preparation of optical cores of silica optical fiber by the sol-gel method," J. Sol-Gel Sci.Technol. 8, 889-893 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mukhopadhyay, S. S.

S. S. Mukhopadhyay and D. Kundu, "Chemical composition analysis of Germanate glass by alkalimetric titration of Germinate Mannitol complex," J. Indian Chemical Soc. 83(3),255-258 (2006).

Naskar, M.

M. Chatterjee, R. Sen, M. Pal, M. Naskar, M. Paul, S. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, D. Ganguli, T. Bandyopadhyay, A. Gedanken, and R. Reisfeld, "Rare-earth doped optical fiber from oxide nanoparticle," Acta.Opt. Sin. 23, 35-36 (2003).

Pal, M.

M. Pal, R. Sen, M. C. Paul, S. K. Bhadra, S. Chatterjee, D. Ghosal, and K. Dasgupta "Investigation of the deposition of porous layers by the MCVD method for the preparation of rare-earth doped cores of optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 254, 88-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Chatterjee, R. Sen, M. Pal, M. Naskar, M. Paul, S. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, D. Ganguli, T. Bandyopadhyay, A. Gedanken, and R. Reisfeld, "Rare-earth doped optical fiber from oxide nanoparticle," Acta.Opt. Sin. 23, 35-36 (2003).

Paul, M.

M. Chatterjee, R. Sen, M. Pal, M. Naskar, M. Paul, S. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, D. Ganguli, T. Bandyopadhyay, A. Gedanken, and R. Reisfeld, "Rare-earth doped optical fiber from oxide nanoparticle," Acta.Opt. Sin. 23, 35-36 (2003).

Paul, M. C.

M. Pal, R. Sen, M. C. Paul, S. K. Bhadra, S. Chatterjee, D. Ghosal, and K. Dasgupta "Investigation of the deposition of porous layers by the MCVD method for the preparation of rare-earth doped cores of optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 254, 88-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, "Solution doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 23, 329-331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, M. E. Fermann, and R. I. Laming, "Fabrication of low-loss optical fibers containing rare earth ions," Electron. Lett. 21, 737-738 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Poole, S. B.

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, "Solution doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 23, 329-331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, M. E. Fermann, and R. I. Laming, "Fabrication of low-loss optical fibers containing rare earth ions," Electron. Lett. 21, 737-738 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pospisilova, M.

V. Matejec, M. Hayer, M. Pospisilova, and I. Kasik, "Preparation of optical cores of silica optical fiber by the sol-gel method," J. Sol-Gel Sci.Technol. 8, 889-893 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Potkay, E.

E. Potkay, H. R. Clark, I. P. Smith, T. Y. Kometani, and D. L. Wood, "Characterization of soot from multimode vapour phase axial deposition optical fiber preforms," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1338-1347 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Reisfeld, R.

M. Chatterjee, R. Sen, M. Pal, M. Naskar, M. Paul, S. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, D. Ganguli, T. Bandyopadhyay, A. Gedanken, and R. Reisfeld, "Rare-earth doped optical fiber from oxide nanoparticle," Acta.Opt. Sin. 23, 35-36 (2003).

Sen, R.

M. Pal, R. Sen, M. C. Paul, S. K. Bhadra, S. Chatterjee, D. Ghosal, and K. Dasgupta "Investigation of the deposition of porous layers by the MCVD method for the preparation of rare-earth doped cores of optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 254, 88-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Chatterjee, R. Sen, M. Pal, M. Naskar, M. Paul, S. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, D. Ganguli, T. Bandyopadhyay, A. Gedanken, and R. Reisfeld, "Rare-earth doped optical fiber from oxide nanoparticle," Acta.Opt. Sin. 23, 35-36 (2003).

Smith, I. P.

E. Potkay, H. R. Clark, I. P. Smith, T. Y. Kometani, and D. L. Wood, "Characterization of soot from multimode vapour phase axial deposition optical fiber preforms," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1338-1347 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stone, J.

J. Stone and C. A. Burrus, "Nd3+ doped SiO2 lasers in end pumped fiber geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 388-389 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, J. E.

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, "Solution doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 23, 329-331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wood, D. L.

E. Potkay, H. R. Clark, I. P. Smith, T. Y. Kometani, and D. L. Wood, "Characterization of soot from multimode vapour phase axial deposition optical fiber preforms," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1338-1347 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Stone and C. A. Burrus, "Nd3+ doped SiO2 lasers in end pumped fiber geometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 388-389 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, M. E. Fermann, and R. I. Laming, "Fabrication of low-loss optical fibers containing rare earth ions," Electron. Lett. 21, 737-738 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, and D. N. Payne, "Solution doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 23, 329-331 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J Lightwave Technol. (1)

B. J. Ainslie, "A Review of the fabrication and properties of erbium-doped fibers for optical amplifiers," J Lightwave Technol. 9, 220-227 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Indian Chemical Soc. (1)

S. S. Mukhopadhyay and D. Kundu, "Chemical composition analysis of Germanate glass by alkalimetric titration of Germinate Mannitol complex," J. Indian Chemical Soc. 83(3),255-258 (2006).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

E. Potkay, H. R. Clark, I. P. Smith, T. Y. Kometani, and D. L. Wood, "Characterization of soot from multimode vapour phase axial deposition optical fiber preforms," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1338-1347 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

D. J. DiGiovanni, J. B. MacChesney, and T. Y. Kometani, "Structure and properties of silica containing aluminum and phosphorus near the AlPO4 join," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 113, 58-64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Pal, R. Sen, M. C. Paul, S. K. Bhadra, S. Chatterjee, D. Ghosal, and K. Dasgupta "Investigation of the deposition of porous layers by the MCVD method for the preparation of rare-earth doped cores of optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 254, 88-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Sin. (1)

M. Chatterjee, R. Sen, M. Pal, M. Naskar, M. Paul, S. Bhadra, K. Dasgupta, D. Ganguli, T. Bandyopadhyay, A. Gedanken, and R. Reisfeld, "Rare-earth doped optical fiber from oxide nanoparticle," Acta.Opt. Sin. 23, 35-36 (2003).

Silik. (1)

V. Matejec, I. Kasik, D. Berkova, M. Hayer, M. Chomat, Z. Berka, A. Langrova, J. Kanka, and P. Honzatko, "Properties of optical fiber performs prepared by inner coating of substrate tubes," Ceram.Silik. 45, 62-69 (2001).

Technol. (1)

V. Matejec, M. Hayer, M. Pospisilova, and I. Kasik, "Preparation of optical cores of silica optical fiber by the sol-gel method," J. Sol-Gel Sci.Technol. 8, 889-893 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

M. Rajala, K. Janka, S. Tammela, P. Stenius, P. Kiiveri, and M. Hotoleanu "Advantages of direct nanoparticle deposition (DND) technology in active fiber production," http://www.lekki.fi/doc/Liekki%20white%20Paper-DNDFiberIntro-May2005.pd

D. J. DiGiovanni, S. Plains, and K. L. Walker, US Patent "System comprising Er-doped optical fiber," No. 5,058,976, filed on August 3, 1990.

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[CrossRef]

Tingye Li, Optical Fiber Communications, Vol. 1 on Fiber Fabrication (Academic Press, 1985) Chap. 1.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Different steps of solution doping process.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM micrograph showing GeO2 doped porous core layer deposited at 1295°C.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

FESEM micrograph showing the pores of GeO2 doped soot deposited at 1295°C.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEM micrograph of SiO2-GeO2 soot deposited at temperature (a) 1220°C and (b) 1295°C.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Pore size distribution for SiO2-GeO2 against deposition temperature (a) 1295°C, (b) 1255°C.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SEM micrograph of (a) SiO2 deposited at 1300°C and (b) SiO2-P2O5 deposited at 1100°C.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Variation of pore size with composition (a) SiO2, (b) SiO2+GeO2, (c) SiO2+P2O5.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

BSE micrograph of SiO2-GeO2 soot after solution doping.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Radial distribution of Er across the core in the preform.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Spectral attenuation curve of F1 (Blue line) and F2 (Red line) showing Er3+concentration variation.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

R.I profile of Fiber F1.

Tables (3)

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Table 1. Variation of pore sizes with change in composition

Tables Icon

Table 2. Surface area of different soot samples

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Table 3. Fiber properties and parameters

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