Abstract

Efficient, wideband and tunable optical wavelength conversion over 180 nm by four-wave mixing (Bragg scattering) in a fiber is demonstrated experimentally. This process has the potential to translate optical data (states of light) without the noise pollution associated with parametric amplification and spontaneous Raman scattering.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li and P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. <jrn>. S. Radic and C. J. McKinstrie, "Optical amplification and signal processing in highly nonlinear optical fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88C, 859-869 (2005).</jrn>
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Inoue, "Tunable and selective wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two pump lights," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1451-1453 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Tanemura, C. S. Goh, K. Kikuchi and S. Y. Set, "Highly efficient arbitrary wavelength conversion within entire C-Band based on nondegenerate fiber four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 551-553 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. J. McKinstrie, J. D. Harvey, S. Radic and M. G. Raymer, "Translation of quantum states by four-wave mixing in fibers," Opt. Express 13, 9131-9142 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, S. Coen, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Scalar modulation instability in the normal dispersion regime by use of a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 2225-2227 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Y. H. Chen, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Widely tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett 30, 762-764 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Jiang, R. Saperstein, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, C. McKinstrie, J. Ford, Y. Fainman and S. Radic, "375THz parametric translation of modulated signal from 1550nm to visible band," Proc. OFC, paper PD16 (2006).
  9. S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump parametric architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673-675 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Kogelnik, R. M. Jopson and L. E. Nelson, "Polarization-mode dispersion," in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB, edited by I. Kaminow and T. Li (Academic Press, 2002), pp. 725-861.

2005

A. Y. H. Chen, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Widely tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett 30, 762-764 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. McKinstrie, J. D. Harvey, S. Radic and M. G. Raymer, "Translation of quantum states by four-wave mixing in fibers," Opt. Express 13, 9131-9142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

T. Tanemura, C. S. Goh, K. Kikuchi and S. Y. Set, "Highly efficient arbitrary wavelength conversion within entire C-Band based on nondegenerate fiber four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 551-553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump parametric architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, S. Coen, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Scalar modulation instability in the normal dispersion regime by use of a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 2225-2227 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li and P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1994

K. Inoue, "Tunable and selective wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two pump lights," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1451-1453 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li and P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brar, K.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump parametric architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Centanni, J. C.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump parametric architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A. Y. H.

A. Y. H. Chen, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Widely tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett 30, 762-764 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chraplyvy, A. R.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump parametric architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

Goh, C. S.

T. Tanemura, C. S. Goh, K. Kikuchi and S. Y. Set, "Highly efficient arbitrary wavelength conversion within entire C-Band based on nondegenerate fiber four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 551-553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hansryd, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li and P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. D.

Headley, C.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump parametric architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hedekvist, P.-O.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li and P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, "Tunable and selective wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two pump lights," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1451-1453 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jopson, R. M.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump parametric architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, C. G.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump parametric architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

T. Tanemura, C. S. Goh, K. Kikuchi and S. Y. Set, "Highly efficient arbitrary wavelength conversion within entire C-Band based on nondegenerate fiber four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 551-553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

A. Y. H. Chen, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Widely tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett 30, 762-764 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, S. Coen, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Scalar modulation instability in the normal dispersion regime by use of a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 2225-2227 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leonhardt, R.

A. Y. H. Chen, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Widely tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett 30, 762-764 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, S. Coen, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Scalar modulation instability in the normal dispersion regime by use of a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 2225-2227 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li and P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McKinstrie, C. J.

C. J. McKinstrie, J. D. Harvey, S. Radic and M. G. Raymer, "Translation of quantum states by four-wave mixing in fibers," Opt. Express 13, 9131-9142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump parametric architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murdoch, S. G.

A. Y. H. Chen, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Widely tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett 30, 762-764 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radic, S.

C. J. McKinstrie, J. D. Harvey, S. Radic and M. G. Raymer, "Translation of quantum states by four-wave mixing in fibers," Opt. Express 13, 9131-9142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump parametric architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raymer, M. G.

Russell, P. S. J.

A. Y. H. Chen, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Widely tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett 30, 762-764 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, S. Coen, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Scalar modulation instability in the normal dispersion regime by use of a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 2225-2227 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Set, S. Y.

T. Tanemura, C. S. Goh, K. Kikuchi and S. Y. Set, "Highly efficient arbitrary wavelength conversion within entire C-Band based on nondegenerate fiber four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 551-553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanemura, T.

T. Tanemura, C. S. Goh, K. Kikuchi and S. Y. Set, "Highly efficient arbitrary wavelength conversion within entire C-Band based on nondegenerate fiber four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 551-553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

A. Y. H. Chen, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Widely tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett 30, 762-764 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, S. Coen, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Scalar modulation instability in the normal dispersion regime by use of a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 2225-2227 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westlund, M.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li and P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G. K. L.

A. Y. H. Chen, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Widely tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett 30, 762-764 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, S. Coen, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Scalar modulation instability in the normal dispersion regime by use of a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 2225-2227 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li and P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar and C. Headley, "Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump parametric architectures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 673-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, "Tunable and selective wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two pump lights," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1451-1453 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanemura, C. S. Goh, K. Kikuchi and S. Y. Set, "Highly efficient arbitrary wavelength conversion within entire C-Band based on nondegenerate fiber four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 551-553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett

A. Y. H. Chen, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Widely tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett 30, 762-764 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Other

R. Jiang, R. Saperstein, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, C. McKinstrie, J. Ford, Y. Fainman and S. Radic, "375THz parametric translation of modulated signal from 1550nm to visible band," Proc. OFC, paper PD16 (2006).

H. Kogelnik, R. M. Jopson and L. E. Nelson, "Polarization-mode dispersion," in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB, edited by I. Kaminow and T. Li (Academic Press, 2002), pp. 725-861.

<jrn>. S. Radic and C. J. McKinstrie, "Optical amplification and signal processing in highly nonlinear optical fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88C, 859-869 (2005).</jrn>
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Four-wave mixing processes

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental set-up. TLS=Tunable laser source, DFB=Distributed-feedback laser, ISO=Isolator, PC=Polarization controller, PM=Phase modulator, PRBS=Pseudorandom bit sequence signal, EDFA=Erbium-doped fiber amplifier, HNLF=Highly nonlinear fiber, VOA=Variable optical attenuator, OSA=Optical spectrum analyzer. Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) couplers have been used to combine the different waves.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Left: Output spectrum of the HNLF with and without the pumps. Right: Phase matching curves for Bragg scattering in the HNLF which was simulated using Eq. (2) and β 2 and β 4 derived from the dispersion parameters given by the manufacturer. Output wavelengths as a function of the average frequency. Markers represent experimental data.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Left: Output spectrum of the LEAF. Right: Phase matching curves for Bragg scattering in the LEAF which was simulated using Eq. (2) and β 2 and β 4 derived from the dispersion parameters given by the manufacturer. Output wavelengths as a function of the average frequency. Markers represent experimental data.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Power of the generated idler as a function of the wavelength of the pump 2 (left), signal (center) and pump 1 (right), while keeping other wavelengths fixed, for a wavelength shift of 165 nm (central wavelength of the waves: λS =1545nm, λI =1380nm, λP2 =1600nm, λP1 =1426nm).

Equations (2)

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ω i = ω s + ω 1 ω 2 ,
δ = [ ( ω b 2 ω c 2 ) 2 ] [ β 2 + β 4 ( ω b 2 + ω c 2 ) 12 ] = 0 ,

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