Abstract

We experimentally examine the noise properties of a two-pump optical parametric amplifier when converting frequencies using the Bragg-scattering (BS) and phase-conjugation (PC) processes. Using co-polarized pumps and signal, we show that the noise performance is limited by spontaneous Raman scattering. The noise performance of BS is superior to that of PC, and should improve with larger frequency excursions.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. <jrn>. S. Radic and C. J. McKinstrie, "Optical amplification and signal processing in highly nonlinear optical fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88C, 859-869 (2005).</jrn>
  3. W. H. Louisell, Radiation and Noise in Quantum Electronics (McGraw-Hill, 1964).
  4. C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and M. G. Raymer, "Quantum noise properties of parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," Opt. Express 12, 5037-5066 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. J. McKinstrie, J. D. Harvey, S. Radic, and M. G. Raymer, "Translation of quantum states by four-wave mixing in fibers," Opt. Express 13, 9131-9142 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Inoue, "Tunable and selective wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two pump lights," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1451-1453 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Tanemura, C. S. Goh, K. Kikuchi, and S. Y. Set, "Highly efficient arbitrary wavelength conversion within entire C-band based on nondegenerate fiber four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 551-553 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Mostowski and M. G. Raymer, "Quantum statistics in nonlinear optics," in Contemporary Nonlinear Optics, G. P. Agrawal and R. W. Boyd, eds., (Academic Press, 1992).
  9. P. L. Voss and P. Kumar, "Raman-noise-induced noise-figure limit for χ(3) parametric amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 29, 445-447 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Tang, P. L. Voss, J. Lasri, P. Devgan, and P. Kumar, "Noise-figure limit of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength convertors: experimental investigation," Opt. Lett. 29, 2372-2374 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. <jrn>. S. Radic, R. M. Jopson, A. Gnauck, C. J. McKinstrie, J. C. Centanni, and A. R. Chraplyvy, "Stimulated-Brillouin-scattering suppression using a single modulator in two-pump parametric architectures," in Proc. OFC 2005, Anaheim, CA, paper OWN5 (2005).</jrn>
  12. R. H. Stolen, "Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1157-1160 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. J. Dougherty, F. X. Kaertner, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Measurement of the Raman gain spectrum of optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 20, 31-33 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. Chen, K. F. Lee, and P. Kumar, "Measurement of co- and cross-polarized Raman spectra in silica fiber for small detunings," Opt. Express 13, 2236-2244 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. L. Zyskind, J. A. Nagel, and H. D. Kidorf, "Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for optical communications," in Optical Telecommunications IIIB I. P. Kaminow and T. L. Koch, eds., (Academic Press, 1997).

2005 (2)

2004 (4)

2002 (1)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

K. Inoue, "Tunable and selective wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two pump lights," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1451-1453 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. H. Stolen, "Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1157-1160 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Devgan, P.

Dougherty, D. J.

Goh, C. S.

T. Tanemura, C. S. Goh, K. Kikuchi, and S. Y. Set, "Highly efficient arbitrary wavelength conversion within entire C-band based on nondegenerate fiber four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 551-553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hansryd, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. D.

Haus, H. A.

Hedekvist, P. O.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, "Tunable and selective wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two pump lights," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1451-1453 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Kaertner, F. X.

Kikuchi, K.

T. Tanemura, C. S. Goh, K. Kikuchi, and S. Y. Set, "Highly efficient arbitrary wavelength conversion within entire C-band based on nondegenerate fiber four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 551-553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

Lasri, J.

Lee, K. F.

Li, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

McKinstrie, C. J.

Radic, S.

Raymer, M. G.

Set, S. Y.

T. Tanemura, C. S. Goh, K. Kikuchi, and S. Y. Set, "Highly efficient arbitrary wavelength conversion within entire C-band based on nondegenerate fiber four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 551-553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, "Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1157-1160 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tanemura, T.

T. Tanemura, C. S. Goh, K. Kikuchi, and S. Y. Set, "Highly efficient arbitrary wavelength conversion within entire C-band based on nondegenerate fiber four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 551-553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tang, R.

Voss, P. L.

Westlund, M.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. H. Stolen, "Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 1157-1160 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li and P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

K. Inoue, "Tunable and selective wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two pump lights," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1451-1453 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanemura, C. S. Goh, K. Kikuchi, and S. Y. Set, "Highly efficient arbitrary wavelength conversion within entire C-band based on nondegenerate fiber four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 551-553 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (5)

J. Mostowski and M. G. Raymer, "Quantum statistics in nonlinear optics," in Contemporary Nonlinear Optics, G. P. Agrawal and R. W. Boyd, eds., (Academic Press, 1992).

<jrn>. S. Radic, R. M. Jopson, A. Gnauck, C. J. McKinstrie, J. C. Centanni, and A. R. Chraplyvy, "Stimulated-Brillouin-scattering suppression using a single modulator in two-pump parametric architectures," in Proc. OFC 2005, Anaheim, CA, paper OWN5 (2005).</jrn>

<jrn>. S. Radic and C. J. McKinstrie, "Optical amplification and signal processing in highly nonlinear optical fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88C, 859-869 (2005).</jrn>

W. H. Louisell, Radiation and Noise in Quantum Electronics (McGraw-Hill, 1964).

J. L. Zyskind, J. A. Nagel, and H. D. Kidorf, "Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for optical communications," in Optical Telecommunications IIIB I. P. Kaminow and T. L. Koch, eds., (Academic Press, 1997).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental layout. EDFA=Erbium-doped fiber amplifier, WDM=Wavelength-division multiplexer, PM=Phase modulator, POL=Polarization controller, HNF=Highly nonlinear fiber, OSA=Optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical spectrum at the output of the HNF for two cases.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Signal and idler power at the output of the HNF as a function of the total pump power launched into the fiber. Signal input: -12 dBm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurement of the parallel and orthogonal noise produced by the 1566-nm pump.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Parallel and (b) orthogonal noise as a function of frequency offset from the pump at three wavelengths.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of OSNR measurements

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