Abstract

The dispersive characteristics of a photonic crystal fiber enhanced with a liquid crystal core are studied using a planewave expansion method. Numerical results demonstrate that by appropriate design such fibers can function in a single-mode/single-polarization operation, exhibit high- or low- birefringence behavior, or switch between an on-state and an off-state (no guided modes supported). All of the above can be controlled by the application of an external electric field, the specific liquid crystal anchoring conditions and the fiber structural parameters.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (7)

T.-L. Wu and C.-H. Chao, “A novel ultraflattened dispersion photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 17, 67–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E.P. Kosmidou, E.E. Kriezis, and T.D. Tsiboukis, “Analysis of tunable photonic crystal devices comprising liquid crystal materials as defects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 657–665 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, A.K. Mairaj, D.W. Hewak, and T.M. Monro, “Nonsilica glasses for holey fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. 23, 2046–2054 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Gauza, J. Li, S.-T. Wu, A. Spadlo, R. Da̧browski, Y.-N. Tzeng, and K.-L. Cheng, “High birefringence and high resistivity isothiocyanate-based nematic liquid crystal mixtures,” Liq. Cryst. 32, 1077–1085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, Art. 073501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J.P. Carvalho, and H.M. Salgado, “Low-loss splice in a microstructured fibre using a conventional fusion splicer,” Microw. Opt. Tech. Let. 46, 172–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.G. Leon-Saval, T.A. Birks, N.Y. Joly, A.K. George, W.J. Wadsworth, G. Karakantzas, and P.St.J. Russell, “Splice-free interfacing of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1629–1631 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (7)

M. D. Nielsen, C. Jacobsen, N.A. Mortensen, J.R. Folkenberg, and H.R. Simonsen, “Low-loss photonic crystal fibers for transmission systems and their dispersion properties,” Opt. Express 12, 1372–1376 (2004),http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-7-1372.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J.C. Petersen, T. Sϕrensen, T.P. Hansen, and H.R. Simonsen, “Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 4080–4087 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-17-4080.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.T. Alkeskjold, J. Lægsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D.S. Hermann, J. Broeng, J. Li, and S.-T. Wu, “All-optical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 5857–5871 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5857.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Argyros, N. Issa, I. Bassett, and M.A. van Eijkelenborg, “Microstructured optical fiber for single-polarization air guidance,” Opt. Lett. 29, 20–22 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Maune, M. Lončar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360–362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Zsigri, J. Lægsgaard, and A. Bjarklev, “A novel photonic crystal fibre design for dispersion compensation,” J. Opt. A 6, 717–720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Du, Y.-Q. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2181–2183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (7)

L.P. Shen, W.-P. Huang, G.X. Chen, and S.S. Jian, “Design and optimization of photonic crystal fibers for broadband dispersion compensation,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 15, 540–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Feng, T.M. Monro, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, and D. Hewak, “Solid microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 2225–2230 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2225.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Single-polarization single-mode photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 15, 1384–1386 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, and E. Sasaoka, “Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: application to ultra-flattened dispersion,” Opt. Express 11, 843–852 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-843.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Chong and M.K. Rao, “Development of a system for laser splicing photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 1365–1370 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-12-1365.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.P. Hansen, “Dispersion flattened hybrid-core nonlinear photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 1503–1509 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-13-1503.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D.S. Hermann, and J. Broeng, “Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 2589–2596 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-20-2589.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (5)

2000 (1)

Y. Jeong, B. Yang, B. Lee, H.S. Seo, S. Choi, and K. Oh, “Electrically controllable long-period liquid crystal fiber gratings,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 12, 519–521 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevtsev, S. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonic crystal fibers: a new class of optical waveguides,” Opt. Fiber Techn. 5, 305–330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Morishita and S. Yutani, “Wavelength-insensitive couplers made of annealed dispersive fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 2356–2360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S.V. Burylov, “Equilibrium configuration of a nematic liquid crystal confined to a cylindrical cavity,” JETP 85, 873–886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P. St. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

G.P. Crawford, D.W. Allender, and J.W. Doane, “Surface elastic and molecular-anchoring properties of nematic liquid crystals confined to cylindrical cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8693–8710 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1974 (1)

Alkeskjold, T.T.

Allender, D.W.

G.P. Crawford, D.W. Allender, and J.W. Doane, “Surface elastic and molecular-anchoring properties of nematic liquid crystals confined to cylindrical cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8693–8710 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrés, P.

Argyros, A.

Baehr-Jones, T.

B. Maune, M. Lončar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360–362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bahadur, B.

B. BahadurLiquid crystals: applications and uses, vol. 1 (World Scientific Publishing, 1990).
[CrossRef]

Barkou, S.

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevtsev, S. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonic crystal fibers: a new class of optical waveguides,” Opt. Fiber Techn. 5, 305–330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bassett, I.

Birks, T.A.

Bjarklev, A.

Broeng, J.

Brugioni, S.

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, Art. 073501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burylov, S.V.

S.V. Burylov, “Equilibrium configuration of a nematic liquid crystal confined to a cylindrical cavity,” JETP 85, 873–886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, J.P.

O. Frazão, J.P. Carvalho, and H.M. Salgado, “Low-loss splice in a microstructured fibre using a conventional fusion splicer,” Microw. Opt. Tech. Let. 46, 172–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C.-H.

T.-L. Wu and C.-H. Chao, “A novel ultraflattened dispersion photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 17, 67–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.X.

L.P. Shen, W.-P. Huang, G.X. Chen, and S.S. Jian, “Design and optimization of photonic crystal fibers for broadband dispersion compensation,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 15, 540–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K.-L.

S. Gauza, J. Li, S.-T. Wu, A. Spadlo, R. Da̧browski, Y.-N. Tzeng, and K.-L. Cheng, “High birefringence and high resistivity isothiocyanate-based nematic liquid crystal mixtures,” Liq. Cryst. 32, 1077–1085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

Y. Jeong, B. Yang, B. Lee, H.S. Seo, S. Choi, and K. Oh, “Electrically controllable long-period liquid crystal fiber gratings,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 12, 519–521 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chong, J. H.

Crawford, G.P.

G.P. Crawford, D.W. Allender, and J.W. Doane, “Surface elastic and molecular-anchoring properties of nematic liquid crystals confined to cylindrical cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8693–8710 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Da¸browski, R.

S. Gauza, J. Li, S.-T. Wu, A. Spadlo, R. Da̧browski, Y.-N. Tzeng, and K.-L. Cheng, “High birefringence and high resistivity isothiocyanate-based nematic liquid crystal mixtures,” Liq. Cryst. 32, 1077–1085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Doane, J.W.

G.P. Crawford, D.W. Allender, and J.W. Doane, “Surface elastic and molecular-anchoring properties of nematic liquid crystals confined to cylindrical cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8693–8710 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, F.

F. Du, Y.-Q. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2181–2183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Faetti, S.

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, Art. 073501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

Ferrando, A.

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, and P. Andrés, “Designing the properties of dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 9, 687–697 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-687.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ferrando and J.J. Miret, “Single-polarization single-mode intraband guidance in supersquare photonic crystal fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3184–3186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Finazzi, V.

Folkenberg, J.R.

Frazão, O.

O. Frazão, J.P. Carvalho, and H.M. Salgado, “Low-loss splice in a microstructured fibre using a conventional fusion splicer,” Microw. Opt. Tech. Let. 46, 172–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

Gauza, S.

S. Gauza, J. Li, S.-T. Wu, A. Spadlo, R. Da̧browski, Y.-N. Tzeng, and K.-L. Cheng, “High birefringence and high resistivity isothiocyanate-based nematic liquid crystal mixtures,” Liq. Cryst. 32, 1077–1085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

George, A.K.

Green, M.

Hansen, K.P.

Hansen, T.P.

Hasegawa, T.

Hermann, D.S.

Hewak, D.

Hewak, D.W.

X. Feng, A.K. Mairaj, D.W. Hewak, and T.M. Monro, “Nonsilica glasses for holey fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. 23, 2046–2054 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

B. Maune, M. Lončar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360–362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C.

Huang, W.-P.

L.P. Shen, W.-P. Huang, G.X. Chen, and S.S. Jian, “Design and optimization of photonic crystal fibers for broadband dispersion compensation,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 15, 540–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Issa, N.

Jacobsen, C.

Jeong, Y.

Y. Jeong, B. Yang, B. Lee, H.S. Seo, S. Choi, and K. Oh, “Electrically controllable long-period liquid crystal fiber gratings,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 12, 519–521 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jian, S.S.

L.P. Shen, W.-P. Huang, G.X. Chen, and S.S. Jian, “Design and optimization of photonic crystal fibers for broadband dispersion compensation,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 15, 540–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J.D.

Johnson, S.G.

Joly, N.Y.

Karakantzas, G.

Kawanishi, S.

Knight, J.C.

Korolkova, N.

S. Lorenz, Ch. Silberhorn, N. Korolkova, R.S. Windeler, and G. Leuchs, “Squeezed light from microstructured fibers: towards free-space quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 855–859 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

Kosmidou, E.P.

E.P. Kosmidou, E.E. Kriezis, and T.D. Tsiboukis, “Analysis of tunable photonic crystal devices comprising liquid crystal materials as defects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 657–665 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kriezis, E.E.

E.P. Kosmidou, E.E. Kriezis, and T.D. Tsiboukis, “Analysis of tunable photonic crystal devices comprising liquid crystal materials as defects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 657–665 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, H.

Lægsgaard, J.

Larsen, T.T.

Lee, B.

Y. Jeong, B. Yang, B. Lee, H.S. Seo, S. Choi, and K. Oh, “Electrically controllable long-period liquid crystal fiber gratings,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 12, 519–521 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leon-Saval, S.G.

Leuchs, G.

S. Lorenz, Ch. Silberhorn, N. Korolkova, R.S. Windeler, and G. Leuchs, “Squeezed light from microstructured fibers: towards free-space quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 855–859 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

S. Gauza, J. Li, S.-T. Wu, A. Spadlo, R. Da̧browski, Y.-N. Tzeng, and K.-L. Cheng, “High birefringence and high resistivity isothiocyanate-based nematic liquid crystal mixtures,” Liq. Cryst. 32, 1077–1085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, Art. 073501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T.T. Alkeskjold, J. Lægsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D.S. Hermann, J. Broeng, J. Li, and S.-T. Wu, “All-optical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 5857–5871 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5857.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

B. Maune, M. Lončar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360–362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, S.

S. Lorenz, Ch. Silberhorn, N. Korolkova, R.S. Windeler, and G. Leuchs, “Squeezed light from microstructured fibers: towards free-space quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 855–859 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.-Q.

F. Du, Y.-Q. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2181–2183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ludvigsen, H.

Madden, S.J.

Mairaj, A.K.

X. Feng, A.K. Mairaj, D.W. Hewak, and T.M. Monro, “Nonsilica glasses for holey fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. 23, 2046–2054 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maune, B.

B. Maune, M. Lončar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360–362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meucci, R.

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, Art. 073501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miret, J.J.

A. Ferrando and J.J. Miret, “Single-polarization single-mode intraband guidance in supersquare photonic crystal fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3184–3186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mogilevtsev, D.

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevtsev, S. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonic crystal fibers: a new class of optical waveguides,” Opt. Fiber Techn. 5, 305–330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T.M.

Morishita, K.

K. Morishita and S. Yutani, “Wavelength-insensitive couplers made of annealed dispersive fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 2356–2360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, N.A.

Nielsen, M. D.

Oh, K.

Y. Jeong, B. Yang, B. Lee, H.S. Seo, S. Choi, and K. Oh, “Electrically controllable long-period liquid crystal fiber gratings,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 12, 519–521 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, J.C.

Petropoulos, P.

Psaltis, D.

B. Maune, M. Lončar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360–362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

B. Maune, M. Lončar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360–362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rao, M.K.

Ritari, T.

Russell, P. St.

Russell, P.St.J.

S?rensen, T.

Saitoh, K.

Salgado, H.M.

O. Frazão, J.P. Carvalho, and H.M. Salgado, “Low-loss splice in a microstructured fibre using a conventional fusion splicer,” Microw. Opt. Tech. Let. 46, 172–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sasaoka, E.

Scherer, A.

B. Maune, M. Lončar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360–362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seo, H.S.

Y. Jeong, B. Yang, B. Lee, H.S. Seo, S. Choi, and K. Oh, “Electrically controllable long-period liquid crystal fiber gratings,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 12, 519–521 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shen, L.P.

L.P. Shen, W.-P. Huang, G.X. Chen, and S.S. Jian, “Design and optimization of photonic crystal fibers for broadband dispersion compensation,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 15, 540–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Silberhorn, Ch.

S. Lorenz, Ch. Silberhorn, N. Korolkova, R.S. Windeler, and G. Leuchs, “Squeezed light from microstructured fibers: towards free-space quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 855–859 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Silvestre, E.

Simonsen, H.R.

Spadlo, A.

S. Gauza, J. Li, S.-T. Wu, A. Spadlo, R. Da̧browski, Y.-N. Tzeng, and K.-L. Cheng, “High birefringence and high resistivity isothiocyanate-based nematic liquid crystal mixtures,” Liq. Cryst. 32, 1077–1085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

Tanaka, M.

Tsiboukis, T.D.

E.P. Kosmidou, E.E. Kriezis, and T.D. Tsiboukis, “Analysis of tunable photonic crystal devices comprising liquid crystal materials as defects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 657–665 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tuominen, J.

Tzeng, Y.-N.

S. Gauza, J. Li, S.-T. Wu, A. Spadlo, R. Da̧browski, Y.-N. Tzeng, and K.-L. Cheng, “High birefringence and high resistivity isothiocyanate-based nematic liquid crystal mixtures,” Liq. Cryst. 32, 1077–1085 (2005).
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S. Lorenz, Ch. Silberhorn, N. Korolkova, R.S. Windeler, and G. Leuchs, “Squeezed light from microstructured fibers: towards free-space quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 855–859 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Witzens, J.

B. Maune, M. Lončar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360–362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, Art. 073501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Gauza, J. Li, S.-T. Wu, A. Spadlo, R. Da̧browski, Y.-N. Tzeng, and K.-L. Cheng, “High birefringence and high resistivity isothiocyanate-based nematic liquid crystal mixtures,” Liq. Cryst. 32, 1077–1085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Du, Y.-Q. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2181–2183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T.T. Alkeskjold, J. Lægsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D.S. Hermann, J. Broeng, J. Li, and S.-T. Wu, “All-optical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 5857–5871 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5857.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, T.-L.

T.-L. Wu and C.-H. Chao, “A novel ultraflattened dispersion photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 17, 67–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Jeong, B. Yang, B. Lee, H.S. Seo, S. Choi, and K. Oh, “Electrically controllable long-period liquid crystal fiber gratings,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 12, 519–521 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yutani, S.

K. Morishita and S. Yutani, “Wavelength-insensitive couplers made of annealed dispersive fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 2356–2360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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B. Zsigri, J. Lægsgaard, and A. Bjarklev, “A novel photonic crystal fibre design for dispersion compensation,” J. Opt. A 6, 717–720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Lorenz, Ch. Silberhorn, N. Korolkova, R.S. Windeler, and G. Leuchs, “Squeezed light from microstructured fibers: towards free-space quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 855–859 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

F. Du, Y.-Q. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2181–2183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Maune, M. Lončar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360–362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrando and J.J. Miret, “Single-polarization single-mode intraband guidance in supersquare photonic crystal fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3184–3186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. (2)

X. Feng, A.K. Mairaj, D.W. Hewak, and T.M. Monro, “Nonsilica glasses for holey fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. 23, 2046–2054 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Morishita and S. Yutani, “Wavelength-insensitive couplers made of annealed dispersive fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 2356–2360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E.P. Kosmidou, E.E. Kriezis, and T.D. Tsiboukis, “Analysis of tunable photonic crystal devices comprising liquid crystal materials as defects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 657–665 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. (4)

Y. Jeong, B. Yang, B. Lee, H.S. Seo, S. Choi, and K. Oh, “Electrically controllable long-period liquid crystal fiber gratings,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 12, 519–521 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Single-polarization single-mode photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 15, 1384–1386 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T.-L. Wu and C.-H. Chao, “A novel ultraflattened dispersion photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 17, 67–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L.P. Shen, W.-P. Huang, G.X. Chen, and S.S. Jian, “Design and optimization of photonic crystal fibers for broadband dispersion compensation,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Let. 15, 540–543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, Art. 073501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

B. Zsigri, J. Lægsgaard, and A. Bjarklev, “A novel photonic crystal fibre design for dispersion compensation,” J. Opt. A 6, 717–720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

JETP (1)

S.V. Burylov, “Equilibrium configuration of a nematic liquid crystal confined to a cylindrical cavity,” JETP 85, 873–886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

S. Gauza, J. Li, S.-T. Wu, A. Spadlo, R. Da̧browski, Y.-N. Tzeng, and K.-L. Cheng, “High birefringence and high resistivity isothiocyanate-based nematic liquid crystal mixtures,” Liq. Cryst. 32, 1077–1085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Microw. Opt. Tech. Let. (1)

O. Frazão, J.P. Carvalho, and H.M. Salgado, “Low-loss splice in a microstructured fibre using a conventional fusion splicer,” Microw. Opt. Tech. Let. 46, 172–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (11)

J. H. Chong and M.K. Rao, “Development of a system for laser splicing photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 1365–1370 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-12-1365.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, “Optical properties of a low-loss polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 9, 676–680 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-676.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Feng, T.M. Monro, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, and D. Hewak, “Solid microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 2225–2230 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2225.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.T. Alkeskjold, J. Lægsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D.S. Hermann, J. Broeng, J. Li, and S.-T. Wu, “All-optical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 5857–5871 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5857.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D.S. Hermann, and J. Broeng, “Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 11, 2589–2596 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-20-2589.
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S.G. Johnson and J.D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8, 173–190 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-3-173.
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K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, and E. Sasaoka, “Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: application to ultra-flattened dispersion,” Opt. Express 11, 843–852 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-843.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, and P. Andrés, “Designing the properties of dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 9, 687–697 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-687.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.P. Hansen, “Dispersion flattened hybrid-core nonlinear photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 1503–1509 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-13-1503.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Nielsen, C. Jacobsen, N.A. Mortensen, J.R. Folkenberg, and H.R. Simonsen, “Low-loss photonic crystal fibers for transmission systems and their dispersion properties,” Opt. Express 12, 1372–1376 (2004),http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-7-1372.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J.C. Petersen, T. Sϕrensen, T.P. Hansen, and H.R. Simonsen, “Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 4080–4087 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-17-4080.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Techn. (1)

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevtsev, S. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonic crystal fibers: a new class of optical waveguides,” Opt. Fiber Techn. 5, 305–330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G.P. Crawford, D.W. Allender, and J.W. Doane, “Surface elastic and molecular-anchoring properties of nematic liquid crystals confined to cylindrical cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8693–8710 (1992).
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Other (3)

S.G. Johnson and J.D. Joannopoulos, “The MIT Photonic-Bands Package,” http://ab-initio.mit.edu/mpb/.

B. BahadurLiquid crystals: applications and uses, vol. 1 (World Scientific Publishing, 1990).
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M.J. Weber, Handbook of optical materials (CRC Press, 2003).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross-sectional view of the proposed type of PC-LC fiber: hole-to-hole spacing Λ, hole radius r, and central defect core diameter dc . The figure corresponds to parameters r = 0.2Λ, and dc = Λ.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dispersion curve for the degenerate HEx and HEy modes of a triangular lattice PCF with r = 0.2Λ and ng = 1.68. The notations nFSM eff and n(eff) (1) refer to the effective indices of the FSM mode and the first higher order mode, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The planar-polar director profile at the strong (a) and the weak (b) anchoring limit.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Layout for arbitrarily controlling the orientation of the nematic director profile in the xOy plane: for instance, uniform x-parallel alignment (Vx = V 0, Vy = 0), and uniform y-parallel alignment (Vy =V 0, Vx = 0).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dispersion curves for the fundamental HEx and HEy modes and radiation line for the PC-LC fiber of Fig. 4 in the planar polar weak anchoring limit case for rdef - 0.5Λ and r = 0.2Λ. As noticed, the fiber exhibits both endlessly single-mode and single-polarization behavior.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Modal intensity profiles at Λ/λ = 1.5 for the fundamental y- and x-polarized modes for the dispersion curves of Fig. 5: a) HEy mode for rdef = 0.5Λ, b) HEx mode for rdef = 0.5Λ. The air hole radius is r = 0.2Λ. The HEy mode, which senses a homogenous core of ne = 1.68, shows a regular hexagonal profile. On the contrary, the HEX mode radiates into the cladding.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Dispersion curves for the fundamental HEx and HEy modes and radiation line for the planar polar weak anchoring limit case. HEx mode curves correspond to different rdef values.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Modal intensity profiles at Λ/λ = 1.5 for the fundamental x-polarized mode for different radii of the defect core: a) rdef = 0.1 Λ, b) rdef = 0.15Λ, c) rdef = 0.2Λ, and d) rdef - 0.25Λ. The radius of the air holes is kept constant at r = 0.2Λ.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Modal birefringence of the fundamental HEx and HEy modes for rdef = 0.1Λ, 0.15Λ, 0.2Λ, and 0.25λ.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Modal dispersion curves for (a) ng = 1.67 and (b) ng = 1.69. The parameters used in both cases are r = 0.2Λ, rdef = 0.4Λ, no = 1.5, and ne = 1.68.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

The escaped - radial profile at the strong (a) and the weak (b) anchoring limit.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Dispersion curves for the axial director profile case for rdef = 0.5Λ and r = 0.2Λ. The fiber operates in an off-state since all supported modes are evanescent.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 ψ r ϕ r 2 + 1 r ψ r ϕ r + 1 r 2 2 ψ r ϕ ϕ 2 = 0 ,
ψ r ϕ = π 2 tan 1 [ ( R 2 + γr 2 ) ( R 2 γr 2 ) tan ϕ ] ,
n eff , x core = n e [ 1 ( 2 r def Λ ) 2 ] + n o ( 2 r def Λ ) 2 , λ > > Λ .
ψ r ϕ = 0 ,
θ ( r ) = π 2 2 tan 1 ( r R tan ( a 2 ) ) ,

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