Abstract

We demonstrate image transfer by a cascaded stack consisting of two and three triangular-lattice photonic crystal slabs separated by air. The quality of the image transfered by the stack is sensitive to the air/photonic crystal interface termination and the frequency. Depending on the frequency and the surface termination, the image can be transfered by the stack with very little deterioration of the resolution, that is the resolution of the final image is approximately the same as the resolution of the image formed behind one single photonic crystal slab.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  6. R.W. Ziolkowski, “Wave propagation in media having negative permittivity and permeability,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 056625 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  7. R.W. Ziolkowski, “Pulsed and CW Gaussian beam interactions with double negative metamaterial slabs,” Opt. Express 11, 662–681 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-7-662.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. I.V. Lindell, S.A. Tretyakov, K.I. Nikoskinen, and S. Ilvonen, “BW media- media with negative parameters, capable of supporting backward waves,” Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 31, 129–133 (2001).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. S. Xiao, M. Qiu, Z. Ruan, and S. He, “Influence of the surface termination to the point imaging by a photonic crystal slab with negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4269–4271 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  30. X. Zhang, “Image resolution depending on slab thickness and object distance in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 195110 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  31. X. Wang and K. Kempa, “Effects of disorder on subwavelength lensing in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085101 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  32. X. Wang, Z.F. Ren, and K. Kempa, “Improved superlensing in two-dimensional photonic crystals with a basis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 061105 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  33. A. Martinez and J. Marti, “Analysis of wave focusing inside a negative-index photonic-crystal slab,” Opt. Express 13, 2858–2868 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-8-2858.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. C. Luo, S.G. Johnson, J.D. Joannopoulos, and J.B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  35. S. He and Z. Ruan, “A completely open cavity realized with photonic crystal wedges,” J. Zhejiang Univ. SCI 6A, 355–357 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  36. Z. Ruan and S. He, “Open cavity formed by a photonic crystal with negative effective index of refraction,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2308–2310 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. S. He, Y. Jin, Z. Ruan, and J. Kuang, “On subwavelength and open resonators involving metamaterials of negative refraction index,” New Journal of Physics 7, 210 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  38. J.S. Kole, M.T. Figge, and H. De Raedt, “Unconditionally stable algorithms to solve the time-dependent Maxwell equations,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 066705 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  39. A. Taflove and S.C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 3rd edition, (Artech House, MA USA, 2005).
  40. S.G. Johnson and J.D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8, 173–190 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-3-173.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He, and L. Thylén, “Coupling between plane waves and Bloch waves in photonic crystals with negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045111 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2005 (8)

E. Ozbay, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, H. Caglayan, K.B. Alici, and K. Guven, “Highly directive radiation and negative refraction using photonic crystals,” Laser Phys. 15, 217–224 (2005).

X. Wang and K. Kempa, “Effects of disorder on subwavelength lensing in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085101 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Z.F. Ren, and K. Kempa, “Improved superlensing in two-dimensional photonic crystals with a basis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 061105 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez and J. Marti, “Analysis of wave focusing inside a negative-index photonic-crystal slab,” Opt. Express 13, 2858–2868 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-8-2858.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. He and Z. Ruan, “A completely open cavity realized with photonic crystal wedges,” J. Zhejiang Univ. SCI 6A, 355–357 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. Ruan and S. He, “Open cavity formed by a photonic crystal with negative effective index of refraction,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2308–2310 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. He, Y. Jin, Z. Ruan, and J. Kuang, “On subwavelength and open resonators involving metamaterials of negative refraction index,” New Journal of Physics 7, 210 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He, and L. Thylén, “Coupling between plane waves and Bloch waves in photonic crystals with negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045111 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (9)

X. Wang, Z.F. Ren, and K. Kempa, “Unrestricted superlensing in a triangular two dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 12, 2919–2924 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2919.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, M. Qiu, Z. Ruan, and S. He, “Influence of the surface termination to the point imaging by a photonic crystal slab with negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4269–4271 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, “Image resolution depending on slab thickness and object distance in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 195110 (2004).
[Crossref]

P.F. Loschialpo, D.W. Forester, D.L. Smith, F.J. Rachford, and C. Monzon, “Optical properties of an ideal homogeneous causal left-handed material slab,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 036605 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, “Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, H. Miguez, A. Griol, and J. Marti, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the self-focusing of light by a photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165119 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K.B. Alici, C.M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125 (2004).
[Crossref]

J.B. Pendry and D.R. Smith, “Reversing light with negative refraction,” Phys. Today 57, 37–43 (2004).
[Crossref]

J.B. Brock, A.A. Houck, and I.L. Chuang, “Focusing inside negative index materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2472–2474 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

S. Foteinopoulou, E.N. Economou, and C.M. Soukoulis, “Refraction in media with a negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.W. Ziolkowski, “Pulsed and CW Gaussian beam interactions with double negative metamaterial slabs,” Opt. Express 11, 662–681 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-7-662.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.F. Loschialpo, D.L. Smith, D.W. Forester, F.J. Rachford, and J. Schelleng, “Electromagnetic waves focused by a negative-index planar lens,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 025602 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

I.V. Lindell and S. Ilvonen, “Waves in a slab of uniaxial BW medium,” J. of Electromagn. Waves and Appl. 16, 303–318 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Notomi, “Negative refraction in photonic crystals,” Opt. Quant. Electr. 34, 133–143 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Luo, S.G. Johnson, J.D. Joannopoulos, and J.B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (4)

J.S. Kole, M.T. Figge, and H. De Raedt, “Unconditionally stable algorithms to solve the time-dependent Maxwell equations,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 066705 (2001).
[Crossref]

S.G. Johnson and J.D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8, 173–190 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-3-173.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I.V. Lindell, S.A. Tretyakov, K.I. Nikoskinen, and S. Ilvonen, “BW media- media with negative parameters, capable of supporting backward waves,” Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 31, 129–133 (2001).
[Crossref]

R.W. Ziolkowski, “Wave propagation in media having negative permittivity and permeability,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 056625 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

A. Bers, “Note on group velocity and energy propagation”, Am. J. Phys. 68, 482–484 (2000).
[Crossref]

J.B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, “Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696–10705 (2000).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

R.A. Silin, “Possibility of creating plane-parallel lenses,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 44, 109- (1978). [Translation from the original Russian version in Opt. Spektrosk. 44, 189–191 (1978).]

1968 (1)

V.G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509–514 (1968). [Translation from the original Russion version in Usp. Fiz. Nauk.  92, 517–526 (1967). This year was mislabeled in the translation as 1964.].
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

A.A. Oliner and T. Tamir, “Backward waves on isotropic plasma slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 33, 231–233 (1962).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

P.E. Mayes, G.A. Deschamps, and W.T. Patton, “Backward-wave radiation from periodic structures and application to the design of frequency-independent antennas,” Proc. IRE 49, 962–963 (1961).

1905 (1)

H.C. Pocklington, “Growth of a wave-group when the group-velocity is negative,” Nature 71, 607–608 (1905).
[Crossref]

1904 (1)

H. Lamb, “On group-velocity,” Proc. London Math. Soc. 1, 473–479 (1904).
[Crossref]

Alici, K.B.

E. Ozbay, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, H. Caglayan, K.B. Alici, and K. Guven, “Highly directive radiation and negative refraction using photonic crystals,” Laser Phys. 15, 217–224 (2005).

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K.B. Alici, C.M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125 (2004).
[Crossref]

Altman, J.L.

J.L. Altman, Microwave circuits, (Van Nostrand, Princeton, NJ, 1964), chap.7, p.304.

Anand, S.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, “Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

E. Ozbay, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, H. Caglayan, K.B. Alici, and K. Guven, “Highly directive radiation and negative refraction using photonic crystals,” Laser Phys. 15, 217–224 (2005).

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K.B. Alici, C.M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125 (2004).
[Crossref]

Berrier, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, “Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bers, A.

A. Bers, “Note on group velocity and energy propagation”, Am. J. Phys. 68, 482–484 (2000).
[Crossref]

Brock, J.B.

J.B. Brock, A.A. Houck, and I.L. Chuang, “Focusing inside negative index materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2472–2474 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bulu, I.

E. Ozbay, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, H. Caglayan, K.B. Alici, and K. Guven, “Highly directive radiation and negative refraction using photonic crystals,” Laser Phys. 15, 217–224 (2005).

Caglayan, H.

E. Ozbay, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, H. Caglayan, K.B. Alici, and K. Guven, “Highly directive radiation and negative refraction using photonic crystals,” Laser Phys. 15, 217–224 (2005).

Chuang, I.L.

J.B. Brock, A.A. Houck, and I.L. Chuang, “Focusing inside negative index materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2472–2474 (2004).
[Crossref]

Collin, R.E.

R.E. Collin, Foundations for vmicrowave engineering, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).

De Raedt, H.

J.S. Kole, M.T. Figge, and H. De Raedt, “Unconditionally stable algorithms to solve the time-dependent Maxwell equations,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 066705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Deschamps, G.A.

P.E. Mayes, G.A. Deschamps, and W.T. Patton, “Backward-wave radiation from periodic structures and application to the design of frequency-independent antennas,” Proc. IRE 49, 962–963 (1961).

Economou, E.N.

S. Foteinopoulou, E.N. Economou, and C.M. Soukoulis, “Refraction in media with a negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Figge, M.T.

J.S. Kole, M.T. Figge, and H. De Raedt, “Unconditionally stable algorithms to solve the time-dependent Maxwell equations,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 066705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Forester, D.W.

P.F. Loschialpo, D.W. Forester, D.L. Smith, F.J. Rachford, and C. Monzon, “Optical properties of an ideal homogeneous causal left-handed material slab,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 036605 (2004).
[Crossref]

P.F. Loschialpo, D.L. Smith, D.W. Forester, F.J. Rachford, and J. Schelleng, “Electromagnetic waves focused by a negative-index planar lens,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 025602 (2003).
[Crossref]

Foteinopoulou, S.

S. Foteinopoulou, E.N. Economou, and C.M. Soukoulis, “Refraction in media with a negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Griol, A.

A. Martinez, H. Miguez, A. Griol, and J. Marti, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the self-focusing of light by a photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165119 (2004).
[Crossref]

Guven, K.

E. Ozbay, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, H. Caglayan, K.B. Alici, and K. Guven, “Highly directive radiation and negative refraction using photonic crystals,” Laser Phys. 15, 217–224 (2005).

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K.B. Alici, C.M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hagness, S.C.

A. Taflove and S.C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 3rd edition, (Artech House, MA USA, 2005).

He, S.

S. He, Y. Jin, Z. Ruan, and J. Kuang, “On subwavelength and open resonators involving metamaterials of negative refraction index,” New Journal of Physics 7, 210 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. He and Z. Ruan, “A completely open cavity realized with photonic crystal wedges,” J. Zhejiang Univ. SCI 6A, 355–357 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He, and L. Thylén, “Coupling between plane waves and Bloch waves in photonic crystals with negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. Ruan and S. He, “Open cavity formed by a photonic crystal with negative effective index of refraction,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2308–2310 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, M. Qiu, Z. Ruan, and S. He, “Influence of the surface termination to the point imaging by a photonic crystal slab with negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4269–4271 (2004).
[Crossref]

Houck, A.A.

J.B. Brock, A.A. Houck, and I.L. Chuang, “Focusing inside negative index materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2472–2474 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hutter, R.G.E.

R.G.E. Hutter, Beam and wave electronics in microwave tubes, (Van Nostrand, Princeton, NJ, 1960), p.220.

Ilvonen, S.

I.V. Lindell and S. Ilvonen, “Waves in a slab of uniaxial BW medium,” J. of Electromagn. Waves and Appl. 16, 303–318 (2002).
[Crossref]

I.V. Lindell, S.A. Tretyakov, K.I. Nikoskinen, and S. Ilvonen, “BW media- media with negative parameters, capable of supporting backward waves,” Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 31, 129–133 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

S. He, Y. Jin, Z. Ruan, and J. Kuang, “On subwavelength and open resonators involving metamaterials of negative refraction index,” New Journal of Physics 7, 210 (2005).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J.D.

Johnson, S.G.

Kempa, K.

X. Wang, Z.F. Ren, and K. Kempa, “Improved superlensing in two-dimensional photonic crystals with a basis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 061105 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Wang and K. Kempa, “Effects of disorder on subwavelength lensing in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085101 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Z.F. Ren, and K. Kempa, “Unrestricted superlensing in a triangular two dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 12, 2919–2924 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2919.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kole, J.S.

J.S. Kole, M.T. Figge, and H. De Raedt, “Unconditionally stable algorithms to solve the time-dependent Maxwell equations,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 066705 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kuang, J.

S. He, Y. Jin, Z. Ruan, and J. Kuang, “On subwavelength and open resonators involving metamaterials of negative refraction index,” New Journal of Physics 7, 210 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lamb, H.

H. Lamb, “On group-velocity,” Proc. London Math. Soc. 1, 473–479 (1904).
[Crossref]

Lindell, I.V.

I.V. Lindell and S. Ilvonen, “Waves in a slab of uniaxial BW medium,” J. of Electromagn. Waves and Appl. 16, 303–318 (2002).
[Crossref]

I.V. Lindell, S.A. Tretyakov, K.I. Nikoskinen, and S. Ilvonen, “BW media- media with negative parameters, capable of supporting backward waves,” Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 31, 129–133 (2001).
[Crossref]

Loschialpo, P.F.

P.F. Loschialpo, D.W. Forester, D.L. Smith, F.J. Rachford, and C. Monzon, “Optical properties of an ideal homogeneous causal left-handed material slab,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 036605 (2004).
[Crossref]

P.F. Loschialpo, D.L. Smith, D.W. Forester, F.J. Rachford, and J. Schelleng, “Electromagnetic waves focused by a negative-index planar lens,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 025602 (2003).
[Crossref]

Luo, C.

C. Luo, S.G. Johnson, J.D. Joannopoulos, and J.B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[Crossref]

Marti, J.

A. Martinez and J. Marti, “Analysis of wave focusing inside a negative-index photonic-crystal slab,” Opt. Express 13, 2858–2868 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-8-2858.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, H. Miguez, A. Griol, and J. Marti, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the self-focusing of light by a photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165119 (2004).
[Crossref]

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez and J. Marti, “Analysis of wave focusing inside a negative-index photonic-crystal slab,” Opt. Express 13, 2858–2868 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-8-2858.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, H. Miguez, A. Griol, and J. Marti, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the self-focusing of light by a photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165119 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mayes, P.E.

P.E. Mayes, G.A. Deschamps, and W.T. Patton, “Backward-wave radiation from periodic structures and application to the design of frequency-independent antennas,” Proc. IRE 49, 962–963 (1961).

Miguez, H.

A. Martinez, H. Miguez, A. Griol, and J. Marti, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the self-focusing of light by a photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165119 (2004).
[Crossref]

Monzon, C.

P.F. Loschialpo, D.W. Forester, D.L. Smith, F.J. Rachford, and C. Monzon, “Optical properties of an ideal homogeneous causal left-handed material slab,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 036605 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mulot, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, “Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nikoskinen, K.I.

I.V. Lindell, S.A. Tretyakov, K.I. Nikoskinen, and S. Ilvonen, “BW media- media with negative parameters, capable of supporting backward waves,” Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 31, 129–133 (2001).
[Crossref]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, “Negative refraction in photonic crystals,” Opt. Quant. Electr. 34, 133–143 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Notomi, “Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696–10705 (2000).
[Crossref]

Oliner, A.A.

A.A. Oliner and T. Tamir, “Backward waves on isotropic plasma slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 33, 231–233 (1962).
[Crossref]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, H. Caglayan, K.B. Alici, and K. Guven, “Highly directive radiation and negative refraction using photonic crystals,” Laser Phys. 15, 217–224 (2005).

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K.B. Alici, C.M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125 (2004).
[Crossref]

Patton, W.T.

P.E. Mayes, G.A. Deschamps, and W.T. Patton, “Backward-wave radiation from periodic structures and application to the design of frequency-independent antennas,” Proc. IRE 49, 962–963 (1961).

Pendry, J.B.

J.B. Pendry and D.R. Smith, “Reversing light with negative refraction,” Phys. Today 57, 37–43 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Luo, S.G. Johnson, J.D. Joannopoulos, and J.B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[Crossref]

J.B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pocklington, H.C.

H.C. Pocklington, “Growth of a wave-group when the group-velocity is negative,” Nature 71, 607–608 (1905).
[Crossref]

Qiu, M.

Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He, and L. Thylén, “Coupling between plane waves and Bloch waves in photonic crystals with negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045111 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, “Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, M. Qiu, Z. Ruan, and S. He, “Influence of the surface termination to the point imaging by a photonic crystal slab with negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4269–4271 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rachford, F.J.

P.F. Loschialpo, D.W. Forester, D.L. Smith, F.J. Rachford, and C. Monzon, “Optical properties of an ideal homogeneous causal left-handed material slab,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 036605 (2004).
[Crossref]

P.F. Loschialpo, D.L. Smith, D.W. Forester, F.J. Rachford, and J. Schelleng, “Electromagnetic waves focused by a negative-index planar lens,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 025602 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ren, Z.F.

Ruan, Z.

Z. Ruan and S. He, “Open cavity formed by a photonic crystal with negative effective index of refraction,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2308–2310 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. He and Z. Ruan, “A completely open cavity realized with photonic crystal wedges,” J. Zhejiang Univ. SCI 6A, 355–357 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. He, Y. Jin, Z. Ruan, and J. Kuang, “On subwavelength and open resonators involving metamaterials of negative refraction index,” New Journal of Physics 7, 210 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He, and L. Thylén, “Coupling between plane waves and Bloch waves in photonic crystals with negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045111 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao, M. Qiu, Z. Ruan, and S. He, “Influence of the surface termination to the point imaging by a photonic crystal slab with negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4269–4271 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schelleng, J.

P.F. Loschialpo, D.L. Smith, D.W. Forester, F.J. Rachford, and J. Schelleng, “Electromagnetic waves focused by a negative-index planar lens,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 025602 (2003).
[Crossref]

Silin, R.A.

R.A. Silin, “Possibility of creating plane-parallel lenses,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 44, 109- (1978). [Translation from the original Russian version in Opt. Spektrosk. 44, 189–191 (1978).]

Smith, D.L.

P.F. Loschialpo, D.W. Forester, D.L. Smith, F.J. Rachford, and C. Monzon, “Optical properties of an ideal homogeneous causal left-handed material slab,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 036605 (2004).
[Crossref]

P.F. Loschialpo, D.L. Smith, D.W. Forester, F.J. Rachford, and J. Schelleng, “Electromagnetic waves focused by a negative-index planar lens,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 025602 (2003).
[Crossref]

Smith, D.R.

J.B. Pendry and D.R. Smith, “Reversing light with negative refraction,” Phys. Today 57, 37–43 (2004).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C.M.

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K.B. Alici, C.M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Foteinopoulou, E.N. Economou, and C.M. Soukoulis, “Refraction in media with a negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swillo, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, “Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove and S.C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 3rd edition, (Artech House, MA USA, 2005).

Talneau, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, “Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tamir, T.

A.A. Oliner and T. Tamir, “Backward waves on isotropic plasma slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 33, 231–233 (1962).
[Crossref]

Thylén, L.

Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He, and L. Thylén, “Coupling between plane waves and Bloch waves in photonic crystals with negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045111 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, “Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tretyakov, S.A.

I.V. Lindell, S.A. Tretyakov, K.I. Nikoskinen, and S. Ilvonen, “BW media- media with negative parameters, capable of supporting backward waves,” Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 31, 129–133 (2001).
[Crossref]

Veselago, V.G.

V.G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509–514 (1968). [Translation from the original Russion version in Usp. Fiz. Nauk.  92, 517–526 (1967). This year was mislabeled in the translation as 1964.].
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Z.F. Ren, and K. Kempa, “Improved superlensing in two-dimensional photonic crystals with a basis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 061105 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Wang and K. Kempa, “Effects of disorder on subwavelength lensing in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085101 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Z.F. Ren, and K. Kempa, “Unrestricted superlensing in a triangular two dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 12, 2919–2924 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2919.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He, and L. Thylén, “Coupling between plane waves and Bloch waves in photonic crystals with negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045111 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao, M. Qiu, Z. Ruan, and S. He, “Influence of the surface termination to the point imaging by a photonic crystal slab with negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4269–4271 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, “Image resolution depending on slab thickness and object distance in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 195110 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ziolkowski, R.W.

Am. J. Phys. (1)

A. Bers, “Note on group velocity and energy propagation”, Am. J. Phys. 68, 482–484 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J.B. Brock, A.A. Houck, and I.L. Chuang, “Focusing inside negative index materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2472–2474 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao, M. Qiu, Z. Ruan, and S. He, “Influence of the surface termination to the point imaging by a photonic crystal slab with negative refraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4269–4271 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Z.F. Ren, and K. Kempa, “Improved superlensing in two-dimensional photonic crystals with a basis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 061105 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A.A. Oliner and T. Tamir, “Backward waves on isotropic plasma slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 33, 231–233 (1962).
[Crossref]

J. of Electromagn. Waves and Appl. (1)

I.V. Lindell and S. Ilvonen, “Waves in a slab of uniaxial BW medium,” J. of Electromagn. Waves and Appl. 16, 303–318 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Zhejiang Univ. SCI (1)

S. He and Z. Ruan, “A completely open cavity realized with photonic crystal wedges,” J. Zhejiang Univ. SCI 6A, 355–357 (2005).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

E. Ozbay, I. Bulu, K. Aydin, H. Caglayan, K.B. Alici, and K. Guven, “Highly directive radiation and negative refraction using photonic crystals,” Laser Phys. 15, 217–224 (2005).

Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. (1)

I.V. Lindell, S.A. Tretyakov, K.I. Nikoskinen, and S. Ilvonen, “BW media- media with negative parameters, capable of supporting backward waves,” Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 31, 129–133 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

H.C. Pocklington, “Growth of a wave-group when the group-velocity is negative,” Nature 71, 607–608 (1905).
[Crossref]

New Journal of Physics (1)

S. He, Y. Jin, Z. Ruan, and J. Kuang, “On subwavelength and open resonators involving metamaterials of negative refraction index,” New Journal of Physics 7, 210 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quant. Electr. (1)

M. Notomi, “Negative refraction in photonic crystals,” Opt. Quant. Electr. 34, 133–143 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (1)

R.A. Silin, “Possibility of creating plane-parallel lenses,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 44, 109- (1978). [Translation from the original Russian version in Opt. Spektrosk. 44, 189–191 (1978).]

Phys. Rev. B (7)

A. Martinez, H. Miguez, A. Griol, and J. Marti, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the self-focusing of light by a photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165119 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K.B. Alici, C.M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Notomi, “Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696–10705 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. Luo, S.G. Johnson, J.D. Joannopoulos, and J.B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, “Image resolution depending on slab thickness and object distance in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 195110 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. Wang and K. Kempa, “Effects of disorder on subwavelength lensing in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He, and L. Thylén, “Coupling between plane waves and Bloch waves in photonic crystals with negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 045111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (4)

J.S. Kole, M.T. Figge, and H. De Raedt, “Unconditionally stable algorithms to solve the time-dependent Maxwell equations,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 066705 (2001).
[Crossref]

P.F. Loschialpo, D.L. Smith, D.W. Forester, F.J. Rachford, and J. Schelleng, “Electromagnetic waves focused by a negative-index planar lens,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 025602 (2003).
[Crossref]

P.F. Loschialpo, D.W. Forester, D.L. Smith, F.J. Rachford, and C. Monzon, “Optical properties of an ideal homogeneous causal left-handed material slab,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 036605 (2004).
[Crossref]

R.W. Ziolkowski, “Wave propagation in media having negative permittivity and permeability,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 056625 (2001).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. Foteinopoulou, E.N. Economou, and C.M. Soukoulis, “Refraction in media with a negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, “Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

J.B. Pendry and D.R. Smith, “Reversing light with negative refraction,” Phys. Today 57, 37–43 (2004).
[Crossref]

Proc. IRE (1)

P.E. Mayes, G.A. Deschamps, and W.T. Patton, “Backward-wave radiation from periodic structures and application to the design of frequency-independent antennas,” Proc. IRE 49, 962–963 (1961).

Proc. London Math. Soc. (1)

H. Lamb, “On group-velocity,” Proc. London Math. Soc. 1, 473–479 (1904).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V.G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509–514 (1968). [Translation from the original Russion version in Usp. Fiz. Nauk.  92, 517–526 (1967). This year was mislabeled in the translation as 1964.].
[Crossref]

Other (5)

J.L. Altman, Microwave circuits, (Van Nostrand, Princeton, NJ, 1964), chap.7, p.304.

R.E. Collin, Foundations for vmicrowave engineering, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).

R.G.E. Hutter, Beam and wave electronics in microwave tubes, (Van Nostrand, Princeton, NJ, 1960), p.220.

http://www.wave-scattering.com/negative.html.

A. Taflove and S.C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 3rd edition, (Artech House, MA USA, 2005).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Left: Equifrequency surface plot of TM modes for a triangular lattice photonic crystal consisting of air holes with a radius of r = 0.4a, drilled in a dielectric medium (ε = 12.96, μ = 1) for the frequency range f = 0.26 - 0.33. The first Brillouin zone of a triangular lattice (dotted line) and the symmetry points are also shown. Right: Effective refractive index as a function of the angle θ of the incoming wave vector k for the frequency range f = 0.26 - 0.33.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Left: Intensity of the electric field of a TM wave with frequency f = 0.299, generated by a point source placed in front of a cascaded stack composed of two PhC slabs with an air layer in between. For the description of the imaging system we refer to the text. The blue lines indicate the propagation directions according to Snell’s law for a homogeneous slab with = -1. Intensities are plotted on a log10 scale. The field intensities are scaled between 0 and 1. Because the transmitted intensity is low, the intensities are scaled different for the regions to the left of the stack, in between the slabs, behind the stack and inside the slabs. Right: Amplitude of the electric field. The electric field amplitudes are plotted on a linear scale ranging from -1 to +1 (blue: Negative values, red: Positive values) and are scaled different for the regions to the left of the stack, in between the slabs, behind the stack and inside the slabs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Same as the left panel of Fig. 2 for f = 0.300 (left) and for air/PhC interfaces that are not cut (right).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Same as the left panel of Fig. 2 for a cascaded stack with three PhC slabs. For the description of the imaging system we refer to the text.

Equations (1)

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J ( r , t ) = n θ ( t ) δ ( r r 0 ) sin ωt ,

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