Abstract

We have applied the graphics processing unit (GPU) to computer generated holograms (CGH) to overcome the high computational cost of CGH and have compared the speed of a GPU implementation to a standard CPU implementation. The calculation speed of a GPU (GeForce 6600, nVIDIA) was found to be about 47 times faster than that of a personal computer with a Pentium 4 processor. Our system can realize real-time reconstruction of a 64-point 3-D object at video rate using a liquid-crystal display of resolution 800×600.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. S. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jesen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler,“Electonic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212–20, 174–182 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Tricoles, “Computer generated holograms: an historical review,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4351–4360 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Lucente, “Interactive Computation of Holograms Using a Look-Up Table,” J. Electron. Imaging 2, 28–34 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Yoshikawa, S. Iwase, and T. Oneda, “Fast computation of Fresnel holograms employing difference,” Proc. SPIE 3956, 48–55 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Matsushima and M. Takai, “Fast computation of Fresnel holograms employing difference,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6587–6594 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Shimobaba and T. Ito, “An efficient computational method suitable for hardware of computer-generated hologram with phase computation by addition,” Comp. Phys. Commun. 138, 44–52 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. A. Watlington, M. Lucente, C. J. Sparrell, V. M. Bove, and I. Tamitani, “A hardware architecture for rapid generation of electro-holographic fringe patterns,” Proc. SPIE 2406–23, 172–183 (1995).
  8. M. Lucente and T. A. Galyean, “Rendering interactive holographic images,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 95, 387–394 (1995).
  9. M. Lucente “Diffraction-Specific Fringe Computation for Electro-Holography,” Ph. D. Thesis, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, (1994)
  10. M. Lucente. “Computational holographic bandwidth compression,” IBM Systems Journal,  35, 349–365, (1996)
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Ito, N. Masuda, K. Yoshimura, A. Shiraki, T. Shimobaba, and T. Sugie, “A special-purpose computer for electroholography HORN-5 to realize a real-time reconstruction,” Opt. Express,  13, 1923–1932(2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-6-1923
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Bolz, I. Farmer, E. Grinspun, and P. Schoder, “Sparse Matrix Solvers on the GPU:Conjugate Gradients and Multigrid,” SIGGRAPH 03 Proceedings (2003).
  13. C. Thompson, S. Hahn, and M. Oskin, “Using Modern Graphics Architectures for General-Purpose Computing : A Framework and Analysis,” Proceedings of 35th International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO-35), 306–320(2002).
  14. J. Krüger and R. Westermann, “Linear Algebra Operators for GPU Implementation of Numerical Algorithms,” SIGGRAPH 03 Proceedings (2003).
  15. nVIDIA corporation, “GPU Gems,” Addison Wesley (2004).
  16. V. M. Bove, W. J. Plesniak, T. Quentmeyer, and J. Barabas “Real-Time Holographic Video Images with Commodity PC Hardware,” Proc. SPIE Stereoscopic Displays and Applications,  5664A (2005).

2005 (2)

V. M. Bove, W. J. Plesniak, T. Quentmeyer, and J. Barabas “Real-Time Holographic Video Images with Commodity PC Hardware,” Proc. SPIE Stereoscopic Displays and Applications,  5664A (2005).

T. Ito, N. Masuda, K. Yoshimura, A. Shiraki, T. Shimobaba, and T. Sugie, “A special-purpose computer for electroholography HORN-5 to realize a real-time reconstruction,” Opt. Express,  13, 1923–1932(2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-6-1923
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. Thompson, S. Hahn, and M. Oskin, “Using Modern Graphics Architectures for General-Purpose Computing : A Framework and Analysis,” Proceedings of 35th International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO-35), 306–320(2002).

2001 (1)

T. Shimobaba and T. Ito, “An efficient computational method suitable for hardware of computer-generated hologram with phase computation by addition,” Comp. Phys. Commun. 138, 44–52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

H. Yoshikawa, S. Iwase, and T. Oneda, “Fast computation of Fresnel holograms employing difference,” Proc. SPIE 3956, 48–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Matsushima and M. Takai, “Fast computation of Fresnel holograms employing difference,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6587–6594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Lucente. “Computational holographic bandwidth compression,” IBM Systems Journal,  35, 349–365, (1996)
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

J. A. Watlington, M. Lucente, C. J. Sparrell, V. M. Bove, and I. Tamitani, “A hardware architecture for rapid generation of electro-holographic fringe patterns,” Proc. SPIE 2406–23, 172–183 (1995).

M. Lucente and T. A. Galyean, “Rendering interactive holographic images,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 95, 387–394 (1995).

1993 (1)

M. Lucente, “Interactive Computation of Holograms Using a Look-Up Table,” J. Electron. Imaging 2, 28–34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

P. S. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jesen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler,“Electonic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212–20, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Barabas, J.

V. M. Bove, W. J. Plesniak, T. Quentmeyer, and J. Barabas “Real-Time Holographic Video Images with Commodity PC Hardware,” Proc. SPIE Stereoscopic Displays and Applications,  5664A (2005).

Benton, S. A.

P. S. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jesen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler,“Electonic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212–20, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bolz, J.

J. Bolz, I. Farmer, E. Grinspun, and P. Schoder, “Sparse Matrix Solvers on the GPU:Conjugate Gradients and Multigrid,” SIGGRAPH 03 Proceedings (2003).

Bove, V. M.

V. M. Bove, W. J. Plesniak, T. Quentmeyer, and J. Barabas “Real-Time Holographic Video Images with Commodity PC Hardware,” Proc. SPIE Stereoscopic Displays and Applications,  5664A (2005).

J. A. Watlington, M. Lucente, C. J. Sparrell, V. M. Bove, and I. Tamitani, “A hardware architecture for rapid generation of electro-holographic fringe patterns,” Proc. SPIE 2406–23, 172–183 (1995).

Farmer, I.

J. Bolz, I. Farmer, E. Grinspun, and P. Schoder, “Sparse Matrix Solvers on the GPU:Conjugate Gradients and Multigrid,” SIGGRAPH 03 Proceedings (2003).

Galyean, T. A.

M. Lucente and T. A. Galyean, “Rendering interactive holographic images,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 95, 387–394 (1995).

Grinspun, E.

J. Bolz, I. Farmer, E. Grinspun, and P. Schoder, “Sparse Matrix Solvers on the GPU:Conjugate Gradients and Multigrid,” SIGGRAPH 03 Proceedings (2003).

Hahn, S.

C. Thompson, S. Hahn, and M. Oskin, “Using Modern Graphics Architectures for General-Purpose Computing : A Framework and Analysis,” Proceedings of 35th International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO-35), 306–320(2002).

Hilaire, P. S.

P. S. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jesen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler,“Electonic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212–20, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ito, T.

Iwase, S.

H. Yoshikawa, S. Iwase, and T. Oneda, “Fast computation of Fresnel holograms employing difference,” Proc. SPIE 3956, 48–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jesen, M. L.

P. S. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jesen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler,“Electonic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212–20, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kollin, J.

P. S. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jesen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler,“Electonic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212–20, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, J.

J. Krüger and R. Westermann, “Linear Algebra Operators for GPU Implementation of Numerical Algorithms,” SIGGRAPH 03 Proceedings (2003).

Lucente, M.

M. Lucente. “Computational holographic bandwidth compression,” IBM Systems Journal,  35, 349–365, (1996)
[CrossRef]

J. A. Watlington, M. Lucente, C. J. Sparrell, V. M. Bove, and I. Tamitani, “A hardware architecture for rapid generation of electro-holographic fringe patterns,” Proc. SPIE 2406–23, 172–183 (1995).

M. Lucente and T. A. Galyean, “Rendering interactive holographic images,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 95, 387–394 (1995).

M. Lucente, “Interactive Computation of Holograms Using a Look-Up Table,” J. Electron. Imaging 2, 28–34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jesen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler,“Electonic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212–20, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Lucente “Diffraction-Specific Fringe Computation for Electro-Holography,” Ph. D. Thesis, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, (1994)

Masuda, N.

Matsushima, K.

Oneda, T.

H. Yoshikawa, S. Iwase, and T. Oneda, “Fast computation of Fresnel holograms employing difference,” Proc. SPIE 3956, 48–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oskin, M.

C. Thompson, S. Hahn, and M. Oskin, “Using Modern Graphics Architectures for General-Purpose Computing : A Framework and Analysis,” Proceedings of 35th International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO-35), 306–320(2002).

Plesniak, W. J.

V. M. Bove, W. J. Plesniak, T. Quentmeyer, and J. Barabas “Real-Time Holographic Video Images with Commodity PC Hardware,” Proc. SPIE Stereoscopic Displays and Applications,  5664A (2005).

Quentmeyer, T.

V. M. Bove, W. J. Plesniak, T. Quentmeyer, and J. Barabas “Real-Time Holographic Video Images with Commodity PC Hardware,” Proc. SPIE Stereoscopic Displays and Applications,  5664A (2005).

Schoder, P.

J. Bolz, I. Farmer, E. Grinspun, and P. Schoder, “Sparse Matrix Solvers on the GPU:Conjugate Gradients and Multigrid,” SIGGRAPH 03 Proceedings (2003).

Shimobaba, T.

Shiraki, A.

Sparrell, C. J.

J. A. Watlington, M. Lucente, C. J. Sparrell, V. M. Bove, and I. Tamitani, “A hardware architecture for rapid generation of electro-holographic fringe patterns,” Proc. SPIE 2406–23, 172–183 (1995).

Sugie, T.

Takai, M.

Tamitani, I.

J. A. Watlington, M. Lucente, C. J. Sparrell, V. M. Bove, and I. Tamitani, “A hardware architecture for rapid generation of electro-holographic fringe patterns,” Proc. SPIE 2406–23, 172–183 (1995).

Thompson, C.

C. Thompson, S. Hahn, and M. Oskin, “Using Modern Graphics Architectures for General-Purpose Computing : A Framework and Analysis,” Proceedings of 35th International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO-35), 306–320(2002).

Tricoles, G.

Underkoffler, J.

P. S. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jesen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler,“Electonic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212–20, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Watlington, J. A.

J. A. Watlington, M. Lucente, C. J. Sparrell, V. M. Bove, and I. Tamitani, “A hardware architecture for rapid generation of electro-holographic fringe patterns,” Proc. SPIE 2406–23, 172–183 (1995).

Westermann, R.

J. Krüger and R. Westermann, “Linear Algebra Operators for GPU Implementation of Numerical Algorithms,” SIGGRAPH 03 Proceedings (2003).

Yoshikawa, H.

H. Yoshikawa, S. Iwase, and T. Oneda, “Fast computation of Fresnel holograms employing difference,” Proc. SPIE 3956, 48–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jesen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler,“Electonic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212–20, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, K.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Comp. Phys. Commun. (1)

T. Shimobaba and T. Ito, “An efficient computational method suitable for hardware of computer-generated hologram with phase computation by addition,” Comp. Phys. Commun. 138, 44–52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IBM Systems Journal (1)

M. Lucente. “Computational holographic bandwidth compression,” IBM Systems Journal,  35, 349–365, (1996)
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

M. Lucente, “Interactive Computation of Holograms Using a Look-Up Table,” J. Electron. Imaging 2, 28–34 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH (1)

M. Lucente and T. A. Galyean, “Rendering interactive holographic images,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 95, 387–394 (1995).

Proc. SPIE (3)

H. Yoshikawa, S. Iwase, and T. Oneda, “Fast computation of Fresnel holograms employing difference,” Proc. SPIE 3956, 48–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Watlington, M. Lucente, C. J. Sparrell, V. M. Bove, and I. Tamitani, “A hardware architecture for rapid generation of electro-holographic fringe patterns,” Proc. SPIE 2406–23, 172–183 (1995).

P. S. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jesen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler,“Electonic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212–20, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE Stereoscopic Displays and Applications (1)

V. M. Bove, W. J. Plesniak, T. Quentmeyer, and J. Barabas “Real-Time Holographic Video Images with Commodity PC Hardware,” Proc. SPIE Stereoscopic Displays and Applications,  5664A (2005).

Proceedings of 35th International Symposium on Microarchitecture (1)

C. Thompson, S. Hahn, and M. Oskin, “Using Modern Graphics Architectures for General-Purpose Computing : A Framework and Analysis,” Proceedings of 35th International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO-35), 306–320(2002).

Other (4)

J. Krüger and R. Westermann, “Linear Algebra Operators for GPU Implementation of Numerical Algorithms,” SIGGRAPH 03 Proceedings (2003).

nVIDIA corporation, “GPU Gems,” Addison Wesley (2004).

M. Lucente “Diffraction-Specific Fringe Computation for Electro-Holography,” Ph. D. Thesis, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, (1994)

J. Bolz, I. Farmer, E. Grinspun, and P. Schoder, “Sparse Matrix Solvers on the GPU:Conjugate Gradients and Multigrid,” SIGGRAPH 03 Proceedings (2003).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (2224 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Block diagram of GPU: “VS” is a vertex shader and “PS” is a pixel shader.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

CGH images: (a) 800 × 600-grid image by GPU, (b) 800 × 600-grid image by CPU.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reconstructed images: (a) GPU, (b) CPU.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Movie of a reconstructed image [Media 1]

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The spec sheet of nVIDIA’s GeForce 6600

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison between the calculation time of GPU (GeForce 6600) and Pentium 4 3.2-GHz.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( x α , y α ) = j = 0 N 1 A j cos ( 2 πθ ) ,
θ = 1 λ ( x α x j ) 2 + ( y α y j ) 2 + z j 2 ,
θ = z j λ + 1 2 λ z j { ( x α x j ) 2 + ( y α y j ) 2 } ,
θ = 1 2 λ z j { ( x α x j ) 2 + ( y α y j ) 2 } .

Metrics