Abstract

The first experimental observation of a dynamic grating in polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber (PM-EDF) is reported and a novel fiber-optic strain- and temperature-sensing mechanism based on the dynamic grating in PM-EDF is demonstrated experimentally. The dynamic grating is written with light beams in one primary polarization axis of the PM-EDF, and read with a light beam in the other primary polarization axis. The readout Bragg reflection wavelength of the grating differs from the writing wavelength and the wavelength difference is proportional to the birefringence between the two polarization axes. Making use of the dependence of the birefringence on strain or temperature, strain- and temperature-sensing is realized by measuring the Bragg reflection wavelength (frequency) shift. In order to detect the weak reflection from the dynamic grating, a dual-stage synchronous detection scheme is adopted in the experiment. The results show a strain-sensitivity of 1.4 MHz/με and a temperature-sensitivity of 60 MHz/°C, respectively.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Taneda, and Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, "Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-based continuous-wave technique," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 179-181 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. Fan, Z. He, and K. Hotate, "Novel distributed fiber-optic strain sensor by localizing dynamic grating in polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber: proposal and theoretical analysis," Jpn. J. App. Phys. 44, 1101-1106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. He and K. Hotate, "Distributed fiber optic stress location measurement by arbitrary shaping of optical coherence function," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1715-1723 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. J. Frisken, "Transient Bragg reflection gratings in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 17, 1776-1778 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Fischer, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Nonlinear four-wave mixing in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1858-1859 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Fischer, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Nonlinear wave mixing and induced gratings in erbium- doped fiber amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 18, 2108-2110 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. X. Fan, Z. He, Y. Mizuno, and K. Hotate, "Bandwidth-adjustable dynamic grating in erbium-doped fiber by synthesis of optical coherence function," Opt. Express 13, 5756-5761 (2005), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-15-5756">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-15-5756</a>.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Fischer, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Nonlinear four-wave mixing in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 29, 1858-1859 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, "Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-based continuous-wave technique," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 179-181 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Z. He and K. Hotate, "Distributed fiber optic stress location measurement by arbitrary shaping of optical coherence function," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1715-1723 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Taneda, and Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. App. Phys. (1)

X. Fan, Z. He, and K. Hotate, "Novel distributed fiber-optic strain sensor by localizing dynamic grating in polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber: proposal and theoretical analysis," Jpn. J. App. Phys. 44, 1101-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

X. Fan, Z. He, Y. Mizuno, and K. Hotate, "Bandwidth-adjustable dynamic grating in erbium-doped fiber by synthesis of optical coherence function," Opt. Express 13, 5756-5761 (2005), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-15-5756">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-15-5756</a>.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

B. Fischer, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Nonlinear wave mixing and induced gratings in erbium- doped fiber amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 18, 2108-2110 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Frisken, "Transient Bragg reflection gratings in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 17, 1776-1778 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of dynamic grating. (a) Writing of dynamic grating. (b) Interference pattern along the EDF.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Writing and reading the dynamic grating in PM-EDF. I1, I2, the writing beams; I3, the reading beam; I4, the reflection from the dynamic grating. x and y denote the polarization directions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Strain- and temperature-sensing by measuring the shift in the Bragg frequency of the dynamic grating. (a) Original spectrum of the dynamic grating; (b) the spectrum when strain applied or temperature changed.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup. LD, laser diode; PC, polarizer controller; IM, intensity modulator; PD, photo-detector; PM-WDM, polarization-maintaining wavelength division multiplexer; PBS/PBC, polarization beam splitter / polarization beam combiner; GPIB, general purpose interface bus.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Noise origins related to reading beam I3. IARBS, noise caused by the amplified Rayleigh backscattering; I3ara, noise related to the reflection of I3 at the splicing or connection points: I3 is amplified and reflected at splicing points or connection points,

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Reflection spectrum of the dynamic grating. The horizontal axis is the frequency deviation from the frequency of the writing beams.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Strain dependence of Bragg frequency shift of the reflection peak.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Temperature dependence of Bragg frequency shift of the reflection peak.

Equations (4)

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f Bragg = f x ( n x n y ) ,
Δ f = ( f x Δ B ) n y ,
ε = ( n y Δ f ) ( α f x ) ,
Δ T = ( n y Δ f ) ( β f x ) ,

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