Abstract

In this paper we evaluate numerically the advantage of combining convolutional coding and bandwidth-efficient modulation. We compare different multilevel modulation formats, line codes, and hard/soft decision decoding. Compared with DPSK modulation (with the same bandwidth and information transmission rate), an improvement of almost 5 dB is observed for bit error rates around 10-8. We also study the robustness to intersymbol interference in the form of chromatic dispersion, and find that the improvement of the coded transmission lines improves over the uncoded even in presence of chromatic dispersion.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. Vassilieva, T. Hoshida, S. Choudhary, G. Castanon, H. Kuwahara, T. Terahara, H. Onaka, "Numerical comparison of NRZ, CS-RZ and IM-DPSK formats in 43 Gbit/s WDM transmission", 14th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), 673-674, Nov. 12-13, 2001.
  2. W. Kaiser, G. Mohs, T. Wuth, R. Neuhauser, W. Rosenkranz, C. Glingener, "225 km repeaterless 10 Gb/s transmission over uncompensated SSMF using duobinary modulation and Raman amplification," 14th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), 155-156, Nov. 12-13, 2001.
  3. T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, H.Tagami, M. Akita, K. Motoshima, "Next generation FEC for optical networks," Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC 2003, paper ThN1, 2003.
  4. I. B. Djordjevic, S. Sankaranarayanan, and B. Vasic, "Irregular Low-Density Parity-Check Codes for Long-Haul Optical Communications," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 338-340, 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Forestieri, R. Gangopadhyay and G. Prati, "Performance of convolutional codes in a direct-detection PPM channel," IEEE Transactions on Communications, 37, 1303-1317, 1989.
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Seki, "Single-chip FEC codec LSI using iterative CSOC decoder for 10 Gb/s long-haul optical transmission systems," IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, Orlando, USA, 155-158, May 12-15, 2002.
  7. S. Lin and D. J. Costello, Jr., Error Control Coding, 2nd ed., Prentice Hall, Inc., 2004.
  8. H. Bülow, G. Thielecke, and F. Buchali, "Optical Trellis-Coded Modulation," Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC 2004, paper WM5, 2004.
  9. P. Faraj, S. Schöllmann, J. Leibrich,W. Rosenkranz, "8.4 dB net coding gain achieved with a serially concatenated coding scheme for differential quadrature phase shift keyed optical systems," Proc. of European Conference of Optical Communication, ECOC 2005, paper Tu 3.2.4, 2005.
  10. G. Kramer, A. Ashikhmin, A. J. van Wijngaarden and X. Wei, "Spectral efficiency of coded phase-shift keying for fiber-optic communication," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2438-2445, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Ungerboeck, "Channel coding with mulitlevel/phase signals," IEEE Transactions of Information Theory IT- 28, 55-67, 1982.
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Ohm and J. Speidel, "Quarternary optical ASK-DPSK and receivers with direct detection," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 159-161, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Liu, X. Wei, Y.-H. Kao, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, and L. F. Mollenauer, "Quartenary differential-phase amplitude-shift-keying for DWDM transmission," Proc. of European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2003, paper Th2.6.5, 2003.
  14. X. Liu, X. Wei, Y.-H. Kao, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, Y. Su, and L. F. Mollenauer, "Return-to-zero quaternary differential-phase amplitude-shift-keying for long-haul transmission," Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC 2004, paper FN2, 2004.
  15. J. Hansryd, J. van Howe, and C. Xu, "Nonlinear crosstalk and compensation in QDPASK optical communication systems," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 232-234, 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Wree, J. Leibrich and W. Rosenkranz, "RZ-DQPSK Format with High Spectral Efficiency and High Robustness Towards Fiber Nonlinearities," Proc. of European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2002, paper 9.6.6, 2002.
  17. J.-X. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, Y. Cai, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero, W. Anderson, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetski, and N. S. Bergano, "Experimental comparison of the RZ-DPSK and NRZ-DPSK modulation formats," Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC 2005, paper OThO1, 2005.
  18. M. Ohm and J. Speidel, "Optimal receiver bandwidths, bit error probabilities and chromatic dispersion tolerance of 40 Gbit/s optical 8-DPSK with NRZ and RZ impulse shaping," Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC 2005, paper OFG5, 2005.
  19. E. Desurvire, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers, Principles and Applications, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1994.
  20. J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, NewYork, 2001.
  21. R. A. Griffin and A. C. Carter,"Optical Differential Quadrature Phase-Shift Key (oDPSK) for High Capacity Optical Transmission," Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC 2002, paper WX6, 2002.
  22. P. J. Winzer and A. Kalmár, "Sensitivity enhancement of optical receivers by impulsive coding," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 171-177, 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Pauer and P. Winzer, "Impact of extinction ratio on return-to-zero coding gain in optical noise limited receivers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 879-881, 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Humblet and M. Azioglou, "On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol., 9, 1576-1582, 1991.
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. A. Atia and R. S. Bondurant, "Demonstration of return-to-zero signaling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver," Proc. LEOS 12th Annual meeting, 226-227, 1999.
  26. J. S. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, A. Gnauck, C. Burrus, J. Leuthold, O. Wohlgemuth and A. Umbach,"A 42.7- Gb/s integrated balanced optical front end with record sensitivity," Proc. Conf. on Optical Fiber Communications, OFC'03, paper PD39, 2003.
  27. A. Agata, K. Tanaka, and N. Edagawa, "Study on the optimum ReedÐSolomon-based FEC codes for 40-Gb/sbased ultralong-distance WDM transmission," J. Lightwave Technol., 20, 2189-2195, 2002.
    [CrossRef]

14th Annual IEEE Meeting (LEOS) 2001 (1)

W. Kaiser, G. Mohs, T. Wuth, R. Neuhauser, W. Rosenkranz, C. Glingener, "225 km repeaterless 10 Gb/s transmission over uncompensated SSMF using duobinary modulation and Raman amplification," 14th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), 155-156, Nov. 12-13, 2001.

14th Annual Meeting (LEOS) 2001 (1)

O. Vassilieva, T. Hoshida, S. Choudhary, G. Castanon, H. Kuwahara, T. Terahara, H. Onaka, "Numerical comparison of NRZ, CS-RZ and IM-DPSK formats in 43 Gbit/s WDM transmission", 14th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), 673-674, Nov. 12-13, 2001.

ECOC 2002 (1)

C. Wree, J. Leibrich and W. Rosenkranz, "RZ-DQPSK Format with High Spectral Efficiency and High Robustness Towards Fiber Nonlinearities," Proc. of European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2002, paper 9.6.6, 2002.

ECOC 2003 (1)

X. Liu, X. Wei, Y.-H. Kao, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, and L. F. Mollenauer, "Quartenary differential-phase amplitude-shift-keying for DWDM transmission," Proc. of European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2003, paper Th2.6.5, 2003.

ECOC 2005 (1)

P. Faraj, S. Schöllmann, J. Leibrich,W. Rosenkranz, "8.4 dB net coding gain achieved with a serially concatenated coding scheme for differential quadrature phase shift keyed optical systems," Proc. of European Conference of Optical Communication, ECOC 2005, paper Tu 3.2.4, 2005.

IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Co 2002 (1)

K. Seki, "Single-chip FEC codec LSI using iterative CSOC decoder for 10 Gb/s long-haul optical transmission systems," IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, Orlando, USA, 155-158, May 12-15, 2002.

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

I. B. Djordjevic, S. Sankaranarayanan, and B. Vasic, "Irregular Low-Density Parity-Check Codes for Long-Haul Optical Communications," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 338-340, 2004.
[CrossRef]

M. Ohm and J. Speidel, "Quarternary optical ASK-DPSK and receivers with direct detection," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 159-161, 2003.
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd, J. van Howe, and C. Xu, "Nonlinear crosstalk and compensation in QDPASK optical communication systems," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 232-234, 2005.
[CrossRef]

M. Pauer and P. Winzer, "Impact of extinction ratio on return-to-zero coding gain in optical noise limited receivers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 879-881, 2004.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Transactions of Information Theory (1)

G. Ungerboeck, "Channel coding with mulitlevel/phase signals," IEEE Transactions of Information Theory IT- 28, 55-67, 1982.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Transactions on Comm. (1)

E. Forestieri, R. Gangopadhyay and G. Prati, "Performance of convolutional codes in a direct-detection PPM channel," IEEE Transactions on Communications, 37, 1303-1317, 1989.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

G. Kramer, A. Ashikhmin, A. J. van Wijngaarden and X. Wei, "Spectral efficiency of coded phase-shift keying for fiber-optic communication," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2438-2445, 2003.
[CrossRef]

P. Humblet and M. Azioglou, "On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol., 9, 1576-1582, 1991.
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer and A. Kalmár, "Sensitivity enhancement of optical receivers by impulsive coding," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 171-177, 1999.
[CrossRef]

A. Agata, K. Tanaka, and N. Edagawa, "Study on the optimum ReedÐSolomon-based FEC codes for 40-Gb/sbased ultralong-distance WDM transmission," J. Lightwave Technol., 20, 2189-2195, 2002.
[CrossRef]

LEOS 12th Annual meeting 1999 (1)

W. A. Atia and R. S. Bondurant, "Demonstration of return-to-zero signaling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver," Proc. LEOS 12th Annual meeting, 226-227, 1999.

OFC 2002 (1)

R. A. Griffin and A. C. Carter,"Optical Differential Quadrature Phase-Shift Key (oDPSK) for High Capacity Optical Transmission," Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC 2002, paper WX6, 2002.

OFC 2003 (1)

J. S. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, A. Gnauck, C. Burrus, J. Leuthold, O. Wohlgemuth and A. Umbach,"A 42.7- Gb/s integrated balanced optical front end with record sensitivity," Proc. Conf. on Optical Fiber Communications, OFC'03, paper PD39, 2003.

OFC 2004 (2)

X. Liu, X. Wei, Y.-H. Kao, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, Y. Su, and L. F. Mollenauer, "Return-to-zero quaternary differential-phase amplitude-shift-keying for long-haul transmission," Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC 2004, paper FN2, 2004.

H. Bülow, G. Thielecke, and F. Buchali, "Optical Trellis-Coded Modulation," Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC 2004, paper WM5, 2004.

OFC 2005 (2)

J.-X. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, Y. Cai, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero, W. Anderson, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetski, and N. S. Bergano, "Experimental comparison of the RZ-DPSK and NRZ-DPSK modulation formats," Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC 2005, paper OThO1, 2005.

M. Ohm and J. Speidel, "Optimal receiver bandwidths, bit error probabilities and chromatic dispersion tolerance of 40 Gbit/s optical 8-DPSK with NRZ and RZ impulse shaping," Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC 2005, paper OFG5, 2005.

Optical Fiber Communication Conf. 2003 (1)

T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, H. Fujita, H.Tagami, M. Akita, K. Motoshima, "Next generation FEC for optical networks," Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC 2003, paper ThN1, 2003.

Other (3)

S. Lin and D. J. Costello, Jr., Error Control Coding, 2nd ed., Prentice Hall, Inc., 2004.

E. Desurvire, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers, Principles and Applications, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1994.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, NewYork, 2001.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structure of the simulated system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Setup of the RZ-DPSK/ASK transmitter (left) and its signal constellation in the complex plain (right).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Setup of the RZ-DQPSK transmitter (left) and the signal constellation in the complex plain (right).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

RZ-DPSK/ASK receiver with an amplitude path and a phase path for both information channels. The delay in the interferometer delays the signal one bit period.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

RZ-DQPSK receiver with balanced detection.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Block circuit diagram of the used (1167,1545) convolutional encoder. S1-S9 denotes a 9-stage shift register, and addition is done modulo 2.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Simulation results for coded DPSK/ASK with Viterbi hard decision decoding and uncoded NRZ-OOK. Two convolutional codes are compared. The information bit rate is in all cases 10 Gb/s, apart from the two rightmost curves, showing the BER for the optical channel data before the Viterbi decoding. Thus the BER input-output performance of the two codes can be obtained by comparing the two rightmost curves with the leftmost decoded curves (triangles,crosses).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Simulation results for back-to-back transmission of (1167,1545) convolutionally coded DPSK/ASK and DQPSK signals with Viterbi soft and hard decision, compared to uncoded DPSK.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

BER curves of convolutionally coded transmission over an SMF with hard decision (left) and soft decision (right) Viterbi decoding.The dashed lines are uncoded RZ-DPSK modulation, and the solid lines are the (1167,1545) convolutional code.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Transmission penalty as a function of SMF length, for RZ-DPSK/ASK (left) and RZ-DQPSK (right), both with the (1167,1545) convolutional code. The uncoded RZ-DPSK line is shown as a reference in both cases.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

The RS(255,239) code with RZ-DPSK compared with uncoded RZ-DPSK and convolutional-code(1167,1545) RZ-DQPSK. All systems have the same information bit rate, 10 Gb/s.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Constraint length (K), minimum free distance (df ) and asymptotic coding gain (ACG) of some common rate 1/2 convolutional codes (from [20, p. 492]).

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