Abstract

A new adaptive optics system for the eye using a pyramid wavefront sensor interfaced in closed-loop with a piezoelectric deformable mirror is presented. Sensing parameters such as CCD integration time, pupil sampling and beam steering amplitude are tested on the bench and in vivo on several volunteers to optimize real-time optical correction. The system allows closed-loop operation at a frame rate of 55 Hz and reduces ocular aberration up to λ/5 residual RMS over a 6 mm pupil. Aberration correction and mirror control stability clearly increase when smaller beam steering amplitudes synonymous of higher wavefront sensing sensitivity are used. This result suggests that using pyramid wavefront sensors can improve the performance of adaptive-optics system for ophthalmic applications.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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Astron. Astrophys.

R. Ragazzoni and J. Farinato, "Sensitivity of a Pyramidic Wave Front Sensor in Closed Loop Adaptive Optics," Astron. Astrophys. 350, L23-L26 (1999).

S. Esposito and A. Riccardi, "Pyramid Wavefront Sensor Behavior in Partial Correction Adaptive Optics Systems," Astron. Astrophys. 369, L9-L12 (2001).

IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits

T. Nirmaier, C. A. Diez, and J. F. Bille, "High Speed CMOS Wavefront Sensor With Resisting Ring Networks of Winner-Take-All Circuits," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 40, 2315-2322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

R. Ragazzoni, "Pupil Plane Wavefront Sensing With an Oscillating Prism," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 289-293 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, "Supernormal Vision and High-Resolution Retinal Imaging Through Adaptive Optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884-2892 (1997).

P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, and D. R.Williams, "Odd Aberrations and Double-Pass Measurements of Retinal Image Quality," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 195-201 (1995).

Ophthal. Phys. Opt.

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, and X. Hong, "A Statistical Model of the Aberration Structure of Normal, Well-Corrected Eyes," Ophthal. Phys. Opt. 22, 427-433 (2002).

Opt. Commun.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. L. Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards Wide-Field Retinal Imaging With Adaptive Optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-228 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, "Adaptive Optics Parallel Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Imaging the Living Retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4792">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4792</a>.
[CrossRef]

E. Dalimier and J. C. Dainty, "Comparative Analysis of Deformable Mirrors for Ocular Adaptive Optics," Opt. Express 13, 4275-4285 (2005), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-4275">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-4275</a>.
[CrossRef]

P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, "Adaptive Optics With a Programmable Phase Modulator: Applications in the Human Eye," Opt. Express 12, 4059-4071 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-17-4059">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-17-4059</a>.
[CrossRef]

H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, and D. R. Williams, "Improvement in Retinal Image Quality With Dynamic Correction of the Eyes Aberration," Opt. Express 8, 631-643 (2001), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-11-631">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-11-631</a>.

I. Iglesias, R. Ragazzoni, Y. Julien, and P. Artal, "Extended Source Pyramid Wave-Front Sensor for the Human Eye," Opt. Express 10, 419-428 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-9-419">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-9-419</a>.

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. I. Donnelly, H. Quenner, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. Campbell, "Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmosopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-9-405">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-9-405</a>.

L. Diaz-Santana, C. Torti, I. Munro, P. Gasson, and J. C. Dainty, "Benefits of Higher Closed-Loop Bandwidths in Ocular Adaptive Optics," Opt. Express 11, 2597-2605 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-20-2597">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-20-2597</a>.

Opt. Lett.

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-Optics Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernandez, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "Closed-Loop Adaptive Optics in the Human Eye," Opt. Lett. 26, 746-748 (2001).

Opt. Sci. Center Newsl. (Univof Arizona)

B. Platt and R. V. Shack, "Lenticular Hartmann Screen," Opt. Sci. Center Newsl. (University of Arizona) 5, 15-16 (1971).

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, "The Luminous Efficiency of Rays Entering the Eye Pupil at Different Points," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 112, 428-450 (1933).

Proc. SPIE 2003

A. Ghedina, M. Cecconi, R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, A. Baruffolo, G. Crimi, E. Diolaiti, S. Esposito, L. Fini, M. Ghigo, E. Marchetti, T. Niero, and A. Puglisi, "On Sky Test of the Pyramid Wavefront Sensor," in Adaptive Optical System II, P. L.Wizinowich and D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE 4839, 869-877 (2003).

Other

European Standard / EN60825-1:1993/A2:2001, European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (2001).

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