Abstract

We numerically study the spectral response of ‘U’-shaped split-ring-resonators at normal incidence with respect to the resonator plane. Based on the evaluation of the near-field patterns of the resonances and their geometry-dependent spectral positions, we obtain a comprehensive and consistent picture of their origin. We conclude that all resonances can be understood as plasmonic resonances of increasing order of the entire structure. In particular, for an electrical field polarized parallel to the gap the so-called LC-resonance corresponds to the fundamental plasmonic mode and, contrary to earlier interpretations, the electrical resonance is a second order plasmon mode of the entire structure. The presence of further higher order modes is discussed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2006

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, "Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared," Appl. Phys. B 84, 219-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1361-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943-2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. B. Pendry, "Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padila, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

J. P. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from Conductors, and Enhanced Non-Linear Phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1962

W. Rotman, "Plasma Simulation by Artificial Dielectrics and Parallel-Plate Media," IRE Trans. Ant. Propag. 10, 82-95 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1947

L. Lewin, "The electrical constants of a material loaded with spherical particles," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.,  94, 65-68 (1947).

1935

R. W. Wood, "Anomalous diffraction grating," Phys. Rev. 48, 928-936 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, "Silver Nanowires as Surface Plasmon Resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Chettiar, U. K.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, "Silver Nanowires as Surface Plasmon Resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dolling, G.

Drachev, V. P.

Economou, E. N.

Enkrich, C.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1361-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Etrich, C.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, "Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared," Appl. Phys. B 84, 219-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, "Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared," Appl. Phys. B 84, 219-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gundogdu, T. F.

Guo, H.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, "Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared," Appl. Phys. B 84, 219-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, F.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, "Silver Nanowires as Surface Plasmon Resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, "Silver Nanowires as Surface Plasmon Resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. P. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from Conductors, and Enhanced Non-Linear Phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

Katsarakis, N.

Kildishev, A. V.

Konstantinidis, G.

Koschny, T.

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu,M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far-infrared frequency regime," Opt. Lett. 30, 1348-1350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943-2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1361-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kostopoulos, A.

Kreibig, U.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, "Silver Nanowires as Surface Plasmon Resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, "Silver Nanowires as Surface Plasmon Resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuhl, J.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, "Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared," Appl. Phys. B 84, 219-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, "Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared," Appl. Phys. B 84, 219-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lewin, L.

L. Lewin, "The electrical constants of a material loaded with spherical particles," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.,  94, 65-68 (1947).

Li, L.

Linden, S.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1361-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, "Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared," Appl. Phys. B 84, 219-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loa, I.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, "Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared," Appl. Phys. B 84, 219-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markos, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padila, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padila, W. J.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padila, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penciu, R. S.

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, "Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. P.

J. P. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from Conductors, and Enhanced Non-Linear Phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. P. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from Conductors, and Enhanced Non-Linear Phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, "Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared," Appl. Phys. B 84, 219-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, M.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, "Silver Nanowires as Surface Plasmon Resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rotman, W.

W. Rotman, "Plasma Simulation by Artificial Dielectrics and Parallel-Plate Media," IRE Trans. Ant. Propag. 10, 82-95 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padila, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padila, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu,M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, T. Koschny and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far-infrared frequency regime," Opt. Lett. 30, 1348-1350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1361-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943-2945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. P. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from Conductors, and Enhanced Non-Linear Phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Syassen, K.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, "Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared," Appl. Phys. B 84, 219-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padila, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, D.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, "Silver Nanowires as Surface Plasmon Resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Cut-wire pairs and plate pairs as magnetic atoms for optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3198-3200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1361-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, "Anomalous diffraction grating," Phys. Rev. 48, 928-936 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, H.-K.

Zentgraf, T.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, "Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared," Appl. Phys. B 84, 219-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1361-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J. F.

Appl. Phys. B

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, "Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared," Appl. Phys. B 84, 219-227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Typical arrangement of the structure in a) and schematic sketch of the pertinent SRR along with a definition of the geometrical parameters in b).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reflection from SRRs with a fully opened gap. The electric field is polarized in a) parallel to the gap and in b) perpendicular to it. The resonances are labeled in the figure with an arrow and an appropriate number.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Magnitude of the electric field distribution for the first three plasmon modes. The illuminating electric field Eyi is chosen to be perpendicular to the gap (y-polarized). The fields are normalized to the illuminating electric field.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Magnitude of the electric field distribution for the first three plasmon modes. The illuminating electric field Exi is chosen to be polarized parallel to the gap (x-polarized). The fields are normalized to the illuminating electric field.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Reflection from SRRs as a function of the leg. The electric field is polarized in a) parallel to the gap and in b) perpendicular to it. The geometries of the pertinent structures are shown in the upper part of the figure in colors according to the lines.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Resonance frequency of the first two modes as a function of the length of of the ‘U’-structure perpendicular to the gap for the two possible polarizations.

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