Abstract

We present a useful framework within which we can understand some of the physical phenomena that drive thermal emission in 2D-periodic metallic photonic crystal slabs, emphasizing phenomenology and physical intuition. Through detailed numerical calculations for these systems, we find that periodicity plays a key role in determining the types of physical phenomena that can be excited. We identify two structures as good candidates for thermal design, and conclude with a discussion of how the emissive properties of these systems can be tailored to our needs.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  3. S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
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2006 (1)

M. Laroche, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, "Coherent Thermal Antenna Using a Photonic Crystal Slab," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123903-123906 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

B. J. Lee, C. J. Fu, and Z.M. Zhang, "Coherent thermal emission from one-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071904-071906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Celanovic, D. Perreault, and J. Kassakian, "Resonant-cavity enhanced thermal emission," Phys. Rev. B 72, 075127-075132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Florescu, H. Lee, A. J. Stimpson, and J. Dowling, "Thermal emission and absorption of radiation in finite inverted-opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033821-033829 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Enoch, J.-J. Simon, L. Escoubas, Z. Elalmy, F. Lemarquis, P. Torchio, and G. Albrand, "Simple layer-by-layer photonic crystal for the control of thermal emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261101-261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

S.-Y. Lin, J. Moreno, and J. G. Fleming, "Response to Comment on ‘Three-dimensional photonic-crystal emitter for thermal photovoltaic power generation’," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1999 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Narayanaswamy and G. Chen, "Thermal emission control with one-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 70, 125101-125104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, A. Narayanaswamy, G. Chen, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Thermal Radiation from Photonic Crystals: A Direct Calculation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213905-213908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Y. Lin, J. Moreno, and J. G. Fleming, "Three-dimensional photonic-crystal emitter for thermal photovoltaic power generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 380-382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, "Photonic crystal enhanced narrow-band infrared emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4685-4687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, "Coherent emission of light by thermal sources," Nature 416, 61-64 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, "All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap," Nature 417, 52-55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 65, 235112-235119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

A. R. Cowan, P. Paddon, V. Pacradouni, and J. F. Young, "Resonant scattering and mode coupling in twodimensional textured planar waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1160-1170 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Yugami, Y. Akiyama, Y. Kanamori, and K. Hane, "Spectral control of thermal emission by periodic microstructured surfaces in the near-infrared region," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1471-1476 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor lightemitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563-565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S.-Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, E. Chow, J. Bur, K. K. Choi, and A. Goldberg, "Enhancement and suppression of thermal emission by a three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 62, R2243-R2246 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal couplers for unidirectional light output," Opt. Lett. 25, 942-944 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Cornelius and J. P. Dowling, "Modification of Planck blackbody radiation by photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4736-4746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, A. S. Pethel, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and A. S. Manka, "Transparent, metallodielectric, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2377-2383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1901 (1)

M. Planck, "On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum," Ann. Phys. 4, 553-563 (1901).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, Y.

Albrand, G.

S. Enoch, J.-J. Simon, L. Escoubas, Z. Elalmy, F. Lemarquis, P. Torchio, and G. Albrand, "Simple layer-by-layer photonic crystal for the control of thermal emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261101-261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, "All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap," Nature 417, 52-55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, "Photonic crystal enhanced narrow-band infrared emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4685-4687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bloemer, M. J.

M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, A. S. Pethel, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and A. S. Manka, "Transparent, metallodielectric, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2377-2383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, A. S. Pethel, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and A. S. Manka, "Transparent, metallodielectric, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2377-2383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bur, J.

S.-Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, E. Chow, J. Bur, K. K. Choi, and A. Goldberg, "Enhancement and suppression of thermal emission by a three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 62, R2243-R2246 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

M. Laroche, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, "Coherent Thermal Antenna Using a Photonic Crystal Slab," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123903-123906 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, "Coherent emission of light by thermal sources," Nature 416, 61-64 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Celanovic, I.

I. Celanovic, D. Perreault, and J. Kassakian, "Resonant-cavity enhanced thermal emission," Phys. Rev. B 72, 075127-075132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

A. Narayanaswamy and G. Chen, "Thermal emission control with one-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 70, 125101-125104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, A. Narayanaswamy, G. Chen, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Thermal Radiation from Photonic Crystals: A Direct Calculation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213905-213908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, "Coherent emission of light by thermal sources," Nature 416, 61-64 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, D. S.

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, "Photonic crystal enhanced narrow-band infrared emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4685-4687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. K.

S.-Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, E. Chow, J. Bur, K. K. Choi, and A. Goldberg, "Enhancement and suppression of thermal emission by a three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 62, R2243-R2246 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chow, E.

S.-Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, E. Chow, J. Bur, K. K. Choi, and A. Goldberg, "Enhancement and suppression of thermal emission by a three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 62, R2243-R2246 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cornelius, C. M.

C. M. Cornelius and J. P. Dowling, "Modification of Planck blackbody radiation by photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4736-4746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cowan, A. R.

Daly, J. T.

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, "Photonic crystal enhanced narrow-band infrared emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4685-4687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal couplers for unidirectional light output," Opt. Lett. 25, 942-944 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J.

M. Florescu, H. Lee, A. J. Stimpson, and J. Dowling, "Thermal emission and absorption of radiation in finite inverted-opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033821-033829 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. P.

C. M. Cornelius and J. P. Dowling, "Modification of Planck blackbody radiation by photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4736-4746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, A. S. Pethel, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and A. S. Manka, "Transparent, metallodielectric, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2377-2383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elalmy, Z.

S. Enoch, J.-J. Simon, L. Escoubas, Z. Elalmy, F. Lemarquis, P. Torchio, and G. Albrand, "Simple layer-by-layer photonic crystal for the control of thermal emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261101-261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

El-Kady, I.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, "All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap," Nature 417, 52-55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, "Photonic crystal enhanced narrow-band infrared emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4685-4687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Enoch, S.

S. Enoch, J.-J. Simon, L. Escoubas, Z. Elalmy, F. Lemarquis, P. Torchio, and G. Albrand, "Simple layer-by-layer photonic crystal for the control of thermal emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261101-261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Erchak, A. A.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor lightemitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563-565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Escoubas, L.

S. Enoch, J.-J. Simon, L. Escoubas, Z. Elalmy, F. Lemarquis, P. Torchio, and G. Albrand, "Simple layer-by-layer photonic crystal for the control of thermal emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261101-261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 65, 235112-235119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor lightemitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563-565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J. G.

S.-Y. Lin, J. Moreno, and J. G. Fleming, "Response to Comment on ‘Three-dimensional photonic-crystal emitter for thermal photovoltaic power generation’," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1999 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, J. Moreno, and J. G. Fleming, "Three-dimensional photonic-crystal emitter for thermal photovoltaic power generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 380-382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, "All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap," Nature 417, 52-55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, E. Chow, J. Bur, K. K. Choi, and A. Goldberg, "Enhancement and suppression of thermal emission by a three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 62, R2243-R2246 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Florescu, M.

M. Florescu, H. Lee, A. J. Stimpson, and J. Dowling, "Thermal emission and absorption of radiation in finite inverted-opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033821-033829 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fu, C. J.

B. J. Lee, C. J. Fu, and Z.M. Zhang, "Coherent thermal emission from one-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071904-071906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

George, T.

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, "Photonic crystal enhanced narrow-band infrared emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4685-4687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, A.

S.-Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, E. Chow, J. Bur, K. K. Choi, and A. Goldberg, "Enhancement and suppression of thermal emission by a three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 62, R2243-R2246 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Greenwald, A. C.

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, "Photonic crystal enhanced narrow-band infrared emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4685-4687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J.-J.

M. Laroche, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, "Coherent Thermal Antenna Using a Photonic Crystal Slab," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123903-123906 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, "Coherent emission of light by thermal sources," Nature 416, 61-64 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hane, K.

Hetherington, D. L.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, "All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap," Nature 417, 52-55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor lightemitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563-565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

C. Luo, A. Narayanaswamy, G. Chen, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Thermal Radiation from Photonic Crystals: A Direct Calculation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213905-213908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 65, 235112-235119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor lightemitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563-565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal couplers for unidirectional light output," Opt. Lett. 25, 942-944 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, E. A.

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, "Photonic crystal enhanced narrow-band infrared emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4685-4687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Joulain, K.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, "Coherent emission of light by thermal sources," Nature 416, 61-64 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanamori, Y.

Kassakian, J.

I. Celanovic, D. Perreault, and J. Kassakian, "Resonant-cavity enhanced thermal emission," Phys. Rev. B 72, 075127-075132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor lightemitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563-565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, S. R.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laroche, M.

M. Laroche, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, "Coherent Thermal Antenna Using a Photonic Crystal Slab," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123903-123906 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. J.

B. J. Lee, C. J. Fu, and Z.M. Zhang, "Coherent thermal emission from one-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071904-071906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

M. Florescu, H. Lee, A. J. Stimpson, and J. Dowling, "Thermal emission and absorption of radiation in finite inverted-opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033821-033829 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lemarquis, F.

S. Enoch, J.-J. Simon, L. Escoubas, Z. Elalmy, F. Lemarquis, P. Torchio, and G. Albrand, "Simple layer-by-layer photonic crystal for the control of thermal emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261101-261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

S. Y. Lin, J. Moreno, and J. G. Fleming, "Three-dimensional photonic-crystal emitter for thermal photovoltaic power generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 380-382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, "All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap," Nature 417, 52-55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Lin, J. Moreno, and J. G. Fleming, "Response to Comment on ‘Three-dimensional photonic-crystal emitter for thermal photovoltaic power generation’," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1999 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, E. Chow, J. Bur, K. K. Choi, and A. Goldberg, "Enhancement and suppression of thermal emission by a three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 62, R2243-R2246 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

C. Luo, A. Narayanaswamy, G. Chen, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Thermal Radiation from Photonic Crystals: A Direct Calculation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213905-213908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mainguy, S.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, "Coherent emission of light by thermal sources," Nature 416, 61-64 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manka, A. S.

M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, A. S. Pethel, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and A. S. Manka, "Transparent, metallodielectric, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2377-2383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McNeal, M. P.

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, "Photonic crystal enhanced narrow-band infrared emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4685-4687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meier, M.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal couplers for unidirectional light output," Opt. Lett. 25, 942-944 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moelders, N.

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, "Photonic crystal enhanced narrow-band infrared emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4685-4687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, J.

S.-Y. Lin, J. Moreno, and J. G. Fleming, "Response to Comment on ‘Three-dimensional photonic-crystal emitter for thermal photovoltaic power generation’," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1999 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, J. Moreno, and J. G. Fleming, "Three-dimensional photonic-crystal emitter for thermal photovoltaic power generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 380-382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mulet, J.-P.

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, "Coherent emission of light by thermal sources," Nature 416, 61-64 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narayanaswamy, A.

C. Luo, A. Narayanaswamy, G. Chen, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Thermal Radiation from Photonic Crystals: A Direct Calculation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213905-213908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Narayanaswamy and G. Chen, "Thermal emission control with one-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 70, 125101-125104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pacradouni, V.

Paddon, P.

Perreault, D.

I. Celanovic, D. Perreault, and J. Kassakian, "Resonant-cavity enhanced thermal emission," Phys. Rev. B 72, 075127-075132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pethel, A. S.

M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, A. S. Pethel, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and A. S. Manka, "Transparent, metallodielectric, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2377-2383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, G. S.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor lightemitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563-565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Planck, M.

M. Planck, "On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum," Ann. Phys. 4, 553-563 (1901).
[CrossRef]

Pralle, M. U.

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, "Photonic crystal enhanced narrow-band infrared emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4685-4687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Puscasu, I.

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, "Photonic crystal enhanced narrow-band infrared emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4685-4687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rakich, P.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor lightemitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563-565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ripin, D. J.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor lightemitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563-565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sai, H.

Scalora, M.

M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, A. S. Pethel, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and A. S. Manka, "Transparent, metallodielectric, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2377-2383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M. M.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J.-J.

S. Enoch, J.-J. Simon, L. Escoubas, Z. Elalmy, F. Lemarquis, P. Torchio, and G. Albrand, "Simple layer-by-layer photonic crystal for the control of thermal emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261101-261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal couplers for unidirectional light output," Opt. Lett. 25, 942-944 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. K.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stimpson, A. J.

M. Florescu, H. Lee, A. J. Stimpson, and J. Dowling, "Thermal emission and absorption of radiation in finite inverted-opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033821-033829 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Timko, A.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Torchio, P.

S. Enoch, J.-J. Simon, L. Escoubas, Z. Elalmy, F. Lemarquis, P. Torchio, and G. Albrand, "Simple layer-by-layer photonic crystal for the control of thermal emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261101-261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

Yugami, H.

Zhang, Z.M.

B. J. Lee, C. J. Fu, and Z.M. Zhang, "Coherent thermal emission from one-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071904-071906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zubrzycki, W.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (1)

M. Planck, "On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum," Ann. Phys. 4, 553-563 (1901).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor lightemitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 563-565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, J. Moreno, and J. G. Fleming, "Three-dimensional photonic-crystal emitter for thermal photovoltaic power generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 380-382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Lin, J. Moreno, and J. G. Fleming, "Response to Comment on ‘Three-dimensional photonic-crystal emitter for thermal photovoltaic power generation’," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1999 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Lee, C. J. Fu, and Z.M. Zhang, "Coherent thermal emission from one-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071904-071906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, "Photonic crystal enhanced narrow-band infrared emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4685-4687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Enoch, J.-J. Simon, L. Escoubas, Z. Elalmy, F. Lemarquis, P. Torchio, and G. Albrand, "Simple layer-by-layer photonic crystal for the control of thermal emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261101-261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, A. S. Pethel, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and A. S. Manka, "Transparent, metallodielectric, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2377-2383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nature (3)

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, "Coherent emission of light by thermal sources," Nature 416, 61-64 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, "All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap," Nature 417, 52-55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

C. M. Cornelius and J. P. Dowling, "Modification of Planck blackbody radiation by photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4736-4746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Florescu, H. Lee, A. J. Stimpson, and J. Dowling, "Thermal emission and absorption of radiation in finite inverted-opal photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033821-033829 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

S.-Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, E. Chow, J. Bur, K. K. Choi, and A. Goldberg, "Enhancement and suppression of thermal emission by a three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 62, R2243-R2246 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Celanovic, D. Perreault, and J. Kassakian, "Resonant-cavity enhanced thermal emission," Phys. Rev. B 72, 075127-075132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Narayanaswamy and G. Chen, "Thermal emission control with one-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 70, 125101-125104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 65, 235112-235119 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. Luo, A. Narayanaswamy, G. Chen, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Thermal Radiation from Photonic Crystals: A Direct Calculation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213905-213908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Laroche, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, "Coherent Thermal Antenna Using a Photonic Crystal Slab," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123903-123906 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

M. Boroditsky, R. Vrijen, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Bhat, and E. Yablonovitch, "Spontaneous Emission Extraction and Purcell Enhancement from Thin-Film 2-D Photonic Crystals," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2096-(1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, T. Kamikawa, Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, "Thermophotovoltaic Generation withMicrostructured Tungsten Selective Emitters," in Proceedings of the Sixth NREL Conference on Thermophotovoltaic Generation of Electricity, pp. 206-214 (2004).

S. Peng and G. M. Morris, "Resonant scattering from two-dimensional gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 993-(1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, Norwood, MA, 2000).

M. A. Ordal, R. J. Bell, J. R.W. Alexander, L. L. Long, and M. R. Querry, "Optical properties of fourteen metals in the infrared and far infrared: Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Mo, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, V and W," Appl. Opt. 24, 4493-(1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustrating the geometry of a typical system. The x- and y-axes are defined in the plane of the slab, with the z-direction coming out of the slab. We study the thermal radiation being emitted in the perpendicular direction.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(Color) Here we show emittance (solid lines) and transmittance (dotted lines) spectra for a 2D-periodic metal slab with circular holes, viewed at normal incidence and for y-polarized light. The Drude parameters used for the metal are ε∞=1, ω 0=0, γ=0.3(2πc/a) and ω p =√10(2πc/a). In Panel (a), we fix the thickness of the slab at 1.0a (where a is the lattice constant of the slab) and vary the radius of the holes. The black arrows indicate the peaks produced by the waveguide cut-off in the x-direction. In Panel (b), we keep the hole radius constant at 0.4a and vary the thickness of the slab. Here, we use arrows to indicate the peaks produced by diffraction.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Color) We show emittance (solid lines) and transmittance (dotted lines) spectra for a 2D-periodic metal slab of thickness 1.0a with circular dips, observed at normal incidence and y-polarization. The dips have a depth of 0.5a. The Drude parameters used are ε∞=1, ω 0=0, γ=0.3(2πc/a) and ω p =√10(2πc/a). We show spectra for two different radii of dips, keeping the slab thickness constant.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(Color) Panel (a) shows emittance (solid lines) and transmittance (dotted lines) spectra for a 2D-periodic metal slab of thickness 1.0a with circular dielectric pucks for normal incidence and light polarized in the y-direction. The pucks have a radius of 0.4a and a thickness of 0.2a. The Drude parameters used for the metal are ε∞=1, ω 0=0, γ=0.3(2πc/a) and ω p =√10(2πc/a). We show spectra for three different dielectric constants for the circular puck. In Panel (b), we took the peaks labeled by arrows in Panel (a), and plotted them on a dispersion curve. (Note that the third red peak in Panel (a) coincides with a diffraction peak at frequency √2≈1.41.) We see that the dispersion of the peaks (lines with circles) lies between the metal-air dispersion and the metal-dielectric dispersion, for the corresponding dielectric constant. Therefore, it is quite plausible that these peaks are produced by surface plasmon modes. In Panel (c), we show the thermal emission spectrum for the same metal slab with pucks of dielectric constant ε=5 at temperature 1000K (we call it “PhC (model)”). We also show the blackbody spectrum at that temperature for comparison. The lattice constant was chosen to be a=2.94µm. Panel (d) shows the thermal emission spectrum for the same system except that the “model” metal has been replaced by tungsten. We modeled tungsten with Drude parameters[28] ε∞=1, ω 0=0, γ/(2πc)=487cm -1 and ω p /(2πc)=51700cm -1, and we chose a=2.94µm. We show the emission spectra for a uniform tungsten slab of thickness a (without pucks) and a blackbody for comparison.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(Color) Here we show the thermal emission spectrum for a hybrid 2D-periodic structure consisting of a tungsten slab and a dielectric slab with holes. The metal slab is 1.0a thick while the dielectric slab (ε=5) is 0.2a thick with holes of radius 0.4a. We show emission of light polarized in the y-direction. In Panel (a), we display emission at two different temperatures. We chose a lattice constant of a=2.00µm. In Panel (b), we show how the emissive power changes with lattice constant. In both panels, we show emission spectra for a uniform tungsten slab of thickness a without dielectric, and a blackbody, for comparison.

Equations (2)

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R ( ω ) Φ ref Φ vac = 1 2 Re { A 1 [ E slab ( r , ω ) E vac ( r , ω ) ] * × [ H slab ( r , ω ) H vac ( r , ω ) ] · d S } 1 2 Re { A 1 E vac * ( r , ω ) × H vac ( r , ω ) · d S }
ε ( ω ) = ε + σ ( ω 0 2 ω 2 i γ ω )

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