Abstract

We show that nano-mechanical interaction using atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to map out mode-patterns of an optical micro-resonator with high spatial accuracy. Furthermore we demonstrate how the Q-factor and center wavelength of such resonances can be sensitively modified by both horizontal and vertical displacement of an AFM tip consisting of either Si3N4 or Si material. With a silicon tip we are able to tune the resonance wavelength by 2.3 nm, and to set Q between values of 615 and zero, by expedient positioning of the AFM tip. We find full on/off switching for less than 100 nm vertical, and for 500 nm lateral displacement at the strongest resonance antinode locations.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (6)

2005 (9)

W. Bogaerts et al., "Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Gerace, and L. C. Andreani, "Effects of disorder on propagation losses and cavity Q-factors in photonic crystal slabs," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.  3, 120-128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Koenderink, R. Wuest, B. C. Buchler, S. Richter, P. Strasser, M. Kafesaki, A. Rogach, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Erni, F. Robin, H. Jackel, and V. Sandoghdar, "Near-field optics and control of photonic crystals," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 63-74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. L. Hopman, P. Pottier, D. Yudistira, J. van Lith, P. V. Lambeck, R. M. De La Rue, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and R. M. de Ridder, "Quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal as a compact building-block for refractometric optical sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 11-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-2 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope," Opt. Express 13, 5553-5564 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi et al., "Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 13, 2678-2687 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hammer, and R. Stoffer, "PSTM/NSOM modeling by 2-D quadridirectional eigenmode expansion," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1956-1966 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. F. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. Hermann, and K. Busch, "Tunable photonic crystal circuits: concepts and designs based on single-pore infiltration," Opt. Lett. 29, 2858-2860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. M. H. Chong, and R. M. De La Rue, "Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermooptic effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1528-1530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

K. O. Vanderwerf et al., "Compact stand-alone atomic-force microscope," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2892-2897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreani, L. C.

D. Gerace, and L. C. Andreani, "Effects of disorder on propagation losses and cavity Q-factors in photonic crystal slabs," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.  3, 120-128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aubert, S.

Avrahami, Y.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-2 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

Barbastathis, G.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-2 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bassi, P.

M. Gnan, G. Bellanca, H. Chong, P. Bassi, and R. De La Rue, "Modeling of photonic wire Bragg gratings," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 133-148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bellanca, G.

M. Gnan, G. Bellanca, H. Chong, P. Bassi, and R. De La Rue, "Modeling of photonic wire Bragg gratings," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 133-148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blaize, S.

Bogaerts, W.

Bruyant, A.

Buchler, B. C.

A. F. Koenderink, R. Wuest, B. C. Buchler, S. Richter, P. Strasser, M. Kafesaki, A. Rogach, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Erni, F. Robin, H. Jackel, and V. Sandoghdar, "Near-field optics and control of photonic crystals," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 63-74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

Chong, H.

M. Gnan, G. Bellanca, H. Chong, P. Bassi, and R. De La Rue, "Modeling of photonic wire Bragg gratings," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 133-148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H. M. H.

H. M. H. Chong, and R. M. De La Rue, "Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermooptic effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1528-1530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R.

M. Gnan, G. Bellanca, H. Chong, P. Bassi, and R. De La Rue, "Modeling of photonic wire Bragg gratings," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 133-148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

W. C. L. Hopman, P. Pottier, D. Yudistira, J. van Lith, P. V. Lambeck, R. M. De La Rue, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and R. M. de Ridder, "Quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal as a compact building-block for refractometric optical sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 11-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. M. H. Chong, and R. M. De La Rue, "Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermooptic effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1528-1530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Ridder, R. M.

W. C. L. Hopman, P. Pottier, D. Yudistira, J. van Lith, P. V. Lambeck, R. M. De La Rue, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and R. M. de Ridder, "Quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal as a compact building-block for refractometric optical sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 11-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

W. C. L. Hopman, P. Pottier, D. Yudistira, J. van Lith, P. V. Lambeck, R. M. De La Rue, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and R. M. de Ridder, "Quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal as a compact building-block for refractometric optical sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 11-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Erni, D.

A. F. Koenderink, R. Wuest, B. C. Buchler, S. Richter, P. Strasser, M. Kafesaki, A. Rogach, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Erni, F. Robin, H. Jackel, and V. Sandoghdar, "Near-field optics and control of photonic crystals," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 63-74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gerace, D.

D. Gerace, and L. C. Andreani, "Effects of disorder on propagation losses and cavity Q-factors in photonic crystal slabs," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.  3, 120-128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gnan, M.

M. Gnan, G. Bellanca, H. Chong, P. Bassi, and R. De La Rue, "Modeling of photonic wire Bragg gratings," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 133-148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, M.

Haus, H. A.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-2 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, D.

Herzig, H. P.

Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.

W. C. L. Hopman, P. Pottier, D. Yudistira, J. van Lith, P. V. Lambeck, R. M. De La Rue, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and R. M. de Ridder, "Quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal as a compact building-block for refractometric optical sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 11-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hopman, W. C. L.

W. C. L. Hopman, P. Pottier, D. Yudistira, J. van Lith, P. V. Lambeck, R. M. De La Rue, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and R. M. de Ridder, "Quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal as a compact building-block for refractometric optical sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 11-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, K.

T. Takahata, K. Hoshino, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, "Transmittance tuning of photonic crystal reflectors using an AFM cantilever," Sens. Actuators A 128, 197-201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, H.

A. F. Koenderink, R. Wuest, B. C. Buchler, S. Richter, P. Strasser, M. Kafesaki, A. Rogach, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Erni, F. Robin, H. Jackel, and V. Sandoghdar, "Near-field optics and control of photonic crystals," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 63-74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

A. F. Koenderink, R. Wuest, B. C. Buchler, S. Richter, P. Strasser, M. Kafesaki, A. Rogach, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Erni, F. Robin, H. Jackel, and V. Sandoghdar, "Near-field optics and control of photonic crystals," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 63-74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koenderink, A. F.

A. F. Koenderink, R. Wuest, B. C. Buchler, S. Richter, P. Strasser, M. Kafesaki, A. Rogach, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Erni, F. Robin, H. Jackel, and V. Sandoghdar, "Near-field optics and control of photonic crystals," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 63-74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

Lambeck, P. V.

W. C. L. Hopman, P. Pottier, D. Yudistira, J. van Lith, P. V. Lambeck, R. M. De La Rue, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and R. M. de Ridder, "Quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal as a compact building-block for refractometric optical sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 11-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lerondel, G.

Lopez-Royo, F.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-2 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marki, I.

Matsumoto, K.

T. Takahata, K. Hoshino, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, "Transmittance tuning of photonic crystal reflectors using an AFM cantilever," Sens. Actuators A 128, 197-201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michaeli, A.

Mingaleev, S. F.

Nielson, G. N.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-2 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

O'Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pottier, P.

W. C. L. Hopman, P. Pottier, D. Yudistira, J. van Lith, P. V. Lambeck, R. M. De La Rue, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and R. M. de Ridder, "Quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal as a compact building-block for refractometric optical sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 11-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rakich, P. T.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-2 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richter, S.

A. F. Koenderink, R. Wuest, B. C. Buchler, S. Richter, P. Strasser, M. Kafesaki, A. Rogach, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Erni, F. Robin, H. Jackel, and V. Sandoghdar, "Near-field optics and control of photonic crystals," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 63-74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robin, F.

A. F. Koenderink, R. Wuest, B. C. Buchler, S. Richter, P. Strasser, M. Kafesaki, A. Rogach, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Erni, F. Robin, H. Jackel, and V. Sandoghdar, "Near-field optics and control of photonic crystals," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 63-74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rogach, A.

A. F. Koenderink, R. Wuest, B. C. Buchler, S. Richter, P. Strasser, M. Kafesaki, A. Rogach, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Erni, F. Robin, H. Jackel, and V. Sandoghdar, "Near-field optics and control of photonic crystals," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 63-74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Royer, P.

Salib, M.

Salt, M.

Sandoghdar, V.

A. F. Koenderink, R. Wuest, B. C. Buchler, S. Richter, P. Strasser, M. Kafesaki, A. Rogach, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Erni, F. Robin, H. Jackel, and V. Sandoghdar, "Near-field optics and control of photonic crystals," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 63-74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schillinger, M.

Seneviratne, D.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-2 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Settle, M.

Shimoyama, I.

T. Takahata, K. Hoshino, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, "Transmittance tuning of photonic crystal reflectors using an AFM cantilever," Sens. Actuators A 128, 197-201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, B. S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

A. F. Koenderink, R. Wuest, B. C. Buchler, S. Richter, P. Strasser, M. Kafesaki, A. Rogach, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Erni, F. Robin, H. Jackel, and V. Sandoghdar, "Near-field optics and control of photonic crystals," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 63-74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stefanon, I.

Stoffer, R.

Strasser, P.

A. F. Koenderink, R. Wuest, B. C. Buchler, S. Richter, P. Strasser, M. Kafesaki, A. Rogach, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Erni, F. Robin, H. Jackel, and V. Sandoghdar, "Near-field optics and control of photonic crystals," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 63-74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahata, T.

T. Takahata, K. Hoshino, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, "Transmittance tuning of photonic crystal reflectors using an AFM cantilever," Sens. Actuators A 128, 197-201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tuller, H. L.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-2 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Lith, J.

W. C. L. Hopman, P. Pottier, D. Yudistira, J. van Lith, P. V. Lambeck, R. M. De La Rue, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and R. M. de Ridder, "Quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal as a compact building-block for refractometric optical sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 11-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vanderwerf, K. O.

K. O. Vanderwerf et al., "Compact stand-alone atomic-force microscope," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2892-2897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watts, M. R.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-2 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

A. F. Koenderink, R. Wuest, B. C. Buchler, S. Richter, P. Strasser, M. Kafesaki, A. Rogach, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Erni, F. Robin, H. Jackel, and V. Sandoghdar, "Near-field optics and control of photonic crystals," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 63-74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wuest, R.

A. F. Koenderink, R. Wuest, B. C. Buchler, S. Richter, P. Strasser, M. Kafesaki, A. Rogach, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Erni, F. Robin, H. Jackel, and V. Sandoghdar, "Near-field optics and control of photonic crystals," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 63-74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yudistira, D.

W. C. L. Hopman, P. Pottier, D. Yudistira, J. van Lith, P. V. Lambeck, R. M. De La Rue, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and R. M. de Ridder, "Quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal as a compact building-block for refractometric optical sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 11-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. C. L. Hopman, P. Pottier, D. Yudistira, J. van Lith, P. V. Lambeck, R. M. De La Rue, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, and R. M. de Ridder, "Quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal as a compact building-block for refractometric optical sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 11-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. M. H. Chong, and R. M. De La Rue, "Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermooptic effect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1528-1530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-2 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Nature (2)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Gnan, G. Bellanca, H. Chong, P. Bassi, and R. De La Rue, "Modeling of photonic wire Bragg gratings," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 133-148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Nanostruct. (1)

D. Gerace, and L. C. Andreani, "Effects of disorder on propagation losses and cavity Q-factors in photonic crystal slabs," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.  3, 120-128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. (1)

A. F. Koenderink, R. Wuest, B. C. Buchler, S. Richter, P. Strasser, M. Kafesaki, A. Rogach, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. M. Soukoulis, D. Erni, F. Robin, H. Jackel, and V. Sandoghdar, "Near-field optics and control of photonic crystals," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 63-74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

K. O. Vanderwerf et al., "Compact stand-alone atomic-force microscope," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2892-2897 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

T. Takahata, K. Hoshino, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, "Transmittance tuning of photonic crystal reflectors using an AFM cantilever," Sens. Actuators A 128, 197-201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

S. Wonjoo, O. Solgaard, and F. Shanhui, "Displacement sensing using evanescent tunneling between guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 33102-1-4 (2005).

A. F. Koenderink, M. Kafesaki, B. C. Buchler, and V. Sandoghdar, "Controlling the resonance of a photonic crystal microcavity by a near-field probe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153904-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. van der Heijden, C. F. Carlström, J. A. P. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. W. M. Salemink, B. K. C. Kjellander, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, and E. Drift van der, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161112-1-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

23. H. Gersen et al., "Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Photonic crystal micro-cavity. (a) Computed optical field intensity of the resonant mode pattern. The arrow indicates the launching direction of light exciting the resonator. (b) SEM image of the micro-cavity. The period and hole radius are denoted with α and r respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Setup and optical field mapping using AFM. (a) Schematic drawing of the setup. (b) Geometry of the photonic crystal micro-cavity+input waveguide as obtained by conventional AFM probing in a raster scan. (c) Transmitted optical power recorded for each (grid) position of the scanning AFM tip. (d) Enhanced AFM image overlaying the optical detector data resulting in a precise map of the locations of maximum probe-field interaction, corresponding to amplitude peaks of the resonance pattern within the cavity.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Quasi 3-D representations of the position dependent probe effect on the transmission. Figs. 3(a)-3(c): Si3N4 probe in contact mode at different wavelengths λs ; Figs. 3(d)-3(f): Si tip in tapping mode with different tapping amplitudes resulting in different average probe heights (h). (a) At resonance (λs =1539.25 nm ~λr,0 ), showing lower transmission (dark regions) near antinodes of the optical field. (b) λs slightly larger than λr,0 . (c) λsr,0 , showing the inverse pattern of Fig. 3(a). (d) Si tip, tapping mode, large average height has small optical effect. (e), (f) Smaller average heights give larger optical effects.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Nano-mechanical interaction. (a) Transmission spectra for the situation without probe, and with a Si probe positioned at the antinode labeled A, and at a location B close to A, as indicated in the inset. (b) Transmission versus Si tip displacement in the z and y direction [see the dotted “scan line” in the inset of Fig. 4(a)], λsr,0 .

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Nano-mechanical tuning. (a) Change of Q and resonance wavelength detuning for a Si3N4 probe versus y-displacement along the scan line shown in Fig. 4(a). (b) The same but now for a Si tip. In close proximity to the field maximum no data could be obtained because the transmission had dropped below the noise level.

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