Abstract

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the visible and NIR spectral ranges is an effective and extensively used technique for the non-invasive study and characterization of various biological tissues. In this article, a short review of currently available modeling techniques for diffuse reflectance from semi-infinite turbid media is presented. Starting from the basic physical picture of the diffuse reflectance problem, a simple and practical model is then proposed for use with fiber optic probes. The validity of the model is tested on tissue phantoms and is then applied to the analysis of diffuse reflectance spectra collected from human skin in vivo.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2005

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Johns, C. A. Giller, D. C. German, and H. L. Liu, "Determination of reduced scattering coefficient of biological tissue from a needle-like probe," Opt. Express 13, 4828-4842 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

T. M. Breslin, F. S. Xu, G. M. Palmer, C. F. Zhu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance properties of malignant and benign breast tissues," Annals Surg. Oncol. 11, 65-70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Amelink, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, M. P. L. Bard, and S. A. Burgers, "In vivo measurement of the local optical properties of tissue by use of differential path-length spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 1087-1089 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97,1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Friedland, D. Benaron, I. Parachikov, and R. Soetikno, "Measurement of mucosal capillary hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the colon by reflectance spectrophotometry," Gastrointest. Endosc. 57, 492-497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 587-594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fournell, L. A. Schwarte, T. W. L. Scheeren, D. Kindgen-Milles, P. Feindt, and S. A. Loer, "Clinical evaluation of reflectance spectrophotometry for the measurement of gastric microvascular oxygen saturation in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass," J. Cardiothor. Vasc. An. 16, 576-581 (2002).Q1
[CrossRef]

N. Kollias and G. N. Stamatas, "Optical non-invasive approaches to diagnosis of skin disease," J. Invest. Dermatol. 7, 64-75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Sprigle, M. Linden, and B. Riordan, "Characterizing reactive hyperemia via tissue reflectance spectroscopy in response to an ischemic load across gender, age, skin pigmentation and diabetes," Med. Eng. Phys. 24, 651-661 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Harrison and A. R. Young, "Ultraviolet radiation-induced erythema in human skin," Methods 28, 14-19 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterol. 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Nordstrom, L. Burke, J. M. Niloff, and J. F. Myrtle, "Identification of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) using UV-excited fluorescence and diffuse-reflectance tissue spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 118-127 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Utzinger, M. Brewer, E. Silva, D. Gershenson, R. C. Blast, M. Follen, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of ovarian tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 56-66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 396-402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, "Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," J. Invest. Dermatol. 117,1452-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

V. K. Bhutani, G. R. Gourley, S. Adler, B. Kreamer, C. Dalin, and L. H. Johnson, "Noninvasive measurement of total serum bilirubin in a multiracial predischarge newborn population to assess the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia," Pediatrics 106, e17 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Schenkman and S. L. Yan, "Propofol impairment of mitochondrial respiration in isolated perfused guinea pig hearts determined by reflectance spectroscopy," Crit. Care Med. 28, 172-177 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1998

Z. F. Ge, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, "Identification of colonic dysplasia and neoplasia by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and pattern recognition techniques," Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 833-839 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Koenig, R. Larne, H. Enquist, F. J. McGovern, K. T. Schomacker, N. Kollias, and T. F. Deutsch, "Spectroscopic measurement of diffuse reflectance for enhanced detection of bladder carcinoma," Urology 51, 342-345 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Hoffmann, D. W. Lubbers, and H. M. Heise, "Applicability of the Kubelka-Munk theory for the evaluation of reflectance spectra demonstrated for haemoglobin-free perfused heart tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 3571-3587 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, "Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 80,116-123 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering," Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350-357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "MCML - Monte-Carlo modeling of light transport in multilayered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

L. T. Perelman, J. Wu, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, "Photon migration in turbid media using path integrals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1341-1344 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

J. Wu, F. Partovi, M. S. Feld, and R. P. Rava, "Diffuse reflectance from turbid media: an analytical model of photon migration," Appl. Opt. 32, 1115-1121 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Chen, H. Yoshihara, N. Harada, A. Seiyama, M. Watanabe, H. Kosaka, S. Kawano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, and T. Shiga, "Measurement of redox states of mitochondrial cytochrome aa3 in regions of liver lobule by reflectance microspectroscopy," Am. J. Physiol. 264, G375-G382 (1993).
[PubMed]

1992

T. J. Farrel, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. M. Schmitt, "Simple photon diffusion analysis of the effects of multiple scattering on pulse oximetry," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 1194-1203 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

1983

1948

Adler, S.

V. K. Bhutani, G. R. Gourley, S. Adler, B. Kreamer, C. Dalin, and L. H. Johnson, "Noninvasive measurement of total serum bilirubin in a multiracial predischarge newborn population to assess the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia," Pediatrics 106, e17 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amelink, A.

Atkinson, E. N.

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 587-594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97,1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterol. 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V. M.

Badizadegan, K.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterol. 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bard, M. P. L.

Bashkatov, A. N.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benaron, D.

S. Friedland, D. Benaron, I. Parachikov, and R. Soetikno, "Measurement of mucosal capillary hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the colon by reflectance spectrophotometry," Gastrointest. Endosc. 57, 492-497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhutani, V. K.

V. K. Bhutani, G. R. Gourley, S. Adler, B. Kreamer, C. Dalin, and L. H. Johnson, "Noninvasive measurement of total serum bilirubin in a multiracial predischarge newborn population to assess the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia," Pediatrics 106, e17 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering," Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350-357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blast, R. C.

U. Utzinger, M. Brewer, E. Silva, D. Gershenson, R. C. Blast, M. Follen, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of ovarian tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 56-66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolin, F. P.

Boone, C. W.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97,1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyer, J.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering," Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350-357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breslin, T. M.

T. M. Breslin, F. S. Xu, G. M. Palmer, C. F. Zhu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance properties of malignant and benign breast tissues," Annals Surg. Oncol. 11, 65-70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, M.

U. Utzinger, M. Brewer, E. Silva, D. Gershenson, R. C. Blast, M. Follen, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of ovarian tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 56-66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, G.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
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Burgers, S. A.

Burke, L.

R. J. Nordstrom, L. Burke, J. M. Niloff, and J. F. Myrtle, "Identification of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) using UV-excited fluorescence and diffuse-reflectance tissue spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 118-127 (2001).
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Bykowski, J.

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, "Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," J. Invest. Dermatol. 117,1452-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. K.

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 587-594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S. S.

S. S. Chen, H. Yoshihara, N. Harada, A. Seiyama, M. Watanabe, H. Kosaka, S. Kawano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, and T. Shiga, "Measurement of redox states of mitochondrial cytochrome aa3 in regions of liver lobule by reflectance microspectroscopy," Am. J. Physiol. 264, G375-G382 (1993).
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W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
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J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering," Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350-357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
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Dalin, C.

V. K. Bhutani, G. R. Gourley, S. Adler, B. Kreamer, C. Dalin, and L. H. Johnson, "Noninvasive measurement of total serum bilirubin in a multiracial predischarge newborn population to assess the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia," Pediatrics 106, e17 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97,1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deutsch, T. F.

F. Koenig, R. Larne, H. Enquist, F. J. McGovern, K. T. Schomacker, N. Kollias, and T. F. Deutsch, "Spectroscopic measurement of diffuse reflectance for enhanced detection of bladder carcinoma," Urology 51, 342-345 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorf, M. C.

Enquist, H.

F. Koenig, R. Larne, H. Enquist, F. J. McGovern, K. T. Schomacker, N. Kollias, and T. F. Deutsch, "Spectroscopic measurement of diffuse reflectance for enhanced detection of bladder carcinoma," Urology 51, 342-345 (1998).
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Farrel, T. J.

T. J. Farrel, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
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Feindt, P.

A. Fournell, L. A. Schwarte, T. W. L. Scheeren, D. Kindgen-Milles, P. Feindt, and S. A. Loer, "Clinical evaluation of reflectance spectrophotometry for the measurement of gastric microvascular oxygen saturation in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass," J. Cardiothor. Vasc. An. 16, 576-581 (2002).Q1
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97,1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterol. 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, J. Wu, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, "Photon migration in turbid media using path integrals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1341-1344 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wu, F. Partovi, M. S. Feld, and R. P. Rava, "Diffuse reflectance from turbid media: an analytical model of photon migration," Appl. Opt. 32, 1115-1121 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ference, R. J.

Ferwerda, H. A.

Fitzmaurice, M.

Follen, M.

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 587-594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Utzinger, M. Brewer, E. Silva, D. Gershenson, R. C. Blast, M. Follen, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of ovarian tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 56-66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fournell, A.

A. Fournell, L. A. Schwarte, T. W. L. Scheeren, D. Kindgen-Milles, P. Feindt, and S. A. Loer, "Clinical evaluation of reflectance spectrophotometry for the measurement of gastric microvascular oxygen saturation in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass," J. Cardiothor. Vasc. An. 16, 576-581 (2002).Q1
[CrossRef]

Friedland, S.

S. Friedland, D. Benaron, I. Parachikov, and R. Soetikno, "Measurement of mucosal capillary hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the colon by reflectance spectrophotometry," Gastrointest. Endosc. 57, 492-497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuentes, C.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97,1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fusamoto, H.

S. S. Chen, H. Yoshihara, N. Harada, A. Seiyama, M. Watanabe, H. Kosaka, S. Kawano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, and T. Shiga, "Measurement of redox states of mitochondrial cytochrome aa3 in regions of liver lobule by reflectance microspectroscopy," Am. J. Physiol. 264, G375-G382 (1993).
[PubMed]

Ge, Z. F.

Genina, E. A.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Georgakoudi, I.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97,1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterol. 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

German, D. C.

Gershenson, D.

U. Utzinger, M. Brewer, E. Silva, D. Gershenson, R. C. Blast, M. Follen, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of ovarian tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 56-66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilchrist, K. W.

T. M. Breslin, F. S. Xu, G. M. Palmer, C. F. Zhu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance properties of malignant and benign breast tissues," Annals Surg. Oncol. 11, 65-70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Giller, C. A.

Gourley, G. R.

V. K. Bhutani, G. R. Gourley, S. Adler, B. Kreamer, C. Dalin, and L. H. Johnson, "Noninvasive measurement of total serum bilirubin in a multiracial predischarge newborn population to assess the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia," Pediatrics 106, e17 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groenhuis, R. A. J.

Hamano, T.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harada, N.

S. S. Chen, H. Yoshihara, N. Harada, A. Seiyama, M. Watanabe, H. Kosaka, S. Kawano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, and T. Shiga, "Measurement of redox states of mitochondrial cytochrome aa3 in regions of liver lobule by reflectance microspectroscopy," Am. J. Physiol. 264, G375-G382 (1993).
[PubMed]

Harrison, G. I.

G. I. Harrison and A. R. Young, "Ultraviolet radiation-induced erythema in human skin," Methods 28, 14-19 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heise, H. M.

J. Hoffmann, D. W. Lubbers, and H. M. Heise, "Applicability of the Kubelka-Munk theory for the evaluation of reflectance spectra demonstrated for haemoglobin-free perfused heart tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 3571-3587 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, J.

J. Hoffmann, D. W. Lubbers, and H. M. Heise, "Applicability of the Kubelka-Munk theory for the evaluation of reflectance spectra demonstrated for haemoglobin-free perfused heart tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 3571-3587 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, J. Wu, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, "Photon migration in turbid media using path integrals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1341-1344 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobson, B. C.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterol. 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "MCML - Monte-Carlo modeling of light transport in multilayered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jansen, E. D.

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 396-402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johns, M.

Johnson, L. H.

V. K. Bhutani, G. R. Gourley, S. Adler, B. Kreamer, C. Dalin, and L. H. Johnson, "Noninvasive measurement of total serum bilirubin in a multiracial predischarge newborn population to assess the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia," Pediatrics 106, e17 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, M.

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 396-402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, T.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering," Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350-357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kabani, S.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97,1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamada, T.

S. S. Chen, H. Yoshihara, N. Harada, A. Seiyama, M. Watanabe, H. Kosaka, S. Kawano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, and T. Shiga, "Measurement of redox states of mitochondrial cytochrome aa3 in regions of liver lobule by reflectance microspectroscopy," Am. J. Physiol. 264, G375-G382 (1993).
[PubMed]

Kawano, S.

S. S. Chen, H. Yoshihara, N. Harada, A. Seiyama, M. Watanabe, H. Kosaka, S. Kawano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, and T. Shiga, "Measurement of redox states of mitochondrial cytochrome aa3 in regions of liver lobule by reflectance microspectroscopy," Am. J. Physiol. 264, G375-G382 (1993).
[PubMed]

Kelley, C.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kindgen-Milles, D.

A. Fournell, L. A. Schwarte, T. W. L. Scheeren, D. Kindgen-Milles, P. Feindt, and S. A. Loer, "Clinical evaluation of reflectance spectrophotometry for the measurement of gastric microvascular oxygen saturation in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass," J. Cardiothor. Vasc. An. 16, 576-581 (2002).Q1
[CrossRef]

Knoefel, W. T.

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, "Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 80,116-123 (1996).
[PubMed]

Kochubey, V. I.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koenig, F.

F. Koenig, R. Larne, H. Enquist, F. J. McGovern, K. T. Schomacker, N. Kollias, and T. F. Deutsch, "Spectroscopic measurement of diffuse reflectance for enhanced detection of bladder carcinoma," Urology 51, 342-345 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kollias, N.

N. Kollias and G. N. Stamatas, "Optical non-invasive approaches to diagnosis of skin disease," J. Invest. Dermatol. 7, 64-75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, "Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," J. Invest. Dermatol. 117,1452-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Koenig, R. Larne, H. Enquist, F. J. McGovern, K. T. Schomacker, N. Kollias, and T. F. Deutsch, "Spectroscopic measurement of diffuse reflectance for enhanced detection of bladder carcinoma," Urology 51, 342-345 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, "Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 80,116-123 (1996).
[PubMed]

Kosaka, H.

S. S. Chen, H. Yoshihara, N. Harada, A. Seiyama, M. Watanabe, H. Kosaka, S. Kawano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, and T. Shiga, "Measurement of redox states of mitochondrial cytochrome aa3 in regions of liver lobule by reflectance microspectroscopy," Am. J. Physiol. 264, G375-G382 (1993).
[PubMed]

Kreamer, B.

V. K. Bhutani, G. R. Gourley, S. Adler, B. Kreamer, C. Dalin, and L. H. Johnson, "Noninvasive measurement of total serum bilirubin in a multiracial predischarge newborn population to assess the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia," Pediatrics 106, e17 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubelka, P.

Lakhani, S.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larne, R.

F. Koenig, R. Larne, H. Enquist, F. J. McGovern, K. T. Schomacker, N. Kollias, and T. F. Deutsch, "Spectroscopic measurement of diffuse reflectance for enhanced detection of bladder carcinoma," Urology 51, 342-345 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laver, N.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97,1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lekner, J.

Lima, C.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. C.

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 396-402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, M.

S. Sprigle, M. Linden, and B. Riordan, "Characterizing reactive hyperemia via tissue reflectance spectroscopy in response to an ischemic load across gender, age, skin pigmentation and diabetes," Med. Eng. Phys. 24, 651-661 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H. L.

Loer, S. A.

A. Fournell, L. A. Schwarte, T. W. L. Scheeren, D. Kindgen-Milles, P. Feindt, and S. A. Loer, "Clinical evaluation of reflectance spectrophotometry for the measurement of gastric microvascular oxygen saturation in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass," J. Cardiothor. Vasc. An. 16, 576-581 (2002).Q1
[CrossRef]

Lubbers, D. W.

J. Hoffmann, D. W. Lubbers, and H. M. Heise, "Applicability of the Kubelka-Munk theory for the evaluation of reflectance spectra demonstrated for haemoglobin-free perfused heart tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 3571-3587 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 396-402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 587-594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McGovern, F. J.

F. Koenig, R. Larne, H. Enquist, F. J. McGovern, K. T. Schomacker, N. Kollias, and T. F. Deutsch, "Spectroscopic measurement of diffuse reflectance for enhanced detection of bladder carcinoma," Urology 51, 342-345 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirabal, Y. N.

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 587-594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourant, J. R.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering," Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350-357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, M. G.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97,1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterol. 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Myrtle, J. F.

R. J. Nordstrom, L. Burke, J. M. Niloff, and J. F. Myrtle, "Identification of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) using UV-excited fluorescence and diffuse-reflectance tissue spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 118-127 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niloff, J. M.

R. J. Nordstrom, L. Burke, J. M. Niloff, and J. F. Myrtle, "Identification of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) using UV-excited fluorescence and diffuse-reflectance tissue spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 118-127 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

Z. F. Ge, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, "Identification of colonic dysplasia and neoplasia by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and pattern recognition techniques," Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 833-839 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, "Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 80,116-123 (1996).
[PubMed]

Nordstrom, R. J.

R. J. Nordstrom, L. Burke, J. M. Niloff, and J. F. Myrtle, "Identification of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) using UV-excited fluorescence and diffuse-reflectance tissue spectroscopy," Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 118-127 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nusrat, A.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, G. M.

T. M. Breslin, F. S. Xu, G. M. Palmer, C. F. Zhu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance properties of malignant and benign breast tissues," Annals Surg. Oncol. 11, 65-70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parachikov, I.

S. Friedland, D. Benaron, I. Parachikov, and R. Soetikno, "Measurement of mucosal capillary hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the colon by reflectance spectrophotometry," Gastrointest. Endosc. 57, 492-497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Partovi, F.

Patterson, M. S.

T. J. Farrel, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterol. 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, J. Wu, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, "Photon migration in turbid media using path integrals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1341-1344 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickard, D.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Preuss, L. E.

Ramanujam, N.

T. M. Breslin, F. S. Xu, G. M. Palmer, C. F. Zhu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance properties of malignant and benign breast tissues," Annals Surg. Oncol. 11, 65-70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rattner, D. W.

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, "Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 80,116-123 (1996).
[PubMed]

Rava, R. P.

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 587-594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Utzinger, M. Brewer, E. Silva, D. Gershenson, R. C. Blast, M. Follen, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of ovarian tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 56-66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riordan, B.

S. Sprigle, M. Linden, and B. Riordan, "Characterizing reactive hyperemia via tissue reflectance spectroscopy in response to an ischemic load across gender, age, skin pigmentation and diabetes," Med. Eng. Phys. 24, 651-661 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripley, P. M.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rose, I. G.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, C.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheeren, T. W. L.

A. Fournell, L. A. Schwarte, T. W. L. Scheeren, D. Kindgen-Milles, P. Feindt, and S. A. Loer, "Clinical evaluation of reflectance spectrophotometry for the measurement of gastric microvascular oxygen saturation in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass," J. Cardiothor. Vasc. An. 16, 576-581 (2002).Q1
[CrossRef]

Schenkman, K. A.

K. A. Schenkman and S. L. Yan, "Propofol impairment of mitochondrial respiration in isolated perfused guinea pig hearts determined by reflectance spectroscopy," Crit. Care Med. 28, 172-177 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, "Simple photon diffusion analysis of the effects of multiple scattering on pulse oximetry," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 1194-1203 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schomacker, K. T.

F. Koenig, R. Larne, H. Enquist, F. J. McGovern, K. T. Schomacker, N. Kollias, and T. F. Deutsch, "Spectroscopic measurement of diffuse reflectance for enhanced detection of bladder carcinoma," Urology 51, 342-345 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. F. Ge, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, "Identification of colonic dysplasia and neoplasia by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and pattern recognition techniques," Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 833-839 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schwarte, L. A.

A. Fournell, L. A. Schwarte, T. W. L. Scheeren, D. Kindgen-Milles, P. Feindt, and S. A. Loer, "Clinical evaluation of reflectance spectrophotometry for the measurement of gastric microvascular oxygen saturation in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass," J. Cardiothor. Vasc. An. 16, 576-581 (2002).Q1
[CrossRef]

Seiler, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seiyama, A.

S. S. Chen, H. Yoshihara, N. Harada, A. Seiyama, M. Watanabe, H. Kosaka, S. Kawano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, and T. Shiga, "Measurement of redox states of mitochondrial cytochrome aa3 in regions of liver lobule by reflectance microspectroscopy," Am. J. Physiol. 264, G375-G382 (1993).
[PubMed]

Shapshay, S. M.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97,1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shields, S.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shiga, T.

S. S. Chen, H. Yoshihara, N. Harada, A. Seiyama, M. Watanabe, H. Kosaka, S. Kawano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, and T. Shiga, "Measurement of redox states of mitochondrial cytochrome aa3 in regions of liver lobule by reflectance microspectroscopy," Am. J. Physiol. 264, G375-G382 (1993).
[PubMed]

Shimada, T.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, and T. Shimada, "Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering," Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350-357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silva, E.

U. Utzinger, M. Brewer, E. Silva, D. Gershenson, R. C. Blast, M. Follen, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of ovarian tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 56-66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soetikno, R.

S. Friedland, D. Benaron, I. Parachikov, and R. Soetikno, "Measurement of mucosal capillary hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the colon by reflectance spectrophotometry," Gastrointest. Endosc. 57, 492-497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sprigle, S.

S. Sprigle, M. Linden, and B. Riordan, "Characterizing reactive hyperemia via tissue reflectance spectroscopy in response to an ischemic load across gender, age, skin pigmentation and diabetes," Med. Eng. Phys. 24, 651-661 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamatas, G. N.

N. Kollias and G. N. Stamatas, "Optical non-invasive approaches to diagnosis of skin disease," J. Invest. Dermatol. 7, 64-75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

Sun, D.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterol. 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, C. R.

Ten Bosch, J. J.

Thomas, G. A.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterol. 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Toms, S. A.

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 396-402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuchin, V. V.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Utzinger, U.

U. Utzinger, M. Brewer, E. Silva, D. Gershenson, R. C. Blast, M. Follen, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of ovarian tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 56-66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valdez, T. A.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97,1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterol. 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, M. B.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterol. 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. H.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "MCML - Monte-Carlo modeling of light transport in multilayered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. M.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97,1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warshaw, A. L.

W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, and A. L. Warshaw, "Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation," J. Appl. Physiol. 80,116-123 (1996).
[PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

S. S. Chen, H. Yoshihara, N. Harada, A. Seiyama, M. Watanabe, H. Kosaka, S. Kawano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, and T. Shiga, "Measurement of redox states of mitochondrial cytochrome aa3 in regions of liver lobule by reflectance microspectroscopy," Am. J. Physiol. 264, G375-G382 (1993).
[PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B.

T. J. Farrel, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

L. T. Perelman, J. Wu, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, "Photon migration in turbid media using path integrals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1341-1344 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wu, F. Partovi, M. S. Feld, and R. P. Rava, "Diffuse reflectance from turbid media: an analytical model of photon migration," Appl. Opt. 32, 1115-1121 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, F. S.

T. M. Breslin, F. S. Xu, G. M. Palmer, C. F. Zhu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance properties of malignant and benign breast tissues," Annals Surg. Oncol. 11, 65-70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, S. L.

K. A. Schenkman and S. L. Yan, "Propofol impairment of mitochondrial respiration in isolated perfused guinea pig hearts determined by reflectance spectroscopy," Crit. Care Med. 28, 172-177 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshihara, H.

S. S. Chen, H. Yoshihara, N. Harada, A. Seiyama, M. Watanabe, H. Kosaka, S. Kawano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, and T. Shiga, "Measurement of redox states of mitochondrial cytochrome aa3 in regions of liver lobule by reflectance microspectroscopy," Am. J. Physiol. 264, G375-G382 (1993).
[PubMed]

Young, A. R.

G. I. Harrison and A. R. Young, "Ultraviolet radiation-induced erythema in human skin," Methods 28, 14-19 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterol. 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, L. Q.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "MCML - Monte-Carlo modeling of light transport in multilayered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, C. F.

T. M. Breslin, F. S. Xu, G. M. Palmer, C. F. Zhu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance properties of malignant and benign breast tissues," Annals Surg. Oncol. 11, 65-70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zonios, G.

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, "Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," J. Invest. Dermatol. 117,1452-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Physiol.

S. S. Chen, H. Yoshihara, N. Harada, A. Seiyama, M. Watanabe, H. Kosaka, S. Kawano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, and T. Shiga, "Measurement of redox states of mitochondrial cytochrome aa3 in regions of liver lobule by reflectance microspectroscopy," Am. J. Physiol. 264, G375-G382 (1993).
[PubMed]

Annals Surg. Oncol.

T. M. Breslin, F. S. Xu, G. M. Palmer, C. F. Zhu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance properties of malignant and benign breast tissues," Annals Surg. Oncol. 11, 65-70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Spectrosc.

Cancer

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. M. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97,1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, "MCML - Monte-Carlo modeling of light transport in multilayered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crit. Care Med.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Physical picture of the diffuse reflectance process: light is incident on tissue at point xi and after several successive scattering events the unabsorbed fraction of the incident light emerges from the tissue surface as diffuse reflectance at point xf . The smooth line describes the “classical path” or “most probable path” of the light according to the path integral formalism.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Geometry of the “exponential” diffuse reflectance model. The intensity of the light propagating in tissue is exponentially attenuated according to the sum of the reduced scattering and absorption coefficients. Diffuse reflectance is scattered back being proportional to the reduced scattering coefficient.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculation of the diffuse reflectance under refractive index mismatch conditions with q being the fraction of the internally reflected light acting as an additional source. This source creates additional diffuse reflectance, part of which undergoes total internal reflection to generate an additional source, and so on. The sum over infinite steps of this process gives the total diffuse reflectance, Rtm , under refractive index mismatch conditions.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Total diffuse reflectance as a function of the µ′ sa , as calculated by (a) the diffusion model (red dashed line), (b) the exponential model (green dotted line), (c) the path integral model (blue dashed-dotted line), and (d) the Monte-Carlo model (black solid line). All models appear to be in good general agreement.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Total diffuse reflectance as a function of the µ′ sa , as predicted by the models presented in Fig. 4. The curves shown are divided by the Monte-Carlo curve, in order to illustrate differences between the models. (a) diffusion (red dashed line), (b) exponential (green dotted line), and (c) path integral (blue dashed-dotted line). All models are in good general agreement as long as absorption is significantly smaller than scattering.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental setup for diffuse reflectance measurements, which includes a tungsten-halogen light source, a compact CCD spectrophotometer, a fiber optic probe and a computer for data acquisition.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measurements on tissue phantoms: diffuse reflectance as function of µ′ s for zero absorption (top) and as a function of µ α (bottom) for three different values of the reduced scattering coefficient: µ′ s =3.2 mm-1 (circles), µ′ s =1.8 mm-1 (triangles) and µ′ s =0.65 mm-1 (squares). Solid red lines represent the best fit to Eq. (17).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Typical diffuse reflectance spectra of human skin measured in vivo. Black lines represent experimental data while red lines correspond to model fits.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Precision (%) for recovery of phantom optical properties using Eq. (17)

Tables Icon

Table 2. Tissue parameters obtained from skin spectra analysis

Equations (21)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R t = 2 μ s 0 e 2 ( μ s + μ a ) z dz = μ s μ s + μ a .
R t = μ s k μ s k + μ a = 1 1 + k μ a μ s .
R tm = R t ( 1 q ) + q R t 2 ( 1 q ) + q 2 R t 3 ( 1 q ) +
= R t ( 1 q ) ( 1 + q R t + q 2 R t 2 + )
= ( 1 q ) R t 1 q R t .
q = 2 θ c π 2 cos θ sin θ d θ = 1 1 n 2 .
q = 1.4399 n 2 + 0.7099 n 1 + 0.6681 + 0.063 n .
R tm = 1 1 + k m μ a μ s .
k m = k 1 q = k 1 ( 1 1 n 2 ) = k n 2 .
R tm = 1 1 + k n 2 μ a μ s .
R t = n = 1 ( μ s μ s + μ a ) n f n ,
R t = 1 1 + k ln ( 1 + μ a μ s ) .
R t = 1 1 + k μ a μ s .
P ( x i , x f ) = ( const ) e 1 2 μ s σ 2 0 T ( x ̈ 2 + z ̈ 2 ) dt Dx ( t ) Dz ( t ) ,
p ( θ ) = 1 2 π σ 2 e θ 2 2 σ 2 ,
f n = ( 3 2 π ( 1 g ) ) 1 2 n 3 2 e 11 6 n ( 1 g ) ,
R t = e 2 ( β ln ( 1 + μ α μ s ) 1 g ) 1 2 ,
R t = ( 1 + e 4 3 A μ z 0 ) e μ z 0 2 ,
R p = 1 k 1 1 μ s + k 2 μ a μ s
μ a ( λ ) = c Hb * ( α ε HbO 2 ( λ ) + ( 1 α ) ε Hb ( λ ) ) + c mel ε mel ( λ )
μ s ( λ ) = ( 1 d 0 1 2 d s 1 2 λ λ min λ max λ min ) μ s ( λ min ) .

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