Abstract

We present a single fiber reflectance confocal microscope with a two dimensional MEMS gimbaled scanner. Achieved lateral and axial resolutions are 0.82 μm and 13 μm, respectively. The field of view is 140 x 100 μm at 8 frames/second. Images and videos of cell phantoms and tissue are presented with sub-cellular resolution.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Kwon, V. Milanovic, and L. P. Lee, "Vertical combdrive based 2-D gimbaled micromirrors with large static rotation by backside island isolation," IEEE J Quantum Electron. 10, 498-504 (2004).
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  20. H. Xie, Y. Pan, and G. K. Fedder, "Endoscopic optical coherence tomographic imaging with a CMOS-MEMS micromirror," Sensor Actuat.A-Phys. 103, 237-241 (2003).
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  25. K. Sokolov, J. Galvan, A. Myakov, A. Lacy, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Realistic three-dimensional epithelial tissue phantoms for biomedical optics," J Biomed. Opt. 7, 148-156 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  28. R. Drezek, T. Collier, C. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid," AM J Obstet. Gynecol., 1135-1139 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. Liang, K.B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Descour, "Design of a high-numerical-aperture miniature microscope objective for an endoscopic fiber confocal microscope," Appl. Opt. 41, 4603-4610 (2002)
  30. M. Chidley, K. Carlson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Descour, "Design, assembly, and optical bench testing of a high-numerical-aperture miniature injection-molded objective for fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscopy," Appl. Opt. 45, 2545-2554 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

K. D. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions," Gynecol. Oncol. 99, S84-S88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Boudoux, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, W. M. White, N. V. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Rapid wavelength-swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy," Opt. Express 13, 8214-8221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Kozhevnikov, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, P. Kolodner, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, J. Kim, and J. V. Gates, "Micromechanical optical crossconnect with 4-F relay imaging optics," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 275-277 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kwon, V. Milanovic, and L. P. Lee, "Vertical combdrive based 2-D gimbaled micromirrors with large static rotation by backside island isolation," IEEE J Quantum Electron. 10, 498-504 (2004).

S. Kwon and L. P. Lee, "Micromachined transmissive scanning confocal microscope," Opt. Lett. 29, 706-708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

T. Collier, A. Lacy, R. Richards-Kortum, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, "Near real-time confocal microscopy of amelanotic tissue: detection of dysplasia in ex vivo cervical tissue," Acad. Radiol. 9, 504-512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolov, J. Galvan, A. Myakov, A. Lacy, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Realistic three-dimensional epithelial tissue phantoms for biomedical optics," J Biomed. Opt. 7, 148-156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Liang, K.B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Descour, "Design of a high-numerical-aperture miniature microscope objective for an endoscopic fiber confocal microscope," Appl. Opt. 41, 4603-4610 (2002)

2000

R. Drezek, T. Collier, C. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid," AM J Obstet. Gynecol., 1135-1139 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Lin and R. H. Webb, "Fiber-coupled multiplexed confocal microscope," Opt. Lett. 25, 954-956 (2000).

P. M. Hagelin, U. Krishnamoorthy, J. P. Heritage, and O. Solgaard, "Scalable optical cross-connect switch using micromachined mirrors," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 882-885 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. J. Balas, G. C. Themelis, E. P. Prokopakis, I. Orfanudaki, E. Koumantakis, and E. S. Helidonis, "In vivo detection and staging of epithelial dysplasias and malignancies based on the quantitative assessment of acetic acid-tissue interaction kinetics," J Photochem. Photobiol. B 53, 153-157 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, "Silicon-micromachined scanning confocal optical microscope," J MEMS 7, 38-47 (1998).

1996

1993

1992

1991

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, and X. Gan, "Image formation in a fiber-optical confocal scanning microscope," J Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1755-1761 (1991).

1987

Aziz, D.

Balas, C. J.

C. J. Balas, G. C. Themelis, E. P. Prokopakis, I. Orfanudaki, E. Koumantakis, and E. S. Helidonis, "In vivo detection and staging of epithelial dysplasias and malignancies based on the quantitative assessment of acetic acid-tissue interaction kinetics," J Photochem. Photobiol. B 53, 153-157 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bolle, C. A.

M. Kozhevnikov, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, P. Kolodner, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, J. Kim, and J. V. Gates, "Micromechanical optical crossconnect with 4-F relay imaging optics," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 275-277 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

Brookner, C.

R. Drezek, T. Collier, C. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid," AM J Obstet. Gynecol., 1135-1139 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carlini, A. R.

Carlson, K.

Carlson, K. D.

K. D. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions," Gynecol. Oncol. 99, S84-S88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chidley, M.

Collier, T.

K. D. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions," Gynecol. Oncol. 99, S84-S88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Collier, A. Lacy, R. Richards-Kortum, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, "Near real-time confocal microscopy of amelanotic tissue: detection of dysplasia in ex vivo cervical tissue," Acad. Radiol. 9, 504-512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, T. Collier, C. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid," AM J Obstet. Gynecol., 1135-1139 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Contag, C. H.

Dabbs, T.

Descour, M.

Dickensheets, D. L.

D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, "Silicon-micromachined scanning confocal optical microscope," J MEMS 7, 38-47 (1998).

D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, "Micromachined scanning confocal optical microscope," Opt. Lett. 21, 764-766 (1996).

Drezek, R.

R. Drezek, T. Collier, C. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid," AM J Obstet. Gynecol., 1135-1139 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fedder, G. K.

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, and Y. Pan, "Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with a modified microelectromechanical systems mirror for detection of bladder cancers," Appl. Opt. 42, 6422-6426 (2003).

H. Xie, Y. Pan, and G. K. Fedder, "Endoscopic optical coherence tomographic imaging with a CMOS-MEMS micromirror," Sensor Actuat.A-Phys. 103, 237-241 (2003).

Follen, M.

K. D. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions," Gynecol. Oncol. 99, S84-S88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, A. Malpica, C. Liang, and M. Descour, "Fiber optic confocal reflectance microscopy: a new real-time technique to view nuclear morphology in cervical squamous epithelium in vivo," Opt. Express 11, 3171-3181 (2003).

T. Collier, A. Lacy, R. Richards-Kortum, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, "Near real-time confocal microscopy of amelanotic tissue: detection of dysplasia in ex vivo cervical tissue," Acad. Radiol. 9, 504-512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Galvan, J.

K. Sokolov, J. Galvan, A. Myakov, A. Lacy, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Realistic three-dimensional epithelial tissue phantoms for biomedical optics," J Biomed. Opt. 7, 148-156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gan, X.

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, and X. Gan, "Image formation in a fiber-optical confocal scanning microscope," J Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1755-1761 (1991).

Gates, J. V.

M. Kozhevnikov, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, P. Kolodner, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, J. Kim, and J. V. Gates, "Micromechanical optical crossconnect with 4-F relay imaging optics," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 275-277 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glass, M.

Gmitro, A. F.

Gu, M.

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, and X. Gan, "Image formation in a fiber-optical confocal scanning microscope," J Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1755-1761 (1991).

Hagelin, P. M.

P. M. Hagelin, U. Krishnamoorthy, J. P. Heritage, and O. Solgaard, "Scalable optical cross-connect switch using micromachined mirrors," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 882-885 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Helidonis, E. S.

C. J. Balas, G. C. Themelis, E. P. Prokopakis, I. Orfanudaki, E. Koumantakis, and E. S. Helidonis, "In vivo detection and staging of epithelial dysplasias and malignancies based on the quantitative assessment of acetic acid-tissue interaction kinetics," J Photochem. Photobiol. B 53, 153-157 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

P. M. Hagelin, U. Krishnamoorthy, J. P. Heritage, and O. Solgaard, "Scalable optical cross-connect switch using micromachined mirrors," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 882-885 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iftimia, N. V.

Kim, J.

M. Kozhevnikov, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, P. Kolodner, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, J. Kim, and J. V. Gates, "Micromechanical optical crossconnect with 4-F relay imaging optics," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 275-277 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

Kolodner, P.

M. Kozhevnikov, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, P. Kolodner, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, J. Kim, and J. V. Gates, "Micromechanical optical crossconnect with 4-F relay imaging optics," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 275-277 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koumantakis, E.

C. J. Balas, G. C. Themelis, E. P. Prokopakis, I. Orfanudaki, E. Koumantakis, and E. S. Helidonis, "In vivo detection and staging of epithelial dysplasias and malignancies based on the quantitative assessment of acetic acid-tissue interaction kinetics," J Photochem. Photobiol. B 53, 153-157 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kozhevnikov, M.

M. Kozhevnikov, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, P. Kolodner, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, J. Kim, and J. V. Gates, "Micromechanical optical crossconnect with 4-F relay imaging optics," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 275-277 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, U.

P. M. Hagelin, U. Krishnamoorthy, J. P. Heritage, and O. Solgaard, "Scalable optical cross-connect switch using micromachined mirrors," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 882-885 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S.

S. Kwon and L. P. Lee, "Micromachined transmissive scanning confocal microscope," Opt. Lett. 29, 706-708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kwon, V. Milanovic, and L. P. Lee, "Vertical combdrive based 2-D gimbaled micromirrors with large static rotation by backside island isolation," IEEE J Quantum Electron. 10, 498-504 (2004).

Lacy, A.

K. Sokolov, J. Galvan, A. Myakov, A. Lacy, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Realistic three-dimensional epithelial tissue phantoms for biomedical optics," J Biomed. Opt. 7, 148-156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Collier, A. Lacy, R. Richards-Kortum, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, "Near real-time confocal microscopy of amelanotic tissue: detection of dysplasia in ex vivo cervical tissue," Acad. Radiol. 9, 504-512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

S. Kwon and L. P. Lee, "Micromachined transmissive scanning confocal microscope," Opt. Lett. 29, 706-708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kwon, V. Milanovic, and L. P. Lee, "Vertical combdrive based 2-D gimbaled micromirrors with large static rotation by backside island isolation," IEEE J Quantum Electron. 10, 498-504 (2004).

Liang, C.

Lin, C. P.

Lotan, R.

K. Sokolov, J. Galvan, A. Myakov, A. Lacy, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Realistic three-dimensional epithelial tissue phantoms for biomedical optics," J Biomed. Opt. 7, 148-156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, T. Collier, C. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid," AM J Obstet. Gynecol., 1135-1139 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Malpica, A.

K. B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, A. Malpica, C. Liang, and M. Descour, "Fiber optic confocal reflectance microscopy: a new real-time technique to view nuclear morphology in cervical squamous epithelium in vivo," Opt. Express 11, 3171-3181 (2003).

T. Collier, A. Lacy, R. Richards-Kortum, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, "Near real-time confocal microscopy of amelanotic tissue: detection of dysplasia in ex vivo cervical tissue," Acad. Radiol. 9, 504-512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, T. Collier, C. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid," AM J Obstet. Gynecol., 1135-1139 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mandella, M. J.

Milanovic, V.

S. Kwon, V. Milanovic, and L. P. Lee, "Vertical combdrive based 2-D gimbaled micromirrors with large static rotation by backside island isolation," IEEE J Quantum Electron. 10, 498-504 (2004).

Myakov, A.

K. Sokolov, J. Galvan, A. Myakov, A. Lacy, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Realistic three-dimensional epithelial tissue phantoms for biomedical optics," J Biomed. Opt. 7, 148-156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neilson, D. T.

M. Kozhevnikov, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, P. Kolodner, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, J. Kim, and J. V. Gates, "Micromechanical optical crossconnect with 4-F relay imaging optics," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 275-277 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oh, W. Y.

Orfanudaki, I.

C. J. Balas, G. C. Themelis, E. P. Prokopakis, I. Orfanudaki, E. Koumantakis, and E. S. Helidonis, "In vivo detection and staging of epithelial dysplasias and malignancies based on the quantitative assessment of acetic acid-tissue interaction kinetics," J Photochem. Photobiol. B 53, 153-157 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Y.

H. Xie, Y. Pan, and G. K. Fedder, "Endoscopic optical coherence tomographic imaging with a CMOS-MEMS micromirror," Sensor Actuat.A-Phys. 103, 237-241 (2003).

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, and Y. Pan, "Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with a modified microelectromechanical systems mirror for detection of bladder cancers," Appl. Opt. 42, 6422-6426 (2003).

Papazian, A. R.

M. Kozhevnikov, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, P. Kolodner, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, J. Kim, and J. V. Gates, "Micromechanical optical crossconnect with 4-F relay imaging optics," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 275-277 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pavlova, I.

K. D. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions," Gynecol. Oncol. 99, S84-S88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prokopakis, E. P.

C. J. Balas, G. C. Themelis, E. P. Prokopakis, I. Orfanudaki, E. Koumantakis, and E. S. Helidonis, "In vivo detection and staging of epithelial dysplasias and malignancies based on the quantitative assessment of acetic acid-tissue interaction kinetics," J Photochem. Photobiol. B 53, 153-157 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R.

M. Chidley, K. Carlson, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Descour, "Design, assembly, and optical bench testing of a high-numerical-aperture miniature injection-molded objective for fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscopy," Appl. Opt. 45, 2545-2554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions," Gynecol. Oncol. 99, S84-S88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, A. Malpica, C. Liang, and M. Descour, "Fiber optic confocal reflectance microscopy: a new real-time technique to view nuclear morphology in cervical squamous epithelium in vivo," Opt. Express 11, 3171-3181 (2003).

K. Sokolov, J. Galvan, A. Myakov, A. Lacy, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Realistic three-dimensional epithelial tissue phantoms for biomedical optics," J Biomed. Opt. 7, 148-156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Collier, A. Lacy, R. Richards-Kortum, A. Malpica, and M. Follen, "Near real-time confocal microscopy of amelanotic tissue: detection of dysplasia in ex vivo cervical tissue," Acad. Radiol. 9, 504-512 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Liang, K.B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Descour, "Design of a high-numerical-aperture miniature microscope objective for an endoscopic fiber confocal microscope," Appl. Opt. 41, 4603-4610 (2002)

R. Drezek, T. Collier, C. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid," AM J Obstet. Gynecol., 1135-1139 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ryf, R.

M. Kozhevnikov, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, P. Kolodner, C. A. Bolle, A. R. Papazian, J. Kim, and J. V. Gates, "Micromechanical optical crossconnect with 4-F relay imaging optics," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 275-277 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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