Abstract

We measure the sub-picosecond optical impulse response of a system consisting of a varying 1D diffusive medium and a stationary hidden object. It is shown that by averaging the temporal optical field response of a diffusive medium (as opposed to the optical intensity response) the signal-to-noise ratio of the object’s reflection can be improved considerably. The Spectral-Ballistic-Imaging technique is used to reconstruct the optical-field impulse response with a 200fs temporal resolution.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  2. E. Leith, P. Naulleau, and D. Dilworth, "Ensemble-averaged imaging through highly scattering media," Opt. Lett. 21, 1691 (1996)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Khoury, J.S. Kane, P.D. Gianino, P.L. Hemmer, and C.L. Woods, "Homodyne and heterodyne imaging through a scattering medium," Opt. Lett. 26, 1433 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Wang, P. P. Ho, F. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, "Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate," Science 253,769-771 (1991)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. C. Hebden and D. T. Delpy, "Enhanced time-resolved imaging with a diffusion model of photon transport," Opt. Lett. 19, 311 (1994)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. M. Turner, G. Zacharakis, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, V. Ntziachristos, "Complete-angle projection diffuse optical tomography by use of early photons," Opt. Lett. 30, 409 (2005)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Ya. Polishchuk, J. Dolne, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "Average and most-probable photon paths in random media," Opt. Lett. 22, 430 (1997)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Wang, X. Liang, P. Galland, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, "True scattering coefficients of turbid matter measured by early-time gating," Opt. Lett. 20, 913 (1995)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. N. Leith, B. G. Hoover, S. M. Grannell, K. D. Mills, H. S. Chen, and D. S. Dilworth, "Realization of time gating by use of spatial filtering," Appl. Opt. 38, 1370 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. D. Mills, L. Deslaurier, D. S. Dilworth, S. M. Grannell, B. G. Hoover, B. D. Athey, and E. N. Leith, "Investigation of ultrafast time gating by spatial filtering," Appl. Opt. 40, 2282 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  12. Yang Liu, Young L. Kim, Xu Li, Vadim Backman, "Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization," Opt. Express 13, 601 (2005)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C-W Sun, C-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Y-W Kiang, I-J Hsu, C-W Lin, "Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues," Opt. Express. 26, 432 (2001)
  14. C-W Sun, C-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Y-W Kiang, C-W Lu, I-J Hsu, and C-W Lin, "Polarization-Dependent Characteristics and Polarization Gating in Time-Resolved Optical Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. Wang, L. V. Wang, C-W Sun, C-C Yang, "Polarized light propagation through scattering media: time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations and experiments," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 608 (2003)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. C. Yang, C-W Sun, C-K Lee, C-W Lu, M-T Tsai, C. C. Yang, and Y-W Kiang, "Comparisons of the transmitted signals of time, aperture, and angle gating in biological tissues and a phantom," Opt. Express 12, 1157 (2004)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. Er’el Granot, Shmuel Sternklar, Dan Schermann, Yossi Ben-Aderet and Mordehai Hakham Itzhaq, "Spectral Ballistic Imaging with sub-picosecond temporal resolution," 50th meeting of the Israel Physical Society (IPS 2004)
  26. Er’el Granot, Shmuel Sternklar, Dan Schermann, Yossi Ben-Aderet and Mordehai Hakham Itzhaq, "200 femtosecond Impulse Response of a Fabry-Perot Etalon with the Spectral Ballistic Imaging Technique," Appl. Phys. B 82, 359 (2006)
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Er’el Granot, Shmuel Sternklar, Dan Schermann, Yossi Ben-Aderet and Mordehai Hakham Itzhaq, "200 femtosecond Impulse Response of a Fabry-Perot Etalon with the Spectral Ballistic Imaging Technique," Appl. Phys. B 82, 359 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

E. Granot and S. Sternklar, "Spectral ballistic imaging: a novel technique for viewing through turbid or obstructing media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A,  20, 1595 (2003)
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, L. V. Wang, C-W Sun, C-C Yang, "Polarized light propagation through scattering media: time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations and experiments," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 608 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

K. D. Mills, L. Deslaurier, D. S. Dilworth, S. M. Grannell, B. G. Hoover, B. D. Athey, and E. N. Leith, "Investigation of ultrafast time gating by spatial filtering," Appl. Opt. 40, 2282 (2001)
[CrossRef]

C-W Sun, C-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Y-W Kiang, I-J Hsu, C-W Lin, "Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues," Opt. Express. 26, 432 (2001)

C-W Sun, C-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Y-W Kiang, C-W Lu, I-J Hsu, and C-W Lin, "Polarization-Dependent Characteristics and Polarization Gating in Time-Resolved Optical Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924 (2001)
[CrossRef]

J. Khoury, J.S. Kane, P.D. Gianino, P.L. Hemmer, and C.L. Woods, "Homodyne and heterodyne imaging through a scattering medium," Opt. Lett. 26, 1433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (3)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1991 (2)

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, F. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, "Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate," Science 253,769-771 (1991)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cairns and E. Wolf, "Changes in the spectrum of light scattered by a moving diffuser plate," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1922 (1991)
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

1980 (1)

Alfano, R. R.

Athey, B. D.

Beck, M.

Cairns, B.

Chen, H.

Chen, H. S.

Delpy, D. T.

Deslaurier, L.

Dilworth, D.

Dilworth, D. S.

Dolne, J.

Franzen, D. L.

S. E. Mechels, J. B. Schlager, and D. L. Franzen, "Accurate Measurements of the Zer-Dispersion Wavelength in Optical Fibers," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 333 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Galland, P.

Gianino, P. D.

Grannell, S. M.

Granot, E.

Hebden, J. C.

Hemmer, P. L.

Hirlimann, C. A.

Ho, P. P.

L. Wang, X. Liang, P. Galland, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, "True scattering coefficients of turbid matter measured by early-time gating," Opt. Lett. 20, 913 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, F. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, "Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate," Science 253,769-771 (1991)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoover, B.

Hoover, B. G.

Hsu, I-J

C-W Sun, C-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Y-W Kiang, I-J Hsu, C-W Lin, "Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues," Opt. Express. 26, 432 (2001)

C-W Sun, C-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Y-W Kiang, C-W Lu, I-J Hsu, and C-W Lin, "Polarization-Dependent Characteristics and Polarization Gating in Time-Resolved Optical Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Kane, J. S.

Khoury, J.

Kiang, Y-W

C. C. Yang, C-W Sun, C-K Lee, C-W Lu, M-T Tsai, C. C. Yang, and Y-W Kiang, "Comparisons of the transmitted signals of time, aperture, and angle gating in biological tissues and a phantom," Opt. Express 12, 1157 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C-W Sun, C-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Y-W Kiang, C-W Lu, I-J Hsu, and C-W Lin, "Polarization-Dependent Characteristics and Polarization Gating in Time-Resolved Optical Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924 (2001)
[CrossRef]

C-W Sun, C-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Y-W Kiang, I-J Hsu, C-W Lin, "Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues," Opt. Express. 26, 432 (2001)

Knox, W. H.

Lee, C-K

Leith, E.

Leith, E. N.

Li, K. D.

Liang, X.

Lin, C-W

C-W Sun, C-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Y-W Kiang, C-W Lu, I-J Hsu, and C-W Lin, "Polarization-Dependent Characteristics and Polarization Gating in Time-Resolved Optical Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924 (2001)
[CrossRef]

C-W Sun, C-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Y-W Kiang, I-J Hsu, C-W Lin, "Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues," Opt. Express. 26, 432 (2001)

Liu, F.

A. Ya. Polishchuk, J. Dolne, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "Average and most-probable photon paths in random media," Opt. Lett. 22, 430 (1997)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, F. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, "Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate," Science 253,769-771 (1991)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez, J.

Lu, C-W

C. C. Yang, C-W Sun, C-K Lee, C-W Lu, M-T Tsai, C. C. Yang, and Y-W Kiang, "Comparisons of the transmitted signals of time, aperture, and angle gating in biological tissues and a phantom," Opt. Express 12, 1157 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C-W Sun, C-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Y-W Kiang, C-W Lu, I-J Hsu, and C-W Lin, "Polarization-Dependent Characteristics and Polarization Gating in Time-Resolved Optical Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Mechels, S. E.

S. E. Mechels, J. B. Schlager, and D. L. Franzen, "Accurate Measurements of the Zer-Dispersion Wavelength in Optical Fibers," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 333 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Mills, K. D.

Moore, R. C.

Naulleau, P.

Ntziachristos, V.

Pearson, N. M.

Polishchuk, A. Ya.

Ripoll, J.

Schlager, J. B.

S. E. Mechels, J. B. Schlager, and D. L. Franzen, "Accurate Measurements of the Zer-Dispersion Wavelength in Optical Fibers," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 333 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Slaymaker, F. H.

Soubret, A.

Steinmeyer, G.

Sternklar, S.

Stibenz, G.

Sun, C-W

C. C. Yang, C-W Sun, C-K Lee, C-W Lu, M-T Tsai, C. C. Yang, and Y-W Kiang, "Comparisons of the transmitted signals of time, aperture, and angle gating in biological tissues and a phantom," Opt. Express 12, 1157 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. V. Wang, C-W Sun, C-C Yang, "Polarized light propagation through scattering media: time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations and experiments," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 608 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C-W Sun, C-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Y-W Kiang, C-W Lu, I-J Hsu, and C-W Lin, "Polarization-Dependent Characteristics and Polarization Gating in Time-Resolved Optical Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924 (2001)
[CrossRef]

C-W Sun, C-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Y-W Kiang, I-J Hsu, C-W Lin, "Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues," Opt. Express. 26, 432 (2001)

Tsai, M-T

Turner, G. M.

Walmsley, I. A.

Wang, C-Yu

C-W Sun, C-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Y-W Kiang, I-J Hsu, C-W Lin, "Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues," Opt. Express. 26, 432 (2001)

C-W Sun, C-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Y-W Kiang, C-W Lu, I-J Hsu, and C-W Lin, "Polarization-Dependent Characteristics and Polarization Gating in Time-Resolved Optical Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, X. Liang, P. Galland, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, "True scattering coefficients of turbid matter measured by early-time gating," Opt. Lett. 20, 913 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, F. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, "Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate," Science 253,769-771 (1991)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

X. Wang, L. V. Wang, C-W Sun, C-C Yang, "Polarized light propagation through scattering media: time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations and experiments," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 608 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, L. V. Wang, C-W Sun, C-C Yang, "Polarized light propagation through scattering media: time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations and experiments," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 608 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

Woods, C. L.

Yang, C. C.

C. C. Yang, C-W Sun, C-K Lee, C-W Lu, M-T Tsai, C. C. Yang, and Y-W Kiang, "Comparisons of the transmitted signals of time, aperture, and angle gating in biological tissues and a phantom," Opt. Express 12, 1157 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Yang, C-W Sun, C-K Lee, C-W Lu, M-T Tsai, C. C. Yang, and Y-W Kiang, "Comparisons of the transmitted signals of time, aperture, and angle gating in biological tissues and a phantom," Opt. Express 12, 1157 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C-W Sun, C-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Y-W Kiang, C-W Lu, I-J Hsu, and C-W Lin, "Polarization-Dependent Characteristics and Polarization Gating in Time-Resolved Optical Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924 (2001)
[CrossRef]

C-W Sun, C-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Y-W Kiang, I-J Hsu, C-W Lin, "Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues," Opt. Express. 26, 432 (2001)

Yang, C-C

X. Wang, L. V. Wang, C-W Sun, C-C Yang, "Polarized light propagation through scattering media: time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations and experiments," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 608 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zacharakis, G.

Zhang, G.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, F. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, "Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate," Science 253,769-771 (1991)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Er’el Granot, Shmuel Sternklar, Dan Schermann, Yossi Ben-Aderet and Mordehai Hakham Itzhaq, "200 femtosecond Impulse Response of a Fabry-Perot Etalon with the Spectral Ballistic Imaging Technique," Appl. Phys. B 82, 359 (2006)
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C-W Sun, C-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Y-W Kiang, C-W Lu, I-J Hsu, and C-W Lin, "Polarization-Dependent Characteristics and Polarization Gating in Time-Resolved Optical Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924 (2001)
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

X. Wang, L. V. Wang, C-W Sun, C-C Yang, "Polarized light propagation through scattering media: time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations and experiments," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 608 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (1)

S. E. Mechels, J. B. Schlager, and D. L. Franzen, "Accurate Measurements of the Zer-Dispersion Wavelength in Optical Fibers," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 333 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Express. (1)

C-W Sun, C-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Y-W Kiang, I-J Hsu, C-W Lin, "Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues," Opt. Express. 26, 432 (2001)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Science (1)

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, F. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, "Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate," Science 253,769-771 (1991)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

See, for example, K. R. Castleman, "Digital Image Processing," (Prentice Hall, New Jersey 1996

R. Trebino, Frequency-resolved optical gating: the measurement of ultrashort lasers (Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002)
[CrossRef]

Er’el Granot, Shmuel Sternklar, Dan Schermann, Yossi Ben-Aderet and Mordehai Hakham Itzhaq, "Spectral Ballistic Imaging with sub-picosecond temporal resolution," 50th meeting of the Israel Physical Society (IPS 2004)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of dependence of the transmission and reflection coefficients on the scatterer’s location. r 1/t 1 and r 2/t 2 are the reflection/transmission coefficient which corresponds to the scatterer’s locations x 1 and x 2 respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

System Schematic.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The impulse responses acquired for ten different locations on the medium.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

top: the field of the impulse response super-imposed for the ten measurements. As can be seen from the two bottom figures, the region that corresponds to the reflection from the mirror (right) consists of in-phase field components and therefore will not vanish after averaging, as opposed to other regions (left).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The difference between averaging over the intensities of the impulse responses (lower figure) and the fields (upper figure).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

t ( x ) x = t exp ( i φ t ) x = t exp ( i φ t ) = t
r ( x ) x = r exp ( i φ r ) x 0
H ( ω ) = η ( Ω , ω ) exp [ i ω d ω τ D ( ω ) ] = η ( Ω , ω ) exp [ i lim Ω 0 ω d ω Δ Φ ( Ω , ω ) Ω ]
H ( ω N ) η ( Ω , ω N ) exp [ i δ ω Ω n = 0 N Δ Φ ( Ω , ω n ) ]

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