Abstract

Judicious chirping of a directly modulated pump laser is used to broaden the intrinsic linewidth of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber. The modulation waveform is designed to obtain a spectrum with sharp edges, resulting in phase gradients stronger that those obtained for random pump modulation. The gain and phase frequency response of the slow light process are measured by a vector network analyzer, and the delays obtained for our tailored modulation are compared with the case of random direct modulation. For equal pump powers and gain bandwidths (FWHM), the tailored modulation waveform introduces 30–40% longer delays. Using this technique, pseudo random bit sequences of 5 Gb/s were successfully delayed by up to 120 ps (BER<10-5) and 80 ps (BER<10-9).

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006

2005

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. Emjelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Shweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. González-Herráez, K.-Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, "Optically controlled slow and fast light in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Willner, "Maximum time delay achievable on propagation through a slow light medium," Phys. Rev. A. 71, 023801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K.-Y. Song, M. González-Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, "Long optically controlled delays in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1782-1784 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, "Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier," Opt. Express 13, 6092-6098 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dahan, and G. Eisenstein, "Tunable all optical delay via slow and fast light propagation in Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: a route to all optical buffering," Opt. Express 136234-6249 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 139995-10002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Tucker, P.-C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4046-4066 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier, and M. A. Neifeld, "The speed of information in a 'fast-light' optical medium," Nature 425, 695-698 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Grade, "High resolution measurement of stimulated Brillouin scattering spectra in single-mode fibers," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 143-148 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Shalom, A. Zadok, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell and I. Andonovich, "On the various time constants of wavelength changes of a DFB laser under direct modulation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34,1816-1824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W.D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovich, "Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  10, 1709-1711 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992

B. W. Hakki, "Evaluation of transmission characteristics of chirped DFB lasers in dispersive optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol.  10964-970 (1992)
[CrossRef]

1981

M. Ito, and T. Kimura, "Stationary and transient thermal properties of semiconductor laser diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 787-795 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Andonovich, I.

A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W.D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovich, "Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  10, 1709-1711 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Shalom, A. Zadok, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell and I. Andonovich, "On the various time constants of wavelength changes of a DFB laser under direct modulation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34,1816-1824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Behroozi, C.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behroozi, C. H.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Benito, D.

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Grade, "High resolution measurement of stimulated Brillouin scattering spectra in single-mode fibers," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 143-148 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bernini, R.

Bigelow, M. S.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Shweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. Emjelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Shweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Willner, "Maximum time delay achievable on propagation through a slow light medium," Phys. Rev. A. 71, 023801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. W.

Chang-Hasnain, C.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Chuang, S. L.

Cornwell, W. D.

H. Shalom, A. Zadok, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell and I. Andonovich, "On the various time constants of wavelength changes of a DFB laser under direct modulation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34,1816-1824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cornwell, W.D.

A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W.D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovich, "Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  10, 1709-1711 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dahan, D.

Dawes, A. M. C.

Dutton, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eisenstein, G.

Emjelen, R. J.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. Emjelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Shweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

J. E. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, "Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier," Opt. Express 13, 6092-6098 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Willner, "Maximum time delay achievable on propagation through a slow light medium," Phys. Rev. A. 71, 023801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, D. J.

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Willner, "Maximum time delay achievable on propagation through a slow light medium," Phys. Rev. A. 71, 023801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 139995-10002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Shweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier, and M. A. Neifeld, "The speed of information in a 'fast-light' optical medium," Nature 425, 695-698 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gersen, H.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. Emjelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

González-Herráez, M.

Grade, M. J.

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Grade, "High resolution measurement of stimulated Brillouin scattering spectra in single-mode fibers," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 143-148 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hakki, B. W.

B. W. Hakki, "Evaluation of transmission characteristics of chirped DFB lasers in dispersive optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol.  10964-970 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hau, L. V.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ito, M.

M. Ito, and T. Kimura, "Stationary and transient thermal properties of semiconductor laser diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 787-795 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Karle, T. J.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. Emjelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khurgin, J. B.

Kimura, T.

M. Ito, and T. Kimura, "Stationary and transient thermal properties of semiconductor laser diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 787-795 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Korterik, J. P.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. Emjelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, T. F.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. Emjelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ku, P. C.

Ku, P.-C.

Kuipers, L.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. Emjelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, T.

Liu, C.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loayssa, A.

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Grade, "High resolution measurement of stimulated Brillouin scattering spectra in single-mode fibers," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 143-148 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Minardo, A.

Neifeld, M. A.

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 139995-10002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier, and M. A. Neifeld, "The speed of information in a 'fast-light' optical medium," Nature 425, 695-698 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nevet, A.

Okawachi, Y.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Shweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, "Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier," Opt. Express 13, 6092-6098 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orbach, N.

Palinginis, P.

Sedgwich, F.

Shalom, H.

A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W.D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovich, "Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  10, 1709-1711 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Shalom, A. Zadok, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell and I. Andonovich, "On the various time constants of wavelength changes of a DFB laser under direct modulation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34,1816-1824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sharping, J.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Shweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharping, J. E.

Shumakher, E.

Shweinsberg, A.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Shweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, K.-Y.

Stenner, M. D.

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 139995-10002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier, and M. A. Neifeld, "The speed of information in a 'fast-light' optical medium," Nature 425, 695-698 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thévenaz, L.

Tucker, R. S.

Tur, M.

H. Shalom, A. Zadok, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell and I. Andonovich, "On the various time constants of wavelength changes of a DFB laser under direct modulation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34,1816-1824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W.D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovich, "Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  10, 1709-1711 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. Emjelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Willner, A. E.

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Willner, "Maximum time delay achievable on propagation through a slow light medium," Phys. Rev. A. 71, 023801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zadok, A.

H. Shalom, A. Zadok, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell and I. Andonovich, "On the various time constants of wavelength changes of a DFB laser under direct modulation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34,1816-1824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W.D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovich, "Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  10, 1709-1711 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zeni, L.

Zhu, Z.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a): Gaussian and truncated Gaussian spectral gain curves Re[g(ω)]. (b): Corresponding spectral phase responses Im[g(ω)], calculated using the Kramers-Kronig relations.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a): Dashed line: simulated optical spectrum of DFB laser periodically modulated by the waveform of Eq. (3) with the following parameters: adiabatic chirp coefficient 0.33 GHz/mA, τ1,2=20, 200 ns and Δν1,2=0.15, 0.48 GHz/mA [22]; Solid line: corresponding measured spectrum. (b): Dashed line: measured optical spectrum for a directly modulated DFB laser, using the waveform of Eq. (3) together with a 20 MHz random component of 2mA (rms); Solid line: measured optical spectrum for a directly modulated DFB laser, using 200 MHz random modulation of 20mA (rms).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Setup for the measurements of the SBS slow light gain and phase response. BPF: band pass filter. EDFA: Erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured gain curves of SBS using synthesized (a) and random (b) direct pump modulation. The pump power levels are (top to bottom): 22 dBm, 21 dBm, 20 dBm, 19 dBm. Measured phase response curves of SBS using synthesized (c) and random (d) direct pump modulation. The pump power levels are: 22 dBm (blue), 21 dBm (green), 20 dBm (red).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Calculated group delays as a function of maximum SBS power gain, using synthesized (asterisk signs) and random (plus signs) direct pump modulation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a): SBS induced delays of 270 ps pulses using synthesized pump modulation. Solid lines, left to right: input pulse, output pulse for pump power of 18 dBm, output pulse for pump power of 22 dBm. Dashed lines: calculated output pulses for pump power of 18 dBm (left) and 22 dBm (right). (b): Measured delays of 5 Gb/s NRZ PRBS as a function of power gain, using synthesized (asterisk signs) and random (plus signs) direct modulations.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Output eye diagram of a 5 Gb/s NRZ PRBS, delayed by 120 ps using SBS with synthesized, direct pump modulation.

Equations (3)

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ν ( t ) = i ( t ) h ( t ) ; h ( t ) = n = 1 N Δ ν n exp ( t τ n )
Im [ g ( ω ) 2 ] = 2 π 0 Re [ g ( ω ' ) 2 ] ω ' 2 ω 2 d ω '
i ( t ) = i 0 + Δ i [ 1 ( t mod T T ) 1.5 ] ,

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