Abstract

The accurate calibration of the force constant of the probe in atomic force microscopy and optical tweezers applications is extremely important for force spectroscopy. The commonly used silicon detectors exhibit a complex transfer function for wavelengths >850 nm, which limits the detection bandwidth leading to serious errors in the force constant determination. We show that this low-pass effect can be compensated for using the frequency response of the detector. This is applicable for calibrations in both atomic force microscopy and optical tweezers. For optical tweezers an additional correction method is discussed based on fitting an expression in which the low-pass characteristics are already accounted for.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Hinterdorfer, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, K. Schilcher and H. Schindler, "Detection and localization of individual antibody-antigen recognition events by atomic force microscopy," PNAS 93, 3477-3481 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Rief, M. Gautel, F. Oesterhelt, J. M. Fernandez and H. E. Gaub, "Reversible unfolding of individual titin immunoglobulin domains by afm," Science 276, 1109-1112 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. J. Muller, W. Baumeister and A. Engel, "Controlled unzipping of a bacterial surface layer with atomic force microscopy," PNAS 96, 13170-13174 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Oesterhelt, D. Oesterhelt, M. Pfeiffer, A. Engel, H. E. Gaub and D. J. Muller, "Unfolding pathways of individual bacteriorhodopsins," Science 288, 143-146 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. B. Smith, Y. J. Cui and C. Bustamante,"Overstretching b-dna: The elastic response of individual doublestranded and single-stranded dna molecules," Science 271, 795-799 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Kassies, K. O. van derWerf, A. Lenferink, C. N. Hunter, J. D. Olsen, V. Subramaniam and C. Otto, "Combined afm and confocal fluorescence microscope for applications in bio-nanotechnology," J. Microsc. 217, 109-16 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, "Biological applications of optical forces," Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247-285 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

J. H. G. Huisstede, K. O. van derWerf, M. L. Bennink and V. Subramaniam, "Force detection in optical tweezers using backscattered light," Opt. Express 13, 1113-1123 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Abbondanzieri, W. J. Greenleaf, J. W. Shaevitz, R. Landick and S. M. Block, "Direct observation of basepair stepping by rna polymerase," Nature 438, 460-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kassies, K. O. van derWerf, A. Lenferink, C. N. Hunter, J. D. Olsen, V. Subramaniam and C. Otto, "Combined afm and confocal fluorescence microscope for applications in bio-nanotechnology," J. Microsc. 217, 109-16 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

K. Berg-Sorensen and H. Flyvbjerg, "Power spectrum analysis for optical tweezers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 594- 612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, "Optical trapping," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787-2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

K. Berg-Sorensen, L. Oddershede, E. L. Florin and H. Flyvbjerg, "Unintended filtering in a typical photodiode detection system for optical tweezers," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3167-3176 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. G. Peterman, M. A. van Dijk, L. C. Kapitein and C. F. Schmidt, "Extending the bandwidth of opticaltweezers interferometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3246-3249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson and C. Bustamante, "The bacteriophage phi 29 portal motor can package dna against a large internal force," Nature 413, 748-752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Bennink, S. H. Leuba, G. H. Leno, J. Zlatanova, B. G. de Grooth and J. Greve, "Unfolding individual nucleosomes by stretching single chromatin fibers with optical tweezers," Nat. Struct. Biol. 8, 606-610 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

F. Oesterhelt, D. Oesterhelt, M. Pfeiffer, A. Engel, H. E. Gaub and D. J. Muller, "Unfolding pathways of individual bacteriorhodopsins," Science 288, 143-146 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. J. Muller, W. Baumeister and A. Engel, "Controlled unzipping of a bacterial surface layer with atomic force microscopy," PNAS 96, 13170-13174 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

M. Rief, M. Gautel, F. Oesterhelt, J. M. Fernandez and H. E. Gaub, "Reversible unfolding of individual titin immunoglobulin domains by afm," Science 276, 1109-1112 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Z. Kellermayer and C. Bustamante, "Folding-unfolding transitions in single titin molecules characterized with laser tweezers," Science 277, 1117-1117 (1997).

1996 (2)

P. Hinterdorfer, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, K. Schilcher and H. Schindler, "Detection and localization of individual antibody-antigen recognition events by atomic force microscopy," PNAS 93, 3477-3481 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Smith, Y. J. Cui and C. Bustamante,"Overstretching b-dna: The elastic response of individual doublestranded and single-stranded dna molecules," Science 271, 795-799 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

G. U. Lee, D. A. Kidwell and R. J. Colton, "Sensing discrete streptavidin biotin interactions with atomic-force microscopy," Langmuir 10, 354-357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, "Biological applications of optical forces," Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247-285 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K.O. van der Werf, C.A.J. Putman, B.G. de Grooth, F.B. Segerink, E.H. Schipper, N.F. van Hulst and J. Greve, "Compact standalone atomic force microscope," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2892 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Abbondanzieri, E. A.

E. A. Abbondanzieri, W. J. Greenleaf, J. W. Shaevitz, R. Landick and S. M. Block, "Direct observation of basepair stepping by rna polymerase," Nature 438, 460-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, D. L.

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson and C. Bustamante, "The bacteriophage phi 29 portal motor can package dna against a large internal force," Nature 413, 748-752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumeister, W.

D. J. Muller, W. Baumeister and A. Engel, "Controlled unzipping of a bacterial surface layer with atomic force microscopy," PNAS 96, 13170-13174 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumgartner, W.

P. Hinterdorfer, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, K. Schilcher and H. Schindler, "Detection and localization of individual antibody-antigen recognition events by atomic force microscopy," PNAS 93, 3477-3481 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennink, M. L.

J. H. G. Huisstede, K. O. van derWerf, M. L. Bennink and V. Subramaniam, "Force detection in optical tweezers using backscattered light," Opt. Express 13, 1113-1123 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Bennink, S. H. Leuba, G. H. Leno, J. Zlatanova, B. G. de Grooth and J. Greve, "Unfolding individual nucleosomes by stretching single chromatin fibers with optical tweezers," Nat. Struct. Biol. 8, 606-610 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennink, M.L.

Berg-Sorensen, K.

K. Berg-Sorensen and H. Flyvbjerg, "Power spectrum analysis for optical tweezers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 594- 612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Berg-Sorensen, L. Oddershede, E. L. Florin and H. Flyvbjerg, "Unintended filtering in a typical photodiode detection system for optical tweezers," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3167-3176 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Block, S. M.

E. A. Abbondanzieri, W. J. Greenleaf, J. W. Shaevitz, R. Landick and S. M. Block, "Direct observation of basepair stepping by rna polymerase," Nature 438, 460-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, "Optical trapping," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787-2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, "Biological applications of optical forces," Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247-285 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bustamante, C.

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson and C. Bustamante, "The bacteriophage phi 29 portal motor can package dna against a large internal force," Nature 413, 748-752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Z. Kellermayer and C. Bustamante, "Folding-unfolding transitions in single titin molecules characterized with laser tweezers," Science 277, 1117-1117 (1997).

S. B. Smith, Y. J. Cui and C. Bustamante,"Overstretching b-dna: The elastic response of individual doublestranded and single-stranded dna molecules," Science 271, 795-799 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colton, R. J.

G. U. Lee, D. A. Kidwell and R. J. Colton, "Sensing discrete streptavidin biotin interactions with atomic-force microscopy," Langmuir 10, 354-357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y. J.

S. B. Smith, Y. J. Cui and C. Bustamante,"Overstretching b-dna: The elastic response of individual doublestranded and single-stranded dna molecules," Science 271, 795-799 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Grooth, B. G.

M. L. Bennink, S. H. Leuba, G. H. Leno, J. Zlatanova, B. G. de Grooth and J. Greve, "Unfolding individual nucleosomes by stretching single chromatin fibers with optical tweezers," Nat. Struct. Biol. 8, 606-610 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Grooth, B.G.

K.O. van der Werf, C.A.J. Putman, B.G. de Grooth, F.B. Segerink, E.H. Schipper, N.F. van Hulst and J. Greve, "Compact standalone atomic force microscope," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2892 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Engel, A.

F. Oesterhelt, D. Oesterhelt, M. Pfeiffer, A. Engel, H. E. Gaub and D. J. Muller, "Unfolding pathways of individual bacteriorhodopsins," Science 288, 143-146 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Muller, W. Baumeister and A. Engel, "Controlled unzipping of a bacterial surface layer with atomic force microscopy," PNAS 96, 13170-13174 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernandez, J. M.

M. Rief, M. Gautel, F. Oesterhelt, J. M. Fernandez and H. E. Gaub, "Reversible unfolding of individual titin immunoglobulin domains by afm," Science 276, 1109-1112 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Florin, E. L.

K. Berg-Sorensen, L. Oddershede, E. L. Florin and H. Flyvbjerg, "Unintended filtering in a typical photodiode detection system for optical tweezers," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3167-3176 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flyvbjerg, H.

K. Berg-Sorensen and H. Flyvbjerg, "Power spectrum analysis for optical tweezers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 594- 612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Berg-Sorensen, L. Oddershede, E. L. Florin and H. Flyvbjerg, "Unintended filtering in a typical photodiode detection system for optical tweezers," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3167-3176 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gaub, H. E.

F. Oesterhelt, D. Oesterhelt, M. Pfeiffer, A. Engel, H. E. Gaub and D. J. Muller, "Unfolding pathways of individual bacteriorhodopsins," Science 288, 143-146 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Rief, M. Gautel, F. Oesterhelt, J. M. Fernandez and H. E. Gaub, "Reversible unfolding of individual titin immunoglobulin domains by afm," Science 276, 1109-1112 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gautel, M.

M. Rief, M. Gautel, F. Oesterhelt, J. M. Fernandez and H. E. Gaub, "Reversible unfolding of individual titin immunoglobulin domains by afm," Science 276, 1109-1112 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenleaf, W. J.

E. A. Abbondanzieri, W. J. Greenleaf, J. W. Shaevitz, R. Landick and S. M. Block, "Direct observation of basepair stepping by rna polymerase," Nature 438, 460-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greve, J.

M. L. Bennink, S. H. Leuba, G. H. Leno, J. Zlatanova, B. G. de Grooth and J. Greve, "Unfolding individual nucleosomes by stretching single chromatin fibers with optical tweezers," Nat. Struct. Biol. 8, 606-610 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.O. van der Werf, C.A.J. Putman, B.G. de Grooth, F.B. Segerink, E.H. Schipper, N.F. van Hulst and J. Greve, "Compact standalone atomic force microscope," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2892 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grimes, S.

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson and C. Bustamante, "The bacteriophage phi 29 portal motor can package dna against a large internal force," Nature 413, 748-752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruber, H. J.

P. Hinterdorfer, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, K. Schilcher and H. Schindler, "Detection and localization of individual antibody-antigen recognition events by atomic force microscopy," PNAS 93, 3477-3481 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hinterdorfer, P.

P. Hinterdorfer, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, K. Schilcher and H. Schindler, "Detection and localization of individual antibody-antigen recognition events by atomic force microscopy," PNAS 93, 3477-3481 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huisstede, J. H. G.

Huisstede, J.H.G.

Hunter, C. N.

R. Kassies, K. O. van derWerf, A. Lenferink, C. N. Hunter, J. D. Olsen, V. Subramaniam and C. Otto, "Combined afm and confocal fluorescence microscope for applications in bio-nanotechnology," J. Microsc. 217, 109-16 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapitein, L. C.

E. J. G. Peterman, M. A. van Dijk, L. C. Kapitein and C. F. Schmidt, "Extending the bandwidth of opticaltweezers interferometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3246-3249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kassies, R.

R. Kassies, K. O. van derWerf, A. Lenferink, C. N. Hunter, J. D. Olsen, V. Subramaniam and C. Otto, "Combined afm and confocal fluorescence microscope for applications in bio-nanotechnology," J. Microsc. 217, 109-16 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kellermayer, M. S. Z.

M. S. Z. Kellermayer and C. Bustamante, "Folding-unfolding transitions in single titin molecules characterized with laser tweezers," Science 277, 1117-1117 (1997).

Kidwell, D. A.

G. U. Lee, D. A. Kidwell and R. J. Colton, "Sensing discrete streptavidin biotin interactions with atomic-force microscopy," Langmuir 10, 354-357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Landick, R.

E. A. Abbondanzieri, W. J. Greenleaf, J. W. Shaevitz, R. Landick and S. M. Block, "Direct observation of basepair stepping by rna polymerase," Nature 438, 460-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, G. U.

G. U. Lee, D. A. Kidwell and R. J. Colton, "Sensing discrete streptavidin biotin interactions with atomic-force microscopy," Langmuir 10, 354-357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lenferink, A.

R. Kassies, K. O. van derWerf, A. Lenferink, C. N. Hunter, J. D. Olsen, V. Subramaniam and C. Otto, "Combined afm and confocal fluorescence microscope for applications in bio-nanotechnology," J. Microsc. 217, 109-16 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leno, G. H.

M. L. Bennink, S. H. Leuba, G. H. Leno, J. Zlatanova, B. G. de Grooth and J. Greve, "Unfolding individual nucleosomes by stretching single chromatin fibers with optical tweezers," Nat. Struct. Biol. 8, 606-610 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuba, S. H.

M. L. Bennink, S. H. Leuba, G. H. Leno, J. Zlatanova, B. G. de Grooth and J. Greve, "Unfolding individual nucleosomes by stretching single chromatin fibers with optical tweezers," Nat. Struct. Biol. 8, 606-610 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, D. J.

F. Oesterhelt, D. Oesterhelt, M. Pfeiffer, A. Engel, H. E. Gaub and D. J. Muller, "Unfolding pathways of individual bacteriorhodopsins," Science 288, 143-146 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Muller, W. Baumeister and A. Engel, "Controlled unzipping of a bacterial surface layer with atomic force microscopy," PNAS 96, 13170-13174 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuman, K. C.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, "Optical trapping," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787-2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oddershede, L.

K. Berg-Sorensen, L. Oddershede, E. L. Florin and H. Flyvbjerg, "Unintended filtering in a typical photodiode detection system for optical tweezers," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3167-3176 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oesterhelt, D.

F. Oesterhelt, D. Oesterhelt, M. Pfeiffer, A. Engel, H. E. Gaub and D. J. Muller, "Unfolding pathways of individual bacteriorhodopsins," Science 288, 143-146 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oesterhelt, F.

F. Oesterhelt, D. Oesterhelt, M. Pfeiffer, A. Engel, H. E. Gaub and D. J. Muller, "Unfolding pathways of individual bacteriorhodopsins," Science 288, 143-146 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Rief, M. Gautel, F. Oesterhelt, J. M. Fernandez and H. E. Gaub, "Reversible unfolding of individual titin immunoglobulin domains by afm," Science 276, 1109-1112 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olsen, J. D.

R. Kassies, K. O. van derWerf, A. Lenferink, C. N. Hunter, J. D. Olsen, V. Subramaniam and C. Otto, "Combined afm and confocal fluorescence microscope for applications in bio-nanotechnology," J. Microsc. 217, 109-16 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otto, C.

R. Kassies, K. O. van derWerf, A. Lenferink, C. N. Hunter, J. D. Olsen, V. Subramaniam and C. Otto, "Combined afm and confocal fluorescence microscope for applications in bio-nanotechnology," J. Microsc. 217, 109-16 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterman, E. J. G.

E. J. G. Peterman, M. A. van Dijk, L. C. Kapitein and C. F. Schmidt, "Extending the bandwidth of opticaltweezers interferometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3246-3249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, M.

F. Oesterhelt, D. Oesterhelt, M. Pfeiffer, A. Engel, H. E. Gaub and D. J. Muller, "Unfolding pathways of individual bacteriorhodopsins," Science 288, 143-146 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Putman, C.A.J.

K.O. van der Werf, C.A.J. Putman, B.G. de Grooth, F.B. Segerink, E.H. Schipper, N.F. van Hulst and J. Greve, "Compact standalone atomic force microscope," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2892 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rief, M.

M. Rief, M. Gautel, F. Oesterhelt, J. M. Fernandez and H. E. Gaub, "Reversible unfolding of individual titin immunoglobulin domains by afm," Science 276, 1109-1112 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schilcher, K.

P. Hinterdorfer, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, K. Schilcher and H. Schindler, "Detection and localization of individual antibody-antigen recognition events by atomic force microscopy," PNAS 93, 3477-3481 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schindler, H.

P. Hinterdorfer, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, K. Schilcher and H. Schindler, "Detection and localization of individual antibody-antigen recognition events by atomic force microscopy," PNAS 93, 3477-3481 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schipper, E.H.

K.O. van der Werf, C.A.J. Putman, B.G. de Grooth, F.B. Segerink, E.H. Schipper, N.F. van Hulst and J. Greve, "Compact standalone atomic force microscope," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2892 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, C. F.

E. J. G. Peterman, M. A. van Dijk, L. C. Kapitein and C. F. Schmidt, "Extending the bandwidth of opticaltweezers interferometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3246-3249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Segerink, F.B.

K.O. van der Werf, C.A.J. Putman, B.G. de Grooth, F.B. Segerink, E.H. Schipper, N.F. van Hulst and J. Greve, "Compact standalone atomic force microscope," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2892 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shaevitz, J. W.

E. A. Abbondanzieri, W. J. Greenleaf, J. W. Shaevitz, R. Landick and S. M. Block, "Direct observation of basepair stepping by rna polymerase," Nature 438, 460-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. E.

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson and C. Bustamante, "The bacteriophage phi 29 portal motor can package dna against a large internal force," Nature 413, 748-752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S. B.

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson and C. Bustamante, "The bacteriophage phi 29 portal motor can package dna against a large internal force," Nature 413, 748-752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Smith, Y. J. Cui and C. Bustamante,"Overstretching b-dna: The elastic response of individual doublestranded and single-stranded dna molecules," Science 271, 795-799 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subramaniam, V.

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, "Biological applications of optical forces," Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247-285 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tans, S. J.

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson and C. Bustamante, "The bacteriophage phi 29 portal motor can package dna against a large internal force," Nature 413, 748-752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Werf, K.O.

J.H.G. Huisstede, B.D. van Rooijen, K.O. van der Werf, M.L. Bennink and V. Subramaniam, "Dependence of silicon position-detector bandwidth on wavelength, power, and bias," Opt. Lett. 31, 610-612 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.O. van der Werf, C.A.J. Putman, B.G. de Grooth, F.B. Segerink, E.H. Schipper, N.F. van Hulst and J. Greve, "Compact standalone atomic force microscope," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2892 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van derWerf, K. O.

R. Kassies, K. O. van derWerf, A. Lenferink, C. N. Hunter, J. D. Olsen, V. Subramaniam and C. Otto, "Combined afm and confocal fluorescence microscope for applications in bio-nanotechnology," J. Microsc. 217, 109-16 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. G. Huisstede, K. O. van derWerf, M. L. Bennink and V. Subramaniam, "Force detection in optical tweezers using backscattered light," Opt. Express 13, 1113-1123 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Dijk, M. A.

E. J. G. Peterman, M. A. van Dijk, L. C. Kapitein and C. F. Schmidt, "Extending the bandwidth of opticaltweezers interferometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3246-3249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N.F.

K.O. van der Werf, C.A.J. Putman, B.G. de Grooth, F.B. Segerink, E.H. Schipper, N.F. van Hulst and J. Greve, "Compact standalone atomic force microscope," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2892 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van Rooijen, B.D.

Zlatanova, J.

M. L. Bennink, S. H. Leuba, G. H. Leno, J. Zlatanova, B. G. de Grooth and J. Greve, "Unfolding individual nucleosomes by stretching single chromatin fibers with optical tweezers," Nat. Struct. Biol. 8, 606-610 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. (1)

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, "Biological applications of optical forces," Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247-285 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Berg-Sorensen, L. Oddershede, E. L. Florin and H. Flyvbjerg, "Unintended filtering in a typical photodiode detection system for optical tweezers," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3167-3176 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

R. Kassies, K. O. van derWerf, A. Lenferink, C. N. Hunter, J. D. Olsen, V. Subramaniam and C. Otto, "Combined afm and confocal fluorescence microscope for applications in bio-nanotechnology," J. Microsc. 217, 109-16 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (1)

G. U. Lee, D. A. Kidwell and R. J. Colton, "Sensing discrete streptavidin biotin interactions with atomic-force microscopy," Langmuir 10, 354-357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Struct. Biol. (1)

M. L. Bennink, S. H. Leuba, G. H. Leno, J. Zlatanova, B. G. de Grooth and J. Greve, "Unfolding individual nucleosomes by stretching single chromatin fibers with optical tweezers," Nat. Struct. Biol. 8, 606-610 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

E. A. Abbondanzieri, W. J. Greenleaf, J. W. Shaevitz, R. Landick and S. M. Block, "Direct observation of basepair stepping by rna polymerase," Nature 438, 460-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson and C. Bustamante, "The bacteriophage phi 29 portal motor can package dna against a large internal force," Nature 413, 748-752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

PNAS (2)

P. Hinterdorfer, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, K. Schilcher and H. Schindler, "Detection and localization of individual antibody-antigen recognition events by atomic force microscopy," PNAS 93, 3477-3481 (1996).
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D. J. Muller, W. Baumeister and A. Engel, "Controlled unzipping of a bacterial surface layer with atomic force microscopy," PNAS 96, 13170-13174 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (4)

K. Berg-Sorensen and H. Flyvbjerg, "Power spectrum analysis for optical tweezers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 594- 612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. J. G. Peterman, M. A. van Dijk, L. C. Kapitein and C. F. Schmidt, "Extending the bandwidth of opticaltweezers interferometry," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3246-3249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, "Optical trapping," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787-2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.O. van der Werf, C.A.J. Putman, B.G. de Grooth, F.B. Segerink, E.H. Schipper, N.F. van Hulst and J. Greve, "Compact standalone atomic force microscope," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2892 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

F. Oesterhelt, D. Oesterhelt, M. Pfeiffer, A. Engel, H. E. Gaub and D. J. Muller, "Unfolding pathways of individual bacteriorhodopsins," Science 288, 143-146 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Smith, Y. J. Cui and C. Bustamante,"Overstretching b-dna: The elastic response of individual doublestranded and single-stranded dna molecules," Science 271, 795-799 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Z. Kellermayer and C. Bustamante, "Folding-unfolding transitions in single titin molecules characterized with laser tweezers," Science 277, 1117-1117 (1997).

M. Rief, M. Gautel, F. Oesterhelt, J. M. Fernandez and H. E. Gaub, "Reversible unfolding of individual titin immunoglobulin domains by afm," Science 276, 1109-1112 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

F. Reif. Fundamentals of statistical and thermal physics. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Power spectral densities of a cantilever measured in an AFM with a laserdiode operating at 785 nm (blue curve) and a hybrid AFM/optical microscope with a laserdiode operating at 1050 nm (red curve). For the latter application a version of the curve corrected for the low-pass effect of the detector is shown (green curve). The gain of the detector used for correction is depicted by the black curve.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Power spectral density of the deflection signal of a 2.67 µm polystyrene bead in an optical trap recorded with the SPOT9DMI (black circles). The spectrum corrected for the detector response is also plotted (blue triangulars). Furthermore the Lorentzian fit to the spectrum recorded with the SPOT9DMI including the model described by Eq. 2 (red curve) and without the model (green curve) is shown.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Frequency response of the DL100-7-KER, the DLS10 and the SPOT9DMI determined with the LED-wobbler at 500 and 50 µW at 1070 nm. The dashed lines are the corresponding fits using Eq. 2. For the DLS10 the fit range was limited to 15 kHz, for the SPOT9-DMI to 10 kHz and for the DL100-7-KER to 45 kHz.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optical trap stiffness values determined by curve-fitting the power spectral density with a Lorentzian function. The power spectra for all detectors are obtained for the same 2.67 µm polystyrene bead. Two corrections methods for the low-pass effect of a silicon detector were investigated and compared with the situation where no corrections are applied.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S x = D π 2 f 2 + f c 2
P diode = α 2 + 1 α 2 1 + ( f f diode ) 2

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