Abstract

We present an interferometric time-domain Fourier transform implementation of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). Based on a single femtosecond laser source, the method provides a straight-forward scheme for obtaining high resolution CARS spectra. We give a theoretical description of the method, and demonstrate good agreement between simulation and experimental CARS spectra. We also discuss the method’s relation to other CARS approaches for microscopy and microspectroscopy applications.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Instrumentation, theory, and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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  5. M. Muller, and J. M. Schins, "Imaging the thermodynamic state of lipid membranes with multiplex CARS microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 3715-3723 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. X. Chen, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy and study of lipid vesicles," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 8493-8498 (2002).
  7. S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, "Broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy of nitrogen using a picosecond modeless dye laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 3222-3224 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Dudovich, and D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy in the fingerprint spectral region," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9208-9215 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "An epi-detected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (e-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277-1280 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. X. Yan, and K. A. Nelson, "Impulsive stimulated light-scattering. 2. Comparison to frequency-domain light-scattering spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 6257-6265 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, and K. A. Nelson, "Femtosecond multi-pulse impulsive stimulated Raman-scattering spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1264-1275 (1991).
  13. S.-H. Lim, A. G. Caster, and S. R. Leone, "Single-pulse phase-control interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 72, 041803R (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. H. Lim, A. G. Caster, O. Nicolet, and S. R. Leone, "Chemical imaging by single pulse interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 5196-5204 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. P. Knutsen, J. C. Johnson, A. E. Miller, P. B. Petersen, and R. J. Saykally, "High spectral resolution multiplex CARS spectroscopy using chirped pulses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 436-441 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Hellerer, A. M. K. Enejder, and A. Zumbusch, "Spectral focusing: High spectral resolution spectroscopy with broad-bandwidth laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 25-27 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Yellampalle, R. D. Averitt, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Spectral interferometric coherent Raman imaging," Optics Express 13, 7672-7682 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Porter, F. Shan, and T. Guo, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with spectrally tailored ultrafast pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. N. Paulsen, K. M. Hilligsoe, J. Thogersen, S. R. Keiding, and J. J. Larsen, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a photonic crystal fiber based light source," Opt. Lett. 28, 1123-1125 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Merlin: "Generating coherent ths phonons with light pulses," Solid State Commun. 102, 207-220 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505-1507 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Greve, B. Bodermann, H. R. Telle, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, "High-contrast chemical imaging with gated heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 81, 875-879 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. L. Marks, C. Vinegoni, J. S. Bredfeldt, and S. A. Boppart, "Interferometric differentiation between resonant and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and nonresonant four-wave-mixing processes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5787-5789 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, "Time-resolved dynamics of resonant and nonresonant broadband picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 264103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. D. Levenson, and G. L. Eesley, "Polarization-selective optical heterodyne detection for dramatically improved sensitivity in laser spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. 19, 1(1979).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. O. Potma, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, "Heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging," Opt. Lett. 31, 241-243 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. Oron, N. Dudovich, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse phase-contrast nonlinear Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,273001 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. G. W. Jones, D. L. Marks, C. Vinegoni, and S. A. Boppart, "High-spectral-resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scatterind with interferometrically detected broadband chirped pulses," Opt. Lett. 31, 1543-1545 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: Determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility chi(3) for vibrational microscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 2923-2925 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Sadtler: The Sadtler standard Raman spectra. Philadelphia: Sadtler Research Laboratories, subsidiary of Block Engineering; 1973.
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    [CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (7)

E. Frumker, E. Tal, Y. Silberberg, and D. Majer, "Femtosecond pulse-shape modulation at nanosecond rates," Opt. Lett. 30, 2796-2798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, "Broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy of nitrogen using a picosecond modeless dye laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 3222-3224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Yellampalle, R. D. Averitt, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Spectral interferometric coherent Raman imaging," Optics Express 13, 7672-7682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Porter, F. Shan, and T. Guo, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with spectrally tailored ultrafast pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Greve, B. Bodermann, H. R. Telle, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, "High-contrast chemical imaging with gated heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 81, 875-879 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, "Time-resolved dynamics of resonant and nonresonant broadband picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 264103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Lim, A. G. Caster, and S. R. Leone, "Single-pulse phase-control interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 72, 041803R (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (6)

J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Instrumentation, theory, and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Marks, C. Vinegoni, J. S. Bredfeldt, and S. A. Boppart, "Interferometric differentiation between resonant and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and nonresonant four-wave-mixing processes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5787-5789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Knutsen, J. C. Johnson, A. E. Miller, P. B. Petersen, and R. J. Saykally, "High spectral resolution multiplex CARS spectroscopy using chirped pulses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 436-441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Hellerer, A. M. K. Enejder, and A. Zumbusch, "Spectral focusing: High spectral resolution spectroscopy with broad-bandwidth laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 25-27 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Kee, and M. T. Cicerone, "Simple approach to one-laser, broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 2701-2703 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: Determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility chi(3) for vibrational microscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 2923-2925 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. N. Paulsen, K. M. Hilligsoe, J. Thogersen, S. R. Keiding, and J. J. Larsen, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a photonic crystal fiber based light source," Opt. Lett. 28, 1123-1125 (2003).

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy in the fingerprint spectral region," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9208-9215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

M. Muller, and J. M. Schins, "Imaging the thermodynamic state of lipid membranes with multiplex CARS microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 3715-3723 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Chen, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy and study of lipid vesicles," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 8493-8498 (2002).

N. Dudovich, and D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505-1507 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse phase-contrast nonlinear Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,273001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "An epi-detected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (e-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277-1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. Merlin: "Generating coherent ths phonons with light pulses," Solid State Commun. 102, 207-220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

Y. X. Yan, and K. A. Nelson, "Impulsive stimulated light-scattering. 2. Comparison to frequency-domain light-scattering spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 6257-6265 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

M. D. Levenson, and G. L. Eesley, "Polarization-selective optical heterodyne detection for dramatically improved sensitivity in laser spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. 19, 1(1979).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrou, A.

Averitt, R. D.

B. Yellampalle, R. D. Averitt, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Spectral interferometric coherent Raman imaging," Optics Express 13, 7672-7682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baum, P.

M. Greve, B. Bodermann, H. R. Telle, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, "High-contrast chemical imaging with gated heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 81, 875-879 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beaurepaire, E.

Bodermann, B.

M. Greve, B. Bodermann, H. R. Telle, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, "High-contrast chemical imaging with gated heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 81, 875-879 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Book, L. D.

J. X. Chen, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy and study of lipid vesicles," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 8493-8498 (2002).

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505-1507 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "An epi-detected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (e-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277-1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

G. W. Jones, D. L. Marks, C. Vinegoni, and S. A. Boppart, "High-spectral-resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scatterind with interferometrically detected broadband chirped pulses," Opt. Lett. 31, 1543-1545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Marks, C. Vinegoni, J. S. Bredfeldt, and S. A. Boppart, "Interferometric differentiation between resonant and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and nonresonant four-wave-mixing processes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5787-5789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bredfeldt, J. S.

D. L. Marks, C. Vinegoni, J. S. Bredfeldt, and S. A. Boppart, "Interferometric differentiation between resonant and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and nonresonant four-wave-mixing processes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5787-5789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Caster, A. G.

S. H. Lim, A. G. Caster, O. Nicolet, and S. R. Leone, "Chemical imaging by single pulse interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 5196-5204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Lim, A. G. Caster, and S. R. Leone, "Single-pulse phase-control interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 72, 041803R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. X.

J. X. Chen, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy and study of lipid vesicles," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 8493-8498 (2002).

Cheng, J. X.

J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Instrumentation, theory, and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "An epi-detected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (e-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277-1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cicerone, M. T.

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy in the fingerprint spectral region," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9208-9215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, and D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse phase-contrast nonlinear Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,273001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, M. D.

Eesley, G. L.

M. D. Levenson, and G. L. Eesley, "Polarization-selective optical heterodyne detection for dramatically improved sensitivity in laser spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. 19, 1(1979).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, A.

B. Yellampalle, R. D. Averitt, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Spectral interferometric coherent Raman imaging," Optics Express 13, 7672-7682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Enejder, A. M. K.

T. Hellerer, A. M. K. Enejder, and A. Zumbusch, "Spectral focusing: High spectral resolution spectroscopy with broad-bandwidth laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 25-27 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. L.

Frumker, E.

Gord, J. R.

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, "Time-resolved dynamics of resonant and nonresonant broadband picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 264103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, "Broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy of nitrogen using a picosecond modeless dye laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 3222-3224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Greve, M.

M. Greve, B. Bodermann, H. R. Telle, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, "High-contrast chemical imaging with gated heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 81, 875-879 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guo, T.

R. Porter, F. Shan, and T. Guo, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with spectrally tailored ultrafast pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hellerer, T.

T. Hellerer, A. M. K. Enejder, and A. Zumbusch, "Spectral focusing: High spectral resolution spectroscopy with broad-bandwidth laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 25-27 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hilligsoe, K. M.

Holtom, G. R.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Joffre, M.

Johnson, J. C.

K. P. Knutsen, J. C. Johnson, A. E. Miller, P. B. Petersen, and R. J. Saykally, "High spectral resolution multiplex CARS spectroscopy using chirped pulses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 436-441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, G. W.

Kee, T. W.

Keiding, S. R.

Knutsen, K. P.

K. P. Knutsen, J. C. Johnson, A. E. Miller, P. B. Petersen, and R. J. Saykally, "High spectral resolution multiplex CARS spectroscopy using chirped pulses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 436-441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, J. J.

Leaird, D. E.

Leone, S. R.

S. H. Lim, A. G. Caster, O. Nicolet, and S. R. Leone, "Chemical imaging by single pulse interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 5196-5204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Lim, A. G. Caster, and S. R. Leone, "Single-pulse phase-control interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 72, 041803R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, M. D.

M. D. Levenson, and G. L. Eesley, "Polarization-selective optical heterodyne detection for dramatically improved sensitivity in laser spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. 19, 1(1979).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. H.

S. H. Lim, A. G. Caster, O. Nicolet, and S. R. Leone, "Chemical imaging by single pulse interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 5196-5204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S.-H.

S.-H. Lim, A. G. Caster, and S. R. Leone, "Single-pulse phase-control interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 72, 041803R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Majer, D.

Manuccia, T. J.

Marks, D. L.

G. W. Jones, D. L. Marks, C. Vinegoni, and S. A. Boppart, "High-spectral-resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scatterind with interferometrically detected broadband chirped pulses," Opt. Lett. 31, 1543-1545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Marks, C. Vinegoni, J. S. Bredfeldt, and S. A. Boppart, "Interferometric differentiation between resonant and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and nonresonant four-wave-mixing processes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5787-5789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Merlin, R.

R. Merlin: "Generating coherent ths phonons with light pulses," Solid State Commun. 102, 207-220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, T. R.

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, "Broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy of nitrogen using a picosecond modeless dye laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 3222-3224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, "Time-resolved dynamics of resonant and nonresonant broadband picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 264103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A. E.

K. P. Knutsen, J. C. Johnson, A. E. Miller, P. B. Petersen, and R. J. Saykally, "High spectral resolution multiplex CARS spectroscopy using chirped pulses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 436-441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Muller, M.

M. Muller, and J. M. Schins, "Imaging the thermodynamic state of lipid membranes with multiplex CARS microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 3715-3723 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, K. A.

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, and K. A. Nelson, "Femtosecond multi-pulse impulsive stimulated Raman-scattering spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1264-1275 (1991).

Y. X. Yan, and K. A. Nelson, "Impulsive stimulated light-scattering. 2. Comparison to frequency-domain light-scattering spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 6257-6265 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nicolet, O.

S. H. Lim, A. G. Caster, O. Nicolet, and S. R. Leone, "Chemical imaging by single pulse interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 5196-5204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ogilvie, J. P.

Oron, D.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy in the fingerprint spectral region," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9208-9215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, and D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse phase-contrast nonlinear Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,273001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paulsen, H. N.

Petersen, P. B.

K. P. Knutsen, J. C. Johnson, A. E. Miller, P. B. Petersen, and R. J. Saykally, "High spectral resolution multiplex CARS spectroscopy using chirped pulses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 436-441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Porter, R.

R. Porter, F. Shan, and T. Guo, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with spectrally tailored ultrafast pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Potma, E. O.

Reintjes, J.

Riedle, E.

M. Greve, B. Bodermann, H. R. Telle, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, "High-contrast chemical imaging with gated heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 81, 875-879 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roy, S.

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, "Time-resolved dynamics of resonant and nonresonant broadband picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 264103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, "Broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy of nitrogen using a picosecond modeless dye laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 3222-3224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

K. P. Knutsen, J. C. Johnson, A. E. Miller, P. B. Petersen, and R. J. Saykally, "High spectral resolution multiplex CARS spectroscopy using chirped pulses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 436-441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schins, J. M.

M. Muller, and J. M. Schins, "Imaging the thermodynamic state of lipid membranes with multiplex CARS microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 3715-3723 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shan, F.

R. Porter, F. Shan, and T. Guo, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with spectrally tailored ultrafast pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

E. Frumker, E. Tal, Y. Silberberg, and D. Majer, "Femtosecond pulse-shape modulation at nanosecond rates," Opt. Lett. 30, 2796-2798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy in the fingerprint spectral region," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9208-9215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, and D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse phase-contrast nonlinear Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,273001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tal, E.

Taylor, A. J.

B. Yellampalle, R. D. Averitt, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Spectral interferometric coherent Raman imaging," Optics Express 13, 7672-7682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Telle, H. R.

M. Greve, B. Bodermann, H. R. Telle, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, "High-contrast chemical imaging with gated heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 81, 875-879 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thogersen, J.

Vinegoni, C.

G. W. Jones, D. L. Marks, C. Vinegoni, and S. A. Boppart, "High-spectral-resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scatterind with interferometrically detected broadband chirped pulses," Opt. Lett. 31, 1543-1545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Marks, C. Vinegoni, J. S. Bredfeldt, and S. A. Boppart, "Interferometric differentiation between resonant and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and nonresonant four-wave-mixing processes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5787-5789 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Volkmer, A.

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505-1507 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Chen, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy and study of lipid vesicles," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 8493-8498 (2002).

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "An epi-detected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (e-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277-1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

Wiederrecht, G. P.

Xie, X. S.

E. O. Potma, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, "Heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging," Opt. Lett. 31, 241-243 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: Determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility chi(3) for vibrational microscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 2923-2925 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Instrumentation, theory, and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Chen, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy and study of lipid vesicles," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 8493-8498 (2002).

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505-1507 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "An epi-detected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (e-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277-1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
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Yan, Y. X.

Y. X. Yan, and K. A. Nelson, "Impulsive stimulated light-scattering. 2. Comparison to frequency-domain light-scattering spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 6257-6265 (1987).
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Yellampalle, B.

B. Yellampalle, R. D. Averitt, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Spectral interferometric coherent Raman imaging," Optics Express 13, 7672-7682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zumbusch, A.

T. Hellerer, A. M. K. Enejder, and A. Zumbusch, "Spectral focusing: High spectral resolution spectroscopy with broad-bandwidth laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 25-27 (2004).
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A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
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Appl. Phys. (1)

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Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Greve, B. Bodermann, H. R. Telle, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, "High-contrast chemical imaging with gated heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 81, 875-879 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

D. L. Marks, C. Vinegoni, J. S. Bredfeldt, and S. A. Boppart, "Interferometric differentiation between resonant and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and nonresonant four-wave-mixing processes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5787-5789 (2004).
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S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, "Time-resolved dynamics of resonant and nonresonant broadband picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 264103 (2005).
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A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505-1507 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Hellerer, A. M. K. Enejder, and A. Zumbusch, "Spectral focusing: High spectral resolution spectroscopy with broad-bandwidth laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 25-27 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. P. Knutsen, J. C. Johnson, A. E. Miller, P. B. Petersen, and R. J. Saykally, "High spectral resolution multiplex CARS spectroscopy using chirped pulses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 436-441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

Y. X. Yan, and K. A. Nelson, "Impulsive stimulated light-scattering. 2. Comparison to frequency-domain light-scattering spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 6257-6265 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy in the fingerprint spectral region," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9208-9215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (5)

S. H. Lim, A. G. Caster, O. Nicolet, and S. R. Leone, "Chemical imaging by single pulse interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 5196-5204 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "An epi-detected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (e-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277-1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Instrumentation, theory, and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Muller, and J. M. Schins, "Imaging the thermodynamic state of lipid membranes with multiplex CARS microscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 3715-3723 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Chen, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy and study of lipid vesicles," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 8493-8498 (2002).

Nature (1)

N. Dudovich, and D. Oron, Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (9)

S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, "Broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy of nitrogen using a picosecond modeless dye laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 3222-3224 (2005).
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J. P. Ogilvie, E. Beaurepaire, A. Alexandrou, and M. Joffre, "Fourier-transform coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 480-482 (2006).
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T. W. Kee, and M. T. Cicerone, "Simple approach to one-laser, broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 2701-2703 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Frumker, E. Tal, Y. Silberberg, and D. Majer, "Femtosecond pulse-shape modulation at nanosecond rates," Opt. Lett. 30, 2796-2798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Jones, D. L. Marks, C. Vinegoni, and S. A. Boppart, "High-spectral-resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scatterind with interferometrically detected broadband chirped pulses," Opt. Lett. 31, 1543-1545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: Determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility chi(3) for vibrational microscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 2923-2925 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. O. Potma, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, "Heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging," Opt. Lett. 31, 241-243 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Optics Express (1)

B. Yellampalle, R. D. Averitt, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, "Spectral interferometric coherent Raman imaging," Optics Express 13, 7672-7682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S.-H. Lim, A. G. Caster, and S. R. Leone, "Single-pulse phase-control interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 72, 041803R (2005).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse phase-contrast nonlinear Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,273001 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Porter, F. Shan, and T. Guo, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with spectrally tailored ultrafast pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043108 (2005).
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